Product Life Cycle Assessment to Reduce Health Risks and Environmental Impacts

Product Life Cycle Assessment to Reduce Health Risks and Environmental Impacts

1st Edition - December 31, 1994

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  • Author: Gregory A. Keoleian
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780815513544
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815518785

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Description

Life cycle design is a proactive approach for integrating pollution prevention and resource conservation strategies into the development of more ecologically and economically sustainable product systems. Cross media pollutant transfer and the shifting of other impacts can be avoided by addressing the entire life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition, materials processing, manufacturing and assembly, use and service, retirement, disposal and the ultimate fate of residuals.The goal of life cycle design is to minimize aggregate risks and impacts over this life cycle. This goal can only be attained through the balancing of environmental, performance, cost, cultural, legal, and technical requirements of the product system. Concepts such as concurrent design, total quality management, cross- disciplinary teams, and multi-attribute decision making are essential elements of life cycle design that help meet these goals. The framework for life cycle design was developed to be applicable for all product domains. It was written to assist not only design professionals but all other constituents who have an important role in life cycle design including corporate executives, product managers, production workers, distributors, environmental health and safety staff, purchasers, accountants, marketers, salespersons, legal staff, consumers, and government regulators. A coordinated effort is required to institute changes needed for successful implementation of life cycle design.Part I seeks to promote the reduction of environmental imparts and health risks through a systems approach to design. The approach is based on the product life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition and processing, manufacturing, use/service, resource recovery, and disposal. A life cycle design framework was developed to provide guidance for more effectively conserving resources and energy, preventing pollution, and reducing the aggregate environmental impacts and health risks associated with a product system. This framework addresses the product, process, distribution, and management/information components of each product system.Part II describes the three components of a life cycle assessment (inventory analysis, impact analysis, and improvement analysis) as well as scoping activities, presents a brief overview of the development of the life cycle assessment process, and develops guidelines and principles for implementation of a product life cycle assessment. The major states in a life cycle are raw materials acquisition, manufacturing, consumer use/reuse/maintenance, and recycle/waste management. The basic steps of performing a life cycle inventory (defining the goals and system boundaries, including scoping; gathering and developing data; presenting and reviewing data; and interpreting and communicating results) are presented along with the general issues to be addressed. The system boundaries, assumptions, and conventions to be addressed in each stage of the inventory are presented.

Readership

Design professionals and all other constituents who have an important role in life cycle design including corporate executives, product managers, production workers, distributors, environmental health and safety staff, purchasers, accountants, marketers, salespersons, legal staff, consumers, and government regulators.

Table of Contents

  • Part I: Life Cycle Design
    1. Introduction
    New Demands on Design
    Description of the Manual
    2. Life Cycle Design Basics
    The Life Cycle Framework
    Product System Components
    Goals
    3. The Development Process
    Development Activities
    Requirements
    Design Phases
    Implementation
    Limitations
    4. Design Requirements
    Formulating Requirements
    Types of Requirements
    Ranking and Weighing
    5. Design Strategies
    Overview
    Product System Life Extension
    Material Life Extension
    Material Selection
    Reduced Material Intensiveness
    Process Management
    Efficient Distribution
    Improved Management Practices
    6. Environmental Analysis Tools
    Elements of Design Analysis
    Inventory Analysis
    Impact Assessment
    7. Life Cycle Accounting
    Traditional Accounting Practices
    Life Cycle Accounting
    Appendix A: Sources of Additional Information
    Appendix B: Summary of Major Federal Environmental Laws
    Appendix C: Overview of Environmental Impacts
    Appendix D: Decision Making

Product details

  • No. of pages: 299
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 1994
  • Published: December 31, 1994
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780815513544
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815518785

About the Author

Gregory A. Keoleian

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan

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