Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444640178

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells

1st Edition

Authors: Patit Kundu Kingshuk Dutta
Paperback ISBN: 9780444640178
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st June 2018
Page Count: 312
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Description

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals, working principles and advancements (including commercialization aspects) made in the field of MFC research, with critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world. In addition, special attention is given to the area of electrolyte membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for application in MFCs. As microbial fuel cells are emerging as potential alternative energy harnessing devices, and because polymeric membranes have been one of the most critical factors towards achieving this progress and multiple applications, this technology is extremely attractive and important.

Key Features

  • Reviews and compares MFCs with other alternative energy harnessing devices, particularly in comparison to other fuel cells
  • Analyzes developments of electrolyte membranes, particularly polymer based, as a critical component of MFCs responsible for its present and future progress
  • Includes commercial aspects of MFCs in terms of (i) generation of electricity, (ii) bio-hydrogen production, (iii) waste-water and sludge treatment and (iv) bio-sensing

Readership

Chemists and biochemical engineering students and researchers in alternative energy, fuel cells, microbial fuel cells, membranes, waste-water treatment and bio-hydrogen

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to microbial fuel cells

1.1. Background and significance

1.2. Working principle

1.3. Components and features

1.4. Technologies based on MFCs

1.5. Future expectations from MFCs

References

Author(s): Kingshuk Dutta and Patit P. Kundu

Chapter 2: Performance trends and status of microbial fuel cells

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Comparison with hydrogen fuel cells

2.3. Comparison with direct alcohol fuel cells

2.4. Comparison with passive alcohol fuel cells

2.5. Comparison with solid oxide fuel cells

2.6. Comparison with molten carbonate fuel cells

2.7. Comparison with alkaline fuel cells

2.8. Comparison with phosphoric acid fuel cells

2.9. Comparison with existing battery technologies and alternative energy resources

2.10. Further information

2.11. Relevance and outlook

References

Author(s): Vikash Kumar, Ruchira Rudra, Subrata Hait, Piyush Kumar and Patit P. Kundu

Chapter 3: Configurations of microbial fuel cells

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Normal configuration and general requirements

3.2.1. Uncoupled bioreactor MFC

3.2.2. Integrated bioreactor MFC

3.2.3. MFC with direct electron transfer

3.2.4. MFC with mediated electron transport

3.3. General requirements

3.3.1. Anode

3.3.2. Cathode

3.3.3. Membranes

3.4. Easy to build fuel cell configurations

3.4.1. Dual chamber H-type MFC

3.4.2. Dual chamber MFC

3.4.3. Dual chamber MFC with water soluble catholytes

3.4.4. Simple air cathode MFC

3.4.4.1. Cube type MFC

3.4.4.2. Cylindrical air cathode MFC

3.5. Innovative designs

3.5.1. Flat plate MFC

3.5.2. Biosolar MFC

3.5.3. Tubular packed bed MFC for continuous operation

3.5.4. Stacked MFC

3.5.5. Membraneless MFC

3.5.6. Biocathode MFC

3.5.7. Origami star inspired fuel cell

3.5.8. 3D paper based MFC

3.6. Reactors design and efficiency

3.7. Operation and assessment

3.8. Applications

3.9. Future directions

3.10. Conclusion

References

Author(s): Arpita Nandy and Patit P. Kundu

Chapter 4: Polymer electrolyte membranes for microbial fuel cells: Part A. Nafion-based membranes

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Functions of the PEM in MFC

4.3. Property requirements of the membrane materials

4.4. Fluorinated membrane structure required for efficient MFC operation

4.5. Present research on Nafion-based membranes

4.5.1. Nafion blends and composites

4.5.2. Nafion/fluorinated polymers

4.5.3. Others PEMs

4.6. Membrane characterizations

4.6.1. Structural characterizations

4.6.1.1. X-ray diffraction

4.6.1.2. Imaging techniques: Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies

4.6.1.3. Porosity

4.6.2. Ion exchange capacity

4.6.3. Proton conductivity

4.6.4. Mechanical characterizations

4.7. Performance evaluations

4.8. Existing challenges of PEM technology

4.8.1. Ohmic resistance

4.8.2. Oxygen diffusion

4.8.3. Substrate crossover

4.8.4. Biofouling

4.9. Future directions

References

Author(s): Piyush Kumar, Ram P. Bharti, Vikash Kumar and Patit P. Kundu

Chapter 5: Polymer electrolyte membranes for microbial fuel cells: Part B. Non-nafion alternative membranes

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Present research of non-Nafion-based membranes

5.3. Conclusion, existing challenges and future perspectives

References

Author(s): Suparna Das, Kingshuk Dutta, Swapan K. Bhattacharya and Patit P. Kundu

