Progress in Immunology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120575503, 9781483258126

Progress in Immunology

1st Edition

First International Congress of Immunology

Editors: Bernard Amos
eBook ISBN: 9781483258126
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 1614
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Progress in Immunology: First International Congress of Immunology is a collection of papers and summaries of the workshops conducted at the First International Congress of Immunology. The proceedings review significant advances that have been made in the field of immunology and covers topics ranging from the structure and genetics of antibodies to lymphocyte membranes and the role of antibodies and complexes in immune tissue damage. Cell cooperation in the immune response is also examined.

This volume is organized into 15 sections and begins with a discussion on the structure of immunoglobulins and results of experiments which support the domain hypothesis and the evolution of immunoglobulins by gene duplication, along with the presence of genetic markers in V regions. The reader is then introduced to expansion and contraction in the evolution of immunoglobulin gene pools; receptors for C3 on B lymphocytes and their possible role in the immune response; and subpopulations of thymus cells and thymus-derived lymphocytes. Tne remaining sections focus on effector mechahisms of cell-mediated immunity; genetic control of immune responsiveness; immune disorders in humans such as glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis; and viruses involved in immunopathology.

This book is dedicated to immunologists.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


I The Structure and Genetics of Antibodies

Immunoglobulin Structure: Diversity, Gene Duplication, and Domains

Ammo Acid Sequence of the y Chain of He

Evolution by Gene Duplication

The Domain Hypothesis

The Nature of Immunoglobulin Diversity

Translocation and the Origin of Diversity


Three-Dimensional Structure of Immunoglobulins




Expansion and Contraction in the Evolution of Immunoglobulin Gene Pools

IgG Subclasses

Basic Sequences and Variable Genes

Nonrandom Mutation and Selection


Structural Localization, Allelic Exclusion, and Linkage Relationships of Rabbit Allotypes


Regions of Rabbit Immunoglobulins and Location of Genetic Markers

Allelic Exclusion

Linkage Relationships


Genetic Control of the Biosynthesis of IgG and IgM

I. Introduction

II. Individual Antigenic Specificities in Til IgG and IgM

III. Amino Acid Sequences

IV. Cellular Localization of Til IgG and IgM

V. Discussion


II Lymphocyte Membranes

Receptors for C3 on B Lymphocytes : Possible Role in the Immune Response

I. What Are Complement-Receptor Lymphocytes (CRL)?

II. What Distinguishes CRL from Mononuclear Phagocytes?

III. Are CRL B or T Lymphocytes?

IV. Do All B Lymphocytes Have a Complement Receptor?

V. Which Is the Complement Component Involved?

VI. What May Be the Function of the C3 Receptor on Lymphocytes?


Subpopulations of Thymus Cells and Thymus-Derived Lymphocytes

I. Introduction

II. Thymus Cell Differentiation and Heterogeneity

III. Heterogeneity of T Lymphocytes


Classes and Subclasses of Surface-Bound Immunoglobulins on Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Man



Immunoglobulin Determinants on the Surface of Antigen Binding T- and B-Lymphocytes in Mice


Evidence That Both B and T Cells Form Rosettes


Results and Conclusions


Antiimmunoglobulin Antibody as Antigen. A Functional Approach to Receptor Immunoglobulin of Thymus Cells

Material and Methods

Experiments and Results




III The Role of Antibodies and Complexes in Immune Tissue Damage

Initiating Events in Immune Complex Injury

An Active Process Responsible for the Deposition of Circulating Immune Complexes

Immunologic Release of Vasoactive Amines from Platelets

Basophils and IgE in the Release of Vasoactive Constituents of Platelets

A Soluble Factor (PAF) Released from the Basophils That Aggregates Platelets and Induces Release of Vasoactive Amines

Lack of Participation of Complement Components in the Release of Vasoactive Amines from Platelets in Acute Immune Complex Disease ( Serum Sickness ) in Rabbits

Correlation of the Basophil-Dependent Mechanism of Histamine Release from Platelets and the Deposition of Immune Complexes and Development of Injury



