Producing Safe Eggs

Producing Safe Eggs

Microbial Ecology of Salmonella

1st Edition - September 13, 2016

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  • Editors: Steven Ricke, Richard Gast
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128026779
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128025826

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Producing Safe Eggs: Microbial Ecology of Salmonella takes the unique approach of interfacing problems of Salmonella and microbial contamination with commercial egg production. It presents in-depth information on microbial contamination, safety and control, physiology, immunology, neurophysiology, and animal welfare, which makes this book a complete reference for anyone involved in the safe production of eggs and egg products in the food industry. This book discusses management and risk factors across the entire egg production process, including practical applications to decrease disease and contaminated food products in poultry houses, processing plants and retail businesses. It is an integral reference for food scientists, food safety and quality professionals, food processors, food production managers, and food business owners, as well as students in food science, safety, microbiology, and animal science.

Key Features

  • Includes pre- and post-harvest control measures to reduce microbial contamination and salmonella risks
  • Presents hot topics regarding vaccination, egg-in-shell pasteurization, and other new technologies currently under development
  • Provides risk assessment strategies for implementation in business operations
  • Discusses management and risk factors across the entire egg production process, including practical applications to decrease disease and contaminated food products in poultry houses, processing plants, and retail businesses
  • Offers a complete reference for anyone involved in the safe production of eggs and egg products in the food industry


A and G, corporate, industry markets, industry professionals in food safety, food microbiology, food science, food production, food processing, government officials (USDA, FDA, etc.), grad students in agriculture and food science, food managers at food companies