Chapter 6: Bipolar membranes for microbial fuel cells

6.1. Introduction: Definition and general description of the use of bipolar membranes in microbial fuel cells

6.2. Preparation and application of bipolar membranes in MFCs

6.3. Conclusion, existing challenges and future perspectives

References

Author(s): Kingshuk Dutta and Patit P. Kundu

Chapter 7: Low-cost solutions for fabrication of microbial fuel cells: Ceramic separator and electrode modifications

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Fundamentals of MFCs and its components

7.2.1. Anode materials

7.2.1.1. Anode modification using conductive polymers

7.2.1.2. Anode modification using graphene and CNT

7.2.1.3. Anode modification using metal oxides

7.2.1.4. Anode modification by electrochemical oxidation

7.2.2. Cathode materials

7.2.3. Current collectors

7.2.4. Separators

7.3. Properties of clay used in ceramic separators

7.3.1. Mechanism of cation exchange through clay

7.3.2. Strengthening the clay based separators

7.3.3. Modification in the clay mineral composition to enhance cation exchange

7.3.4. Ceramic separator as low-cost solution for electrochemical devices

7.3.5. Performance of MFCs with ceramic separator

7.4. Importance of ORR catalysts and related mechanism: Options of low-cost cathode catalysts

7.4.1. Non-metal and metal impregnated carbon catalysts

7.4.2. Transition metal oxides

7.4.3. Metal doped complex organic catalysts

7.4.4. Cost analysis of catalysts

7.5. Scalable MFCs and stacking

7.6. Concluding remarks

References

Author(s): Md. T. Noori, Pritha Chatterjee, M. M. Ghangrekar and C. K. Mukherjee

Chapter 8: Electrodes for microbial fuel cells

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Electrode materials and their desired properties

8.2.1. Conductivity

8.2.2. Durability and stability

8.2.3. Porosity and surface area

8.2.4. Biocompatible nature

8.2.5. Cost and availability

8.3. Electrode material types

8.3.1. Carbon-based electrode materials

8.3.2. Metal electrodes

8.3.3. Composite electrode materials

8.4. Surface modification of electrodes

8.4.1. Modification with metals or metal oxides

8.4.2. Modification with polymers

8.4.3. Modification with composite materials

8.5. Electrode cost

8.6. Existing challenges and future perspective

References

Author(s): Usha Kumari, Ravi Shankar and Prasenjit Mondal

Chapter 9: Anode catalysts and biocatalysts for microbial fuel cells

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Functions of the catalysts

9.3. Property requirements of the catalysts

9.4. Present research

9.4.1. Materials of electrocatalysts

9.4.1.1. Carbonaceous anode based materials

9.4.1.2. Metal based materials

9.4.1.3. Conducting polymers

9.4.2. Microbes

9.4.2.1. Bacterial species used as MFC biocatalyst

9.4.2.2. Yeast in MFC

9.4.2.3. Mixed community

9.5. Catalyst characterizations

9.5.1. 16S rRNA

9.5.2. DGGE

9.5.3. FISH

9.5.4. RFLP, SSCP and ARISA

9.5.5. qRT-PCR

9.5.6. GS-FLX

9.5.7. QCM

9.5.8. FAME

9.6. Performance evaluations

9.6.1. Anode potential

9.6.2. Cyclic voltammetry

9.6.3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

9.7. Conclusion

References

Author(s): Yuan Li, Pier-Luc Tremblay and Tian Zhang

Chapter 10: Propellants of microbial fuel cells

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Nutrient requirements of MFC microorganisms

10.3. General characteristics of different fuels

10.3.1. Simple or defined substrates

10.3.1.1. Glucose

10.3.1.2. Acetate

10.3.1.3. Fructose

10.3.1.4. Sucrose

10.3.2. Complex defined substrates

10.3.2.1. Starch

10.3.2.2. Cellulose

10.3.2.3. Others

10.3.3. Complex undefined substrates

10.3.3.1. Activated sludge and algal biomass

10.3.3.2. Agro industrial wastewater

10.3.3.3. Brewery industry wastewater

10.3.3.4. Dairy industry wastewater

10.3.3.5. Domestic and municipal wastewater

10.3.3.6. Food processing industry wastewater

10.3.3.7. Livestock industry wastewater

10.3.3.8. Mining industry wastewater

10.3.3.9. Paper plant wastewater

10.3.3.10. Petrochemical industry wastewater

10.3.3.11. Pharmaceutical industry wastewater

10.3.3.12. Refinery and distillery industry waste water

10.3.3.13. Textile industry wastewater

10.4. Mechanism of fuel oxidation in MFC

10.5. Comparison of the efficiency of different fuels

10.6. Future aspects

References

Author(s): Anwesha Mukherjee, Rushika Patel and Nasreen S. Munshi

Chapter 11: Exoelectrogens for microbial fuel cells

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Mechanisms of electron transfer

