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Produced Water Treatment Field Manual - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856179843, 9781856179850

Produced Water Treatment Field Manual

1st Edition

Authors: Maurice Stewart Ken Arnold
Paperback ISBN: 9781856179843
eBook ISBN: 9781856179850
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 8th August 2011
Page Count: 244
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Produced Water Treatment Field Manual presents different methods used in produced water treatment systems in the oil and gas industry. Produced water is salty water that is produced as a byproduct along with oil or gas during the treatment. Water is brought along with the oil and gas when these are lifted from the surface. The water is then treated before the discharge or re-injection process. In the introduction, the book discusses the basic terms and concepts that describe produced water treatment. It also presents the different methods involved in the treatment. It further discusses the design, operation, maintenance, and sizing of the produced water treatment systems. In the latter part of the book, the ways to remove impurities in water are discussed, including choosing the proper filter, filtering equipment, filtering methods, and filtering types. The main objective of this book is to provide information about proper water management. Readers who are involved in this field will find this book relevant.

Key Features

  • Present a description of the various water treating equipment that are currently in use
  • Provide performance data for each unit
  • Develop a "feel" for the parameters needed for design and their relative importance
  • Develop and understanding of the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the design of the various items of equipment
  • Outline sizing procedures and equipment selection


Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

Table of Contents

Part 1 Produced Water Treating Systems


Disposal Standards

Offshore Operations

Onshore Operations

Characteristics of Produced Water

Dissolved Solids

Precipitated Solids (Scales)

Scale Removal

Controlling Scale Using Chemical Inhibitors

Sand and Other Suspended Solids

Dissolved Gases

Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Dissolved Oil Concentrations

Lab Tests

Dispersed Oil

System Description


Gravity Separation




Number of Cells


Equipment Description and Sizing

Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels


Example 1-1: Determining the Dispersed Oil Content in the Effluent Water from a CPI Plate Separator

Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators


Precipitators/Coalescing Filters

Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers

Performance Considerations

Flotation Units


General Considerations

Operating Principles

Separation Mechanism

Orientation and Operating Considerations

Static Hydrocyclones

Dynamic Hydrocyclones

Selection Criteria and Application Guidelines

Sizing and Design

Disposal Piles

Skim Piles

Skim Pile Sizing

Drain Systems

Pressure (Closed) Drain System

Atmospheric (Open) Drain System

Environmental Considerations

Information Required for Design

Design Basis

Effluent Quality

Produced Water Flow Rate

Water