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • About the Editors
    • Preface
    • Section 1. Salmonella in Egg Production Systems: International Prevalence, Issues, and Challenges
      • Chapter 1. Of Mice and Hens—Tackling Salmonella in Table Egg Production in the United Kingdom and Europe
        • 1. Salmonella Control in Table Egg Production in Europe
        • 2. Infection Dynamics and Risk Factors for Acquisition/Persistence of Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms
        • 3. Focal Points of Control for Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms
        • 4. Concluding Remarks
      • Chapter 2. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States
        • 1. Introduction: Salmonella and Eggs: A Public Health and Economic Problem
        • 2. Salmonella Enteritidis and Laying Hens: Infection and Egg Contamination
        • 3. Infection of Laying Hens and Egg Contamination by Different Salmonella Strains and Serotypes
        • 4. Environmental Influences on Salmonella Infections in Egg-Laying Flocks
        • 5. Egg Production Housing Systems and Salmonella
        • 6. Controlling Salmonella Infection and Egg Contamination in Laying Flocks
        • 7. Conclusions
      • Chapter 3. Egg Production Systems and Salmonella in Korea
        • 1. Egg Production Industry: Overview
        • 2. Size and Distribution of Egg-Laying Flocks
        • 3. Egg Production Systems: HACCP and Egg Grading System in Korea
        • 4. Epidemiology of Salmonella in Korea
        • 5. Eggs and Salmonella
        • 6. The Future of the Egg-Producing Poultry Industry in Korea
      • Chapter 4. Egg Production Systems and Salmonella in Canada
        • 1. Egg Production Systems in Canada
        • 2. Roles and Responsibilities
        • 3. Control of Salmonella in the Canadian Egg Supply
        • 4. National Salmonella Control Program—Start Clean-Stay Clean
        • 5. Egg Grading Stations
        • 6. Other Sources of Table Eggs—Surplus Broiler Hatching Eggs
        • 7. Other Sources of Table Eggs—Unregulated Flocks
        • 8. Is the System Working?
      • Chapter 5. Egg Production Systems and Salmonella in Australia
        • 1. Egg Production Systems in Australia
        • 2. Salmonella Outbreaks Associated With Eggs
        • 3. Epidemiology of Salmonella on Australian Commercial Egg Farms
        • 4. Prevalence and Eggshell Penetration by Salmonella
        • 5. Human Factor in Salmonella Virulence Factors
        • 6. Current On-Farm Control Measures With Focus on Egg Washing
        • 7. Salmonella Control Measures and Limitations
      • Chapter 6. Egg Production Systems and Salmonella in South America
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Argentina
        • 3. Bolivia
        • 4. Brazil
        • 5. Chile
        • 6. Colombia
        • 7. Ecuador
        • 8. Paraguay
        • 9. Peru
        • 10. Guyana and Suriname
        • 11. Uruguay
        • 12. Venezuela
        • 13. Conclusions
    • Section 2. Salmonella Contamination in Layer Flocks: Pathogenesis, Dissemination, and Current Control Strategies
      • Chapter 7. Overview of Salmonellosis and Food-borne Salmonella: Historical and Current Perspectives
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Historical Development of Salmonellosis
        • 3. Poultry- and Poultry Products–Associated Salmonella
        • 4. Summary and Conclusions
      • Chapter 8. Salmonella in Preharvest Chickens: Current Understanding and Approaches to Control
        • 1. Introduction: General Salmonella Infection Biology
        • 2. Biology of Layer Infections
        • 3. Approaches to Control
        • 4. Conclusion and Synthesis
      • Chapter 9. Developments in Detection Strategies for Salmonella Enteritidis in Layer Hen Flocks
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. General Detection Strategies
        • 3. Sample Types and Sample Collection
        • 4. Culture Methods
        • 5. Rapid Detection Methods
        • 6. Conclusion
      • Chapter 10. Genetic Basis of Salmonella Enteritidis Pathogenesis in Chickens
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Infection Kinetics of SE in Chickens
        • 3. Genetic Basis of SE Pathogenesis
      • Chapter 11. The Relationship Between the Immune Response and Susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection in the Laying Hen
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Overview of the Avian Immune System
        • 3. Immunity in the Hen Reproductive Tract
        • 4. Immune Response of the Laying Hen Reproductive Tract to Salmonella Infection
        • 5. Host and Bacterial Factors That Contribute to Asymptomatic S. Enteritidis Colonization of Reproductive Tract
        • 6. Bacterial Factors
        • 7. Host Factors
        • 8. Conclusions and Future Direction
      • Chapter 12. Salmonella Heidelberg in Layer Hens and Egg Production: Incidence and Potential Issues
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Emergence of Salmonella Heidelberg as a Food-borne Pathogen
        • 3. Epidemiology of Egg-Associated Salmonella Outbreaks
        • 4. Ecology of Salmonella Heidelberg Colonization and Invasion in Poultry
        • 5. Virulence and Pathogenesis of Salmonella Heidelberg
        • 6. Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Heidelberg
        • 7. Isolation, Identification, and Detection
        • 8. Future Issues—Evolution of Salmonella Heidelberg
        • 9. Conclusions
    • Section 3. Development of Specific Interventions for Salmonella in Laying Hens and Table Eggs: Present and Future Prospects
      • Chapter 13. Preharvest Measures to Improve the Safety of Eggs
        • 1. Introduction: Salmonella and Eggs
        • 2. Biosecurity Measures
        • 3. Gastrointestinal Colonization Control
        • 4. Vaccination
        • 5. Alternative Preharvest Strategies to Control Salmonella in Poultry
        • 6. Future Trends—Zero Salmonella Prevalence Concept?
      • Chapter 14. Current and Future Perspectives on Development of Salmonella Vaccine Technologies
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Challenges to Salmonella Control
        • 3. Salmonella Control
        • 4. Vaccination to Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Layers
        • 5. Live Attenuated Salmonella Vaccines
        • 6. Inactivated Salmonella Vaccines
        • 7. Salmonella Vaccination Programs
        • 8. Recent Improvements in Enhancing Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of Live Salmonella Vaccines to Control Salmonella Infections in Poultry
        • 9. Achieving the Balance Between Attenuation and Immunogenicity
        • 10. Induction of Cross-protective Immunity Against Diverse Salmonella Serotypes and Closely Related Enteric Bacteria
        • 11. Simultaneous Control of Salmonella Infection and Persistence by Control of Other Avian Colonizers and Pathogens
        • 12. Improved Vaccination Practices for Ultimate Control of Persistence of Salmonella and Enteric Pathogens in Poultry to Enhance Poultry Health, Reduce Antibiotic Usage, and Ensure Food Safety
        • 13. Summary
      • Chapter 15. Use of Direct-Fed Microbials in Layer Hen Production—Performance Response and Salmonella Control
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Microbial Competitive Enhancement Within the Gut
        • 3. Probiotic Impacts in Chickens
        • 4. Conclusions
      • Chapter 16. Gastrointestinal Ecology of Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens and Intervention by Prebiotic and Nondigestible Carbohydrate Dietary Supplementation
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. The Chicken GIT Microbiota
        • 3. Laying Hen GIT Microbiota
        • 4. Dietary Nondigestible Carbohydrate Mitigation Strategies—Molting Layer Hens
        • 5. Prebiotics—Definition and General Concepts
        • 6. Prebiotics—Layer Hens and Egg Production
        • 7. Conclusions and Future Directions
      • Chapter 17. Preharvest Food Safety—Potential Use of Plant-Derived Compounds in Layer Chickens
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Salmonella—A Continuing Threat to Layer Safety
        • 3. Plant-Derived Compounds
        • 4. Antimicrobial Activity of PDCs in Broiler Chickens
        • 5. Antimicrobial Activity of PDCs in Layers
        • 6. Potential Mechanisms of Action of PDCs
        • 7. Effect of PDCs on Production Parameters
        • 8. Challenges With Using PDCs
        • 9. Economic Considerations
        • 10. Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Chapter 18. Chemical and Physical Sanitation and Pasteurization Methods for Intact Shell Eggs
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Washing
        • 3. Electrolyzed Water
        • 4. Pasteurization
        • 5. Thermoultrasonication
        • 6. Gas Plasma
        • 7. Pulsed Light
        • 8. Ozone
        • 9. Ultraviolet Light
        • 10. Irradiation
        • 11. Storage to Minimize Growth
        • 12. Conclusions
      • Chapter 19. Natural Approaches for Improving Postharvest Safety of Egg and Egg Products
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Major Contaminants in Eggs
        • 3. Traditional Methods of Improving Egg Safety
        • 4. Natural Approaches
        • 5. Egg Products
        • 6. Concluding Remarks
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 460
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: September 13, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128026779
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128025826