Release of Biologically Active Constituents from Blood Cells and Its Role in Antibody-Mediated Tissue Injury

I. Tissue Injury Induced by Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody ( Nephrotoxic Nephritis )

II. Release of Constituents from Neutrophils Adhering to Immune Reactants on Nonphagocytosable Surfaces

III. The Release Mechanism in Nephrotoxic Nephritis

IV. Summary


The Immunological Release of Chemical Mediators of Immediate Type Hypersensitivity from Human Lung

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Mediators of Immediate Type Hypersensitivity

III. Immunologic Release of Chemical Mediators from Human Lung

IV. Pharmacologie Inhibition

V. Concluding Comments


Cytochalasin B Reversibly Inhibits Phagocytosis by Human Blood Leukocytes



Actions and Interactions of Immunoglobulins in Immune Tissue Damage

I. Role of Antibodies of Known Immunoglobulin Classes

II. Interacting Roles of Antibodies of Different Classes

III. Target Accessibility to Immune Agents

IV. Conclusion


Cellular and Humoral Studies in Diseases with Heart-Reactive Antibodies

Heart-Reactive Antibodies in Rheumatic Fever

Heart-Reactive Antibodies in Transplantation

Heart-Reactive Antibodies in Other Disease States



IV Structure of Ig (Combining Sites and Chain Interactions)

Affinity Labeling of Rabbi Antibodies with ε-4-Azido-2-Nitrophenyl Lysine


Isolation of Labeled Peptides from Anti-Nap Antibody Preparation A

Affinity Labeling of Anti-Nap Antibody Preparation B

Affinity Labeling of Antidinitrophenyl Antibodies with Nap-[3H]lysine



Combining Sites of Anti-2,4-Dinitrophenyl Antibodies



Modification of Immunoglobulin Combining Sites

Affinity-Labeling Studies

Studies with Tetranitromethane

Site-Directed Cross Linking



Localization of Affinity Label within the Primary Structure of y2 Chain from Guinea Pig IgG(2)



An Approach to the Mapping of Active Sites by Affinity Labeling



Tentative Structure of Human IgM Immunoglobulin

Polypeptide Chain Structure and Carbohydrate Groups of IgM Immunoglobulins

Tentative Amino Acid Sequence of the μ Chain of IgM Ou

Evolutionary Origin of Heavy and Light Chains



V Cell Cooperation in the Immune Response

Immunological Unresponsiveness : Cellular Kinetics and Interactions

I. Cellular Events Involved in the Induction of Immunological Unresponsiveness

II. Termination of Immunological Unresponsiveness

III. Autoimmunity


Studies on the Influence of T Cells in Antibody Production

I. The Theta (θ) Alloantigen as a Marker for T Cells

II. Influence of Treatment with Anti-0 on the in Vitro Response of Spleen Cells from Neonatally Thymectomized Mice to SRBC

III. Influence of Thymectomy on IgM and IgG Antibody Production to SRBC and the Synthetic Polypeptide (T,G)-A-L

IV. Carriage of Long-Term Memory by Both T Cells and B Cells

V. Discussion

VI. Summary


Specificity of Helper Function


Materials and Methods

Experimental Design

Results and Interpretations




Is There Evidence for a Non-Antigen Specific Diifusable Chemical Mediator from the Thymus-Derived Cell in the Initiation of the Immune Response?

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms of B-Cell-T-Cell Interaction: Hypotheses

III. Thymus-Derived Mediator: Statement, Predictions, and Experiments


Cell Interactions in the Graft-versus-Host Response






VI Effector Mechanisms of Cell-Mediated Immunity

Cytotoxic Lymphocytes as Eifector Cells of Cell-Mediated Immunity

I. Introduction

II. Formation of Specifically Sensitized Lymphocytes

III. Specificity of Target Cell Lysis by CL

IV. Cooperation of CL with Other Cells

V. Conclusions


Migration Inhibitory Factor and Mediators of Cellular Hypersensitivity in Vitro


Migration Inhibitory Factor ( MIF)