11.2.1. Mediated electron transfer

11.2.1.1. Endogenous electron shuttles

11.2.1.2. Artificial electron shuttles

11.2.1.3. Primary metabolites

11.2.1.4. MET mechanisms for biofilms at the cathode

11.2.2. Direct electron transfer

11.2.2.1. G. sulfurreducens: OMC pathway

11.2.2.2. S. oneidensis: Mtr-pathway

11.2.2.3. DET in other organisms

11.2.2.4. DET at the cathode

11.2.3. Nanowires

11.3. Studies using known exoelectrogenic strains

11.4. Tools for studying exoelectrogens

11.4.1. Electrochemical Analysis

11.4.2. Microscopy

11.4.3. Biological analysis

11.4.4. Raman spectroscopy

11.5. Operational conditions

11.6. Future directions

11.7. Sources of further information

References

Author(s): Jeff R. Beegle and Abhijeet P. Borole

Chapter 12: Biofilm formation within microbial fuel cells

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Mechanism of biofilm formation

12.3. Electroactive biofilms

12.3.1. Challenges of electroactive biofilms

12.3.2. Factors affecting electroactive biofilm formation

12.3.2.1. System configuration

12.3.2.2. Operating conditions

12.3.2.3. Biological parameters

12.4. Conclusion and future directions

12.5. Sources of further information

References

Author(s): Ramya Veerubhotla, Jhansi L Varanasi and Debabrata Das

Chapter 13: Genetic approaches for improving performance of microbial fuel cells: Part A

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Electron transfer in life

13.3. Discovery of genes involved in electron transfer in MFCs

13.4. Metabolic pathways employed in MFC systems

13.4.1. Geobacter spp.

13.4.1.1. General features

13.4.1.2. Procedures assayed and results

13.4.1.3. Future possibilities

13.4.2. Shewanella spp.

13.4.2.1. General features

13.4.2.2. Procedures assayed and results

13.4.2.3. Future possibilities

13.4.3. Other heterotrophic microorganisms

13.4.3.1. General features

13.4.3.2. Procedures assayed and results

13.4.3.3. Future possibilities

13.5. Other metabolic pathways used in MFC systems

13.5.1. Chemolithoautotrophic metabolism

13.5.2. Photoautotrophic metabolism

13.6. Naturally assembled microbial communities to improve MFC performance

13.7. Artificially assembled anodic communities to improve MFC performance

13.8. Future directions

13.9. Sources of further information

References

Author(s): M. J. González-Pabón, F. Figueredo, E. L. M. Figuerola, A. Saavedra, L. Erijman and E. Cortón

Chapter 14: Genetic approaches for improving performance of microbial fuel cells: Part B

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Substrate processing and accessibility

14.2.1. Directed evolution of redox enzymes

14.2.2. Surface-display systems

14.2.2.1. Bacterial surface-display

14.2.2.2. Yeast surface-display

14.2.3. Bioremediation of contaminated soil and water

14.3. Improvement of electron transfer

14.3.1. Internal electron transfer

14.3.2. External electron transfer

14.4. Metabolic engineering

14.5. Enzyme and protein engineering

14.5.1. Protein immobilization

14.5.2. Engineered pilin

14.6. Concluding remarks

References

Author(s): Orr Schlesinger and Lital Alfonta

Chapter 15: Kinetics and mass transfer within microbial fuel cells

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Modeling approaches for MFCs

15.3. Case study - 1D analytical model for continuous operation

15.3.1. Model structure and flux balance

15.3.2. Model assumptions

15.3.3. Governing equation and boundary conditions

15.3.3.1. Mass transfer

15.3.3.2. Kinetics – Anode and cathode

15.4. Adaptation for batch operation

15.5. Modifications for a single chamber configuration

15.6. Summary

Nomenclature

References

Author(s): V. B. Oliveira, J. Vilas Boas and A. M. F. R. Pinto

Chapter 16: Biochemistry and electrochemistry at the electrodes of microbial fuel cells

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Biochemistry and electrochemistry at the electrodes