About the Editors

Steven Ricke

Dr. Ricke received his B.S. degree in Animal Science (1979) an M.S. degree in Ruminant Nutrition (1982) from the Univ. of Illinois and his Ph.D. degree (1989) from the Univ. of Wisconsin with a co-major in Animal Science and Bacteriology. From 1989 to 1992 Dr. Ricke was a USDA-ARS postdoctorate in the Microbiology Department at North Carolina State Univ. He was at Texas A&M Univ. for 13 years and was a professor in the Poultry Science Dept. with joint appointments on the Food Science and Technology, Molecular and Environmental Plant Sciences, and Nutrition Faculties and the Veterinary Pathobiology Dept. He has been honored in 2002 as a Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Faculty Fellow. In 2005, he became the first holder of the new Wray Endowed Chair in Food Safety and Director of the Center for Food Safety at the University of Arkansas. He is also a faculty member of the Dept. of Food Science and the Cellular and Molecular Graduate program.

Affiliations and Expertise

Food Science Department, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA

Richard Gast

Richard K. Gast is a Supervisory Microbiologist at the U. S. National Poultry Research Center in Athens, Georgia. He received a Ph.D. in Poultry Science from The Ohio State University and has served as a scientist for USDA’s Agricultural Research Service since 1987. He has been Research Leader of the Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit since its founding in 2005. The mission of this research group is to protect both the health of consumers and the marketability of eggs by developing improved technologies for egg production and processing that reduce or eliminate microorganisms which can transmit disease to humans or cause spoilage.

Affiliations and Expertise

Microbiologist and Research Leader, Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA

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