Produced Water Treatment Field Manual

Produced Water Treatment Field Manual

1st Edition - July 13, 2011

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  • Authors: Maurice Stewart, Ken Arnold
  • eBook ISBN: 9781856179850
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781856179843

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Produced Water Treatment Field Manual presents different methods used in produced water treatment systems in the oil and gas industry. Produced water is salty water that is produced as a byproduct along with oil or gas during the treatment. Water is brought along with the oil and gas when these are lifted from the surface. The water is then treated before the discharge or re-injection process. In the introduction, the book discusses the basic terms and concepts that describe produced water treatment. It also presents the different methods involved in the treatment. It further discusses the design, operation, maintenance, and sizing of the produced water treatment systems. In the latter part of the book, the ways to remove impurities in water are discussed, including choosing the proper filter, filtering equipment, filtering methods, and filtering types. The main objective of this book is to provide information about proper water management. Readers who are involved in this field will find this book relevant.

Key Features

  • Present a description of the various water treating equipment that are currently in use
  • Provide performance data for each unit
  • Develop a "feel" for the parameters needed for design and their relative importance
  • Develop and understanding of the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the design of the various items of equipment
  • Outline sizing procedures and equipment selection


Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

Table of Contents

  • Part 1 Produced Water Treating Systems


        Disposal Standards

             Offshore Operations

             Onshore Operations

        Characteristics of Produced Water

             Dissolved Solids

             Precipitated Solids (Scales)

        Scale Removal

        Controlling Scale Using Chemical Inhibitors

        Sand and Other Suspended Solids

             Dissolved Gases

             Oil-in-Water Emulsions

             Dissolved Oil Concentrations

             Lab Tests

             Dispersed Oil

        System Description


             Gravity Separation




             Number of Cells


        Equipment Description and Sizing

             Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels


             Example 1-1: Determining the Dispersed Oil Content in the Effluent Water from a CPI Plate Separator

             Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators


             Precipitators/Coalescing Filters

             Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers

             Performance Considerations

             Flotation Units


             General Considerations

             Operating Principles

             Separation Mechanism

             Orientation and Operating Considerations

             Static Hydrocyclones

             Dynamic Hydrocyclones

             Selection Criteria and Application Guidelines

             Sizing and Design

             Disposal Piles

             Skim Piles

             Skim Pile Sizing

        Drain Systems

             Pressure (Closed) Drain System

             Atmospheric (Open) Drain System

             Environmental Considerations

        Information Required for Design

             Design Basis

             Effluent Quality

             Produced Water Flow Rate

             Water Specific Gravity

             Water Viscosity

             Oil Concentration

             Soluble Oil Concentration

             Oil Specific Gravity

             Oil Droplet Size Distribution

             Oil Drop Size Distribution: Open Drains

             Equipment Selection Procedure

        Equipment Specification

             Skim Tank

             SP Pack System

             CPI Separator

             Cross-Flow Devices

             Flotation Unit

             Disposal Pile

             Example 1-2: Design the Produced Water Treating System


    Part 2 Water Injection Systems


             General Considerations

             Solids Content

             Oil Content

             Produced Water

             Source Water from Deep Sand Formation

        Solids Removal Theory

             Removal of Suspended Solids from Water

             Gravity Settling


        Diffusional Interception

             Direct Interception

        Filter Types

             Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media

             Fixed-Pore Structure Media

             Surface Media

             Summary of Filter Types

        Removal Ratings

             General Considerations

             Nominal Rating

             Absolute Rating

             Beta (ß) Rating System

        Choosing the Proper Filter

             General Considerations

             Nature of Fluid

             Flow Rate


             Pressure Drop

             Surface Area

             Void Volume

             Degree of Filtration


             Coagulants and Floccuation

        Measuring Water Compatibility

             Saturation Index (LSI)

             Stability Index (RSI)

        Solids Removal Equipment Description

             Source Water Considerations

        Gravity Settling Tanks

             Chemical Scavenging Equipment

        Design Example: Solid Removal Process

             Complete Water Injection System


    Appendix A: Definition of Key Water Treating Terms

    Appendix B: Water Sampling Techniques

    Appendix C: Oil Concentration Analysis Techniques


Product details

  • No. of pages: 244
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2011
  • Published: July 13, 2011
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781856179850
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781856179843

About the Authors

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company, USA

Ken Arnold

Ken Arnold
Ken Arnold is a Senior Technical Advisor for WorleyParsons in Houston, TX. Spanning over 50 years of experience, he spent 16 years' in facilities engineering, project engineering and engineering management with Shell before forming Paragon Engineering Services in 1980. Arnold retired from Paragon in 2007 and formed K Arnold Consulting, Inc. In 2010, he joined WorleyParsons as part-time advisor while still managing the consulting firm. He participated in the initial development of several API safety related Recommended Practices including RP 75 and RP 14J and most recently was Chair of the National Academies Committee on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. He has served on the Board of SPE as its first Director of Projects, Facilities and Construction and then later as VP Finance. He is currently Treasurer of The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas. Arnold has a BSCE degree from Cornell and MS degree from Tulane and has taught facilities engineering in the University of Houston Petroleum Engineering program and for several oil companies. He is a registered professional engineer and serves on the advisory board of the engineering schools of Tulane University, Cornell University and the Petroleum Engineering Advisory Board of the University of Houston. Recently, Ken received the 2013 Distinguished Achievement Award, considered one of the highest recognitions anyone can achieve in the offshore industry, at this year's Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, TX for his outstanding leadership and extensive contributions to the E&P industry. His many achievements include playing an integral role in the offshore industry's focus on safety through the development of Recommended Practices for offshore design and safety management, and he developed approaches to both equipment sizing and facility project management that are still in use today. He has also been instrumental in the effort to establish oilfield facilities engineering as a recognized technical engineering specialty.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ken Arnold Consulting Inc.

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  • AllanMahoney Wed Feb 27 2019

    Produced Water Treatment Field Manual

    Excellent reference material. Exactly what I needed to guide me through the process from start to finish.