16.2.1. Underlying catabolic pathways for energy generation from microorganisms

16.2.2. Distinguished electron transport mechanism

16.2.2.1. Direct electron transport

16.2.2.2. Electron transport through mediators

16.2.2.3. Electron transport through conductive nanowires

16.2.3. Proton transport mechanism in MFCs

16.2.3.1. Cation exchange membrane (CEM)

16.2.3.2. Anion exchange membrane (AEM)

16.2.3.3. Bipolar membrane (BPM)

16.3. Underlying factors that affect the MFC performance

16.3.1. Ohmic losses

16.3.2. Activation losses

16.3.3. Bacterial metabolic losses

16.3.4. Concentration losses

16.4. Anode-microbe interactions

16.5. Summary

References

Author(s): Prasenjit Bhunia

Chapter 17: Wastewater biorefinery based on microbial electrolysis cell: Opportunities and challenges

17.1. Introduction

17.1.1. Global energy and water security

17.1.2. Wastewater-based biorefinery

17.1.3. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

17.1.4. H2 as fuel

17.1.5. Aim of the chapter

17.2. Bioelectrochemical system (BES)

17.2.1. History of BES

17.2.2. Types of BES

17.2.2.1. MFC

17.2.2.2. MEC

17.2.3. MEC systems and materials used for H2 production

17.2.3.1. Cathode and anode

17.2.3.2. MEC membranes

17.2.3.3. MEC system for tubing and gas collection

17.3. MEC configurations and factors affecting H2 production

17.3.1. Double-chambered MEC systems

17.3.1.1. High-performance double-chambered MEC

17.3.1.2. Bio-electrochemically assisted microbial reactor (BEAMR)

17.3.1.3. Concentric tubular double-chambered MEC

17.3.1.4. Enriched MEC bio-cathodes using sediment MFC bio-anodes

17.3.2. Single-chambered MEC systems

17.3.2.1. Single-chambered MEC with a flat carbon cathode and brush anode

17.3.2.2. Cathode on top single-chambered MEC

17.3.2.3. Up-flow single-chambered MEC

17.3.2.4. Bottle-type single-chambered MEC

17.3.3. Factors affecting production of H2 in MEC systems

17.3.3.1. pH

17.3.3.2. Temperature

17.3.3.3. Catalyst

17.3.3.4. Conductivity of solution

17.4. Thermodynamics of H2 production and MEC performance

17.4.1. H2 production and measurement in MEC

17.4.2. H2 yield of MEC

17.4.3. Energy yield of MEC

17.5. Challenges and opportunities in MEC technology

17.5.1. Energy losses in MEC system

17.5.1.1. Activation losses in MEC system

17.5.1.2. Coulombic losses in MEC system

17.5.1.3. Concentration losses in MEC system

17.5.2. Methanogenesis in MEC

17.5.3. Economics of MEC

17.5.4. Future outlooks of MEC

17.5.4.1. Technological approach

17.5.4.2. Methanogenesis inhibition

17.5.4.3. Pure culture versus mixed consortia studies

17.5.4.4. Electrode selection

17.6. Conclusions

References

Author(s): M. Waqas, M. Rehan, A. S. Aburiazaiza and A. S. Nizami

Chapter 18: Microbial fuel cells as a platform technology for sustainable wastewater treatment

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Wastewater treatment and energy needs

18.2.1. General overview of wastewater treatment

18.2.2. Energy consumption in wastewater treatment

18.3. Opportunities for energy recovery and savings in wastewater treatment

18.3.1. Hydraulic energy recovery

18.3.2. Heat recovery

18.3.3. Combined heat and power (CHP) systems

18.3.4. Biogas generation (anaerobic digestion, AD)

18.3.5. Microalgae growth for biofuels

18.3.6. Anammox process (novel configurations)

18.4. MFCs - Efficiency evaluations

18.4.1. Carbon removal

18.4.2. Nutrient removal

18.4.3. Energy efficiency

18.4.3.1. Estimated energy benefits

18.4.3.2. Comparison with aeration systems

18.4.3.3. Normalized energy recovery concept

18.4.3.4. Energy consumption in MFCs

18.4.3.5. Energy payback time

18.5. Existing challenges

18.5.1. Microbial kinetics

18.5.2. Electron acceptors

18.5.3. Electrode materials

18.5.4. Understanding of power density (process reliability and stability)

18.5.5. Other factors

18.6. Future directions

18.6.1. Process development

18.6.2. Resource recovery options

18.6.3. Large scale development

18.6.4. Integrated processes

18.6.4.1. Integrating with membrane processes

18.6.4.2. Integrating with aeration tank in conventional wastewater treatment plant

18.6.4.3. Integration with other bioelectrochemical systems

18.6.5. Biorefinery configurations

18.7. Summary

References

Author(s): Veera G. Gude

Chapter 19: Microbial desalination cell technology: Functions and future prospects

19.1. Introduction

19.1.1. Water-energy crisis in desalination

19.1.2. Microbial desalination cell – harvester of chemical energy

19.2. Essential concepts of microbial desalination cell

19.2.1. Operative principle

19.2.2. Performance factors: Analyses and calculations

19.2.3. Microbial desalination cells configurations

19.2.3.1. Air-cathode microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.2. Biocathode microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.3. Stacked microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.4. Recirculation microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.5. Microbial electrolysis desalination cell

19.2.3.6. Capacitive microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.7. Upflow microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.8. Osmotic microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.9. Bipolar membrane microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.10. Decoupled microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.11. Ion-exchange resin coupled microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.12. Five-chambered biocathode microbial desalination cell

19.2.3.13. Modularized filtration air cathode microbial desalination cell

19.3. Materials used in microbial desalination cells

19.3.1. Exoelectrogens

19.3.2. Substrates

19.4. Performance and efficiency of microbial desalination cell

19.4.1. Polarization and power density

19.4.2. COD removal efficiency

19.4.3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

19.4.4. Cell potential (emf), concentration gradient and water transport

19.4.5. pH and electrolyte conductivity

19.4.6. External and internal resistance

19.4.7. Hydraulic retention time

19.5. Functional applications and scaleup

19.5.1. Wastewater treatment and water desalination

19.5.2. Water softening and metal ions removal

19.5.3. Groundwater remediation

19.6. Challenges to MDC technologies

19.7. Conclusions

References

Author(s): Carmalin Sophia A. and Jaydevsinh M. Gohil

Chapter 20: Coupled systems based on microbial fuel cells

20.1. Introduction

20.2. MFC-coupled wastewater treatment and the potential of MFC-MBRs

20.3. MFC-complemented anaerobic digestion

20.4. Conclusions

References

Author(s): Nándor Nemestóthy

Chapter 21: Commercialization aspects of microbial fuel cells

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Potentials of MFCs for commercialization

21.3. Prospective sector(s) for MFC applications

21.3.1. Wastewater treatment

21.3.2. Powering low energy devices

21.3.3. Robotics

21.4. Global status of MFCs commercialization / market leaders in MFCs

21.5. Current research towards commercialization

21.6. Challenges towards fruitful commercialization (lab to market bottleneck)

21.7. Future predictions and directions

References

Details

No. of pages:
312
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2018
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
Paperback ISBN:
9780444640178

About the Author

Patit Kundu

Dr. Patit Paban Kundu is currently a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology – Roorkee, India, since 2016. After completing his B. Sc. In Chemistry (1986), and B. Tech. (1989) and M. Tech. (1992) in Plastics and Rubber Technology from University of Calcutta, he joined the group of Prof. D. K. Tripathy at the Indian Institute of Technology – Kharagpur’s Rubber Technology Center for carrying out his doctoral research. Following his Ph. D. in 1997, he joined as a faculty in the Department of Chemical Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India. Then he joined as a Professor in the Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, India, in 2008. He did his post-doctoral studies in South Korea at the Inha University with Prof. S. Choe (2001-2002) and at the Yonsei University with Prof. Y. G. Shul (2006), and in USA at the Iowa State University with Prof. R. C. Larock (2003). He is a Polymer chemist and technologist, and has been actively working in the field of fuel cells as one of his areas of expertise. Till date, he has published about 160 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He has also contributed to 8 book chapters and numerous conference proceedings. His interest in fuel cells include microbial, direct methanol and hydrogen fuel cells, and spans from finding novel materials for fabricating membranes, electrodes, catalysts and catalyst supports to designing of membrane electrode assemblies and flow channels. He has also successfully undertaken various national level projects in areas including microbial and direct methanol fuel cells.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology – Roorkee, India

Kingshuk Dutta

Dr. Kingshuk Dutta has obtained his B. Sc. Degree in Chemistry in 2006, and B. Tech. (in 2009) and M. Tech. (in 2011) degrees in Polymer Science and Technology from University of Calcutta. Following which he worked as a Project Assistant (level III) at the National Chemical Laboratory, India (2011-2012), and as a Senior Research fellow at the Indian Institute of Technology – Kharagpur (2012). He then carried out his doctoral study in the group of Prof. P. P. Kundu (2012-2016), as a CSIR – Senior Research Fellow, Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, India. He is currently working a DST-SERB National Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology – Kharagpur. His area of interest lies in the field of polymers (especially, conducting polymers) and fuel cells, including microbial, direct methanol and hydrogen fuel cells. He has contributed to several papers, reviews, book chapters and presentations on the topic of fuel cells.

Affiliations and Expertise

Indo-U.S.Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University

Ratings and Reviews