Chemotactic Factor for Macrophages

Guinea Pig Lymphotoxin

Production of Mediators in Response to Mitogen Stimulation

Alterations of Macrophage Function by Lymphocyte Mediators

Summary and Conclusions


Delayed Hypersensitivity and the Mechanism of Cellular Resistance to Infection



Lymphocyte Response as a Model of Cell-Mediated Immunity

Specificity of Antigen Recognition

Specificity of Cytotoxicity

Conditioned Medium Activities

Other Soluble Conditioned Medium Activities


Lymphocyte Effector Molecules: Mechanism of Human-Lymphotoxin Induced in Vitro Target Cell Destruction and Role in PHA-Induced Lymphocyte-Target Cell Cytolysis

Materials and Methods




Effect of Some Enzymes, Polysaccharides, and Lysosome-Active Drugs on Interaction of Immune Lymphocytes with Allogenic Target Cells

Materials and Methods





Recent Studies on Manifestations of Delayed Cellular Hypersensitivity in Vitro and in Vivo

I. Migration Inhibiting Factor (MIF)

II. Effect of Antilymphocyte ( ALS ) and Other Antisera on in Vitro and in Vivo Manifestations of Delayed Hypersensitivity

III. Some Similarities Between in Vitro and in Vivo Events

IV. Discussion

V. Summary


Human Lymphocyte-Dependent Cytotoxic Antibody and Mechanisms of Target Cell Destruction in Vitro


Methods and Materials





VII Genetic Control of Immune Responsiveness

Specific Immune Response Genes of Guinea Pigs

I. Specific Immune Response Genes Controlling Responsiveness to Synthetic Polypeptide Antigens

II. Specific Immune Response Genes Controlling Responsiveness to Limiting Doses of Native Protein Antigens

III. Size of the Specific Immune Response Gene Pool

IV. Identity of the Cell Type where Specific Immune Response Genes Are Expressed

V. Linkage of Specific Immune Response Genes to the Major Histocompatibility Locus of Guinea Pigs


Genetic Control of the Immune Response to Branched Synthetic Polypeptide Antigens in Inbred Mice

I. Introduction

II. Characteristics of the Immune Response-1 Gene(s)

III. The Primary and Secondary Response to Immunization with Aqueous (T,G)-A- -L

IV. The Immune Response of Tetraparental Mice to (T,G)-A- -L

V. The Relationship between Ir-1 and the H-2 Chromosome Region

VI. Role of Immune Response Genes in Animal and Human Disease States

VII. Summary


Cellular Basis of the Genetic Control of Immune Responses

I. Introduction

II. Correlation between the Relative Numbers of Detectable Antigen-Sensitive Units and the Response Patterns in Inbred Mouse Strains to (Phe,G)-Pro-L

III. Transfer Studies of the Genetic Control of Immunological Responsiveness Using Thymocytes and Bone Marrow Cells

IV. Enhancement of Immune Responses in Low-Responder Mouse Strains

V. Concluding Remarks


Genetic Regulation of the Function of Antibody-Producing Cells

Genetic Selection of "High" and "Low" Responder Lines to Heterologous Erythrocytes

Responsiveness to Other Antigens

Immune Response to Histocompatibility Antigens

Production of Different Classes of Antibody and Serum Levels of Immunoglobulins

Transmission of Responsiveness by Transfer of Spleen Cells

Cytodynamics of Immune Response to Sheep Erythrocytes

Morphology of RFC


Genetic Control of Immune Responsiveness : Summary of Contributions by Discussants


VIII Complement

Biochemistry of Complement

I. Introduction

II. Physical and Chemical Properties of Complement Proteins

III. The Molecular Concept of Complement Action

IV. The C3 Activator System

V. Conclusion


Enzymes of the Complement System

Activation of Cl

Nature of Cls

Formation of C4,2

Nature of C4,2

Formation of C4,2,3

Nature of C4,2,3 Action

The C3 Activator System

Similarities between the Complement Enzymes


Biologically Active Fragments of Complement

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Lysosomal Enzymes on Human Complement Components

III. Effects of Bacterial Proteinases on Human Complement Components

IV. The Properdin System


Ultrastructural Studies of C1q and of Complement-Membrane Interactions

I. Introduction

II. Ultrastructural Studies of C1q

III. Ultrastructural Studies of the Interaction between Complement Proteins and Membranes


Genetic Polymorphism of Complement Components as a Probe of Structure and Function

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Aspects of Complement

III. Genetic Variability, Function, and Structure

IV. Glycine-Rich ß-Glycoprotein Variability


IX Regulation of Immune Response

A Model for the Regulation of Antibody Synthesis by Serum Antibody

I. Methods

II. The Effect of Altering Antibody Levels on Antibody Formation to KLH and T2

III. The Combined Effect of Cyclophosphamide and Alteration of Anti-KLH Levels on Specific Antibody Formation

IV. Role of Antigen in "Feedback" Regulation

V. A Model for the Feedback Regulation of Antibody Synthesis


Antigen-Binding Receptors on Lymphoid Cells. Nature and Specificity of Receptors on Various Types of Immuno-Competent Cells

I. Nature and Specificity of Receptors of 125I-DNP-GPA-Binding Cells of Nonimmunized Guinea Pigs

II. Nature and Specificity of 125I-DNP-GPA ABC from Immunized Guinea Pigs

III. Receptors on Cells Mediating a Cellular Immune Response to DNP-GPA

IV. Discussion


Regulation of the Ig Class Distribution in Anti-Hapten Responses

I. Studies with Hapten-Protein Antigens

II. Studies with Hapten-Cell Conjugates

III. Discussion

IV. Summary


Recent Advances in Immunological Tolerance

I. Antigen-Binding Lymphocytes and Their Significance

II. Collaboration between T- and B-Lymphocytes and Its Relevance to Tolerance Induction

III. Tolerance Induction in Vitro

IV. T- and B-Lymphocyte Collaboration in Vitro

V. Tolerance Induction in T-Lymphocytes

VI. Two Further Key Areas in Tolerance Research

VII. Summary and Conclusions


X Immune Disorders in Man

Immunology of Glomerulonephritis



Immunological Phenomena in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Antiglobulin Factors

The Role of Complexes

Triggering Mechanisms


Immunodeficiency Diseases of Man

Ontogenetic Development of the Lymphoid System and Its Function

Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases of Man

Treatment of Immunodeficiency



Chemical Mediators of the Acute Inflammatory Response in Man

Humoral Effector Systems

Tissue-Derived Mediators

Control, Deviation, and Perpetuation of the Effector Pathways of the Acute Inflammatory Response

Inborn and Acquired Abnormalities of the Inflammatory Response in Man


Some Protein Disorders Associated with Neoplasms of Plasma Cells and Lymphocytes : Heavy Chain Diseases

Gamma-Chain Disease

Alpha-Chain Disease

Mu-Chain Disease

Biochemical Studies of Three Gamma-Chain Disease Proteins



XI Viruses in Immunopathology

Virus-Antiviral Antibody Complexes

I. Introduction

II. Immune Complex Disease Associated with Viral Infection

III. Chronic Viral Infection Associated with Immune Complex Disease

IV. Acute Viral Infections Associated with Immune Complex Disease: LCM

V. Conclusions


Immunological Injury of Virus-Infected Cells by Antiviral Antibody and Complement



Interaction of Viruses with Human Lymphocytes


Morphologic Alterations


Reduction in the Cell-Mediated Immune Response

Response of Sensitized Lymphocytes

Inhibition of Blastogenesis

Virus Replication and Interferon Production in Human Lymphocytes

Studies with PHA and Vesicular Stomatitis ( VSV)

Studies with 17D Virus



Expression of Antigenic Determinants and Virus Synthesis in Mammalian Cells

I. Spontaneous Variations of Antigenic and Viral Expressions in Mammalian Cells

II. Relationship between Viral Infection and Antigenic Expression of the Host Cell

III. Regulatory Mechanisms Involved in Viral and Antigenic Expression and Their Role in Oncogenesis

IV. Plasmocytoma Cells as a Model for Studies on Cell Differentiation

V. Concluding Remarks


Immunosuppression by Tumor Viruses: Effects of Leukemia Virus Infection on the Immune Response




Immunopathologic Mechanisms in the Dengue Shock Syndrome

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiologie Factors

III. Pathophysiologic Changes

IV. Antibody Response

V. Role of Complement

VI. Discussion


XII Biological Functions of the Different Classes of Immunoglobulin

Immunoglobulin Classes and Complement-Fixing Activity

The Alternate Pathway of Complement Fixation


Biological Activities of IgG in Mammals

What Is an IgG?


Biological Properties of the Immunoglobulins

Neutralization of Antigen

Complement Fixation and Related Phenomena



Transmission across Membranes

Evolutionary Aspects


Immunoglobulin E and Homocytotropic Properties

I. Reaginic Antibodies and Homocytotropic Antibodies

II. Immunologie Properties of IgE Antibodies

III. Structures in IgE Molecules Involved in Sensitization

IV. Target Cell Sensitized with IgE

V. Possible Role of IgG in Reaginic Hypersensitivity Reactions

VI. Summary


Biological Significance of IgA Antibodies in Serum and Secretions

I. Distribution and Structure of Immunoglobulin IgA

II. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Features of IgA

III. Significance of Secretory IgA


Metabolism of Immunoglobulins

I. Introduction

II. The Metabolism of the Different Classes of Immunoglobulins in Normal Man

III. Physiological Factors Controlling Immunoglobulin Metabolism

IV. Disorders of Immunoglobulin Metabolism

V. Summary


XIII Tumor Immunology

Tumor-Associated Antigens as Expressions of Chemically Induced Neoplasia and Their Involvement in Tumor-Host Interactions

I. Introduction

II. Results

III. Discussion


Antigens in Virally Induced Tumors

I. Introduction

II. General Characteristics of Tumor-Associated Antigens ( TAA ) of Viral Neoplasms

III. Implications of the Presence of TAA in Viral Neoplasms


Cell-Mediated Immunity to Human Tumor Antigens

I. Evidence for Cell-Mediated Immunity against Human Tumor Antigens

II. Differences in Antitumor Immunity between Patients Who Are Symptom-Free and Patients with Progressively Growing Tumors, as Detectable by Using the Microcytotoxicity Assay

III. Possible Implications of the in Vitro Data for Tumor Prophylaxis and Therapy


Immunologic Response to Human Sarcomas : Relation of Antitumor Antibody to the Clinical Course


Materials and Methods





Experimental Basis and First Clinical Controlled Trials of Leukemia Active Immunotherapy



XIV Transplantation in the Human

Old and New Facts and Speculations about Transplantation Antigens of Man


The HL-A System

Lymphocyte Activation and HL-A

Fetomaternal Interactions

Tolerance and Pathology in a Tetragametic Human Chimera



The (Relative) Importance of HL-A Matching in Kidney Transplantation

I. Introduction

II. HL-A and Homograft Reactions

III. Variability of the Homograft Response

IV. Concluding Remarks and Synthesis

V. Summary


Mixed Lymphocyte Interaction: Disquisitions on a Popular Unknown


Immunologic Basis of the MLI

Peculiarities of the MLI as an Immunological Model

Conclusions and Speculations


XV Manipulation of the Immune Response

Reconstitution: Grafting of Bone Marrow and Thymus

I. Introduction

II. Types of Immunodeficiency Considered Amenable to Reconstitution

III. Measures Employed in Attempts to Circumvent Graft-versus-Host Disease in Patients with Immunodeficiency

IV. Experience with Enhancement in Human Bone Marrow Grafting

V. Prospects


Immunoregulation by Antibody

I. The Mechanism of Immunosuppression by Antibody

II. The Biological Function of Immunosuppression by Antibody


Stimulation: Selective Activation of Subpopulations of Antibody-Forming Cells



Cellular Immunosorbents



Potentials for Immunologie Intervention in Cancer

I. Potential and Actual Immunologie Contributions to Diagnosis and Management

II. Augmentation of Existing Tumor Immunity

III. The Significance of the Antibody Response to Tumors and the Potential for Its Alteration


Workshop Summaries

Allotypes. I

Antibacterial Immunity

Lymphocyte Activation. I

Lymphocyte Activation. II

Cross Reactions between Microbial and Tissue Antigens

Lymphocyte Recirculation and Its Immunological Significance

The Fate of Antigens in Vivo

Blood Group Antigens

Structural Requirements for Immunogenicity

Ontogeny of the Immune Response

Catabolism of Immunoglobulins

Immunology of Gonorrhea and Syphilis

Antibodies to Enzymes

Radiation Effects on the Lymphoid Systems and Its Functions

Nucleic Acids as Antigens

Neutralization of Virus by Antibody

Granulocyte Functions in Immunological Reactions

Immunologic Aging and Lymphoid Involution

Immunology of Reproduction

Tumor Antigens, Carcinogen Induced

Immune Deficiency Diseases: Dysgammaglobulinemia

Immune Responses to Viral Antigens

Allotypes. II

Antibody Structure: Combining Site

Lymphocyte Activation. III

Cell Cooperation in the Immune Response. I

Cell Cooperation in the Immune Response. II

Immune Deficiency Disease: Thymic Aplasia

Macrophages: Role in Resistance to Microbial Parasitism


Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Antibody-Antigen Interactions

Cellular Kinetics of the Immune Response

Immune Capabilities of Germ-Free Animals

Homocytotropic Antibodies

Phylogenetic Aspects of Immunity

Human Histocompatibility Antigens

Immunologic Assay of Biologically Active Materials

Autoimmune Diseases: Genetics, Mechanisms, and Diagnostic Approaches

Immunological Activation of the Kinin-Forming System

New Immunohistochemical Methods

Immunoglobulin Biosynthesis

Immunopathogenesis of Glomerulonephritis

Tumor Antigens: Relationship to Histocompatibility Antigens


Virus-Lymphocyte Interactions

Antibody Structure: Ig Diversity

Idiotypic Antibody

Membrane-Associated Antigens of Lymphoid Cells. I

Membrane-Associated Antigens of Lymphoid Cells. II

Histocompatibility Antigens : Characterization

Macrophages: Their Role in the Induction of Immunity

Immunosuppression: Antilymphocyte Serum

Genetic Control of Immune Responsiveness

Transfer of Immunity with Cell-Free Extracts

Theories of Antibody Formation

Immunological Disorders of Inbred Strains of Mice

Chemotaxis of Leukocytes: Immunologie and Nonimmunologic Factors

Thymic Hormones

Immunity to Parasitic Infections

Biochemistry of Complement

Separation of Different Functional Classes of Small Lymphocytes

Bacterial Endotoxins

Cytotoxic Activities of Lymphocytes

Tumor Antigens: Virus Induced

Antibody Structure and Evolution

In Vitro Models of Delayed Hypersensitivity

Relationships among Major Histoeompatibility Systems

Immunological Tolerance

The Origin of Antigen-Sensitive Lymphocytes. I

The Origin of Antigen-Sensitive Lymphocytes. II

Secretory Immunoglobulins

Immunologic Derangements Caused by Chronic Viral Infections

Homogeneous Antibody and Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity

Ultrastructure of Immunoglobulin and Ag-Ab Complexes

Antibody Synthesis in Vitro

Antigenic Competition

Purification and Characterization of Allergens

Complement and Disease States

Histology of the Immune Response

Soluble Mediators of Delayed Hypersensitivity

Pathogenesis of Runting Syndrome

Allergic Release of Amines from Cells

Established Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

Immunological Enhancement

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1971
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About the Editor

Bernard Amos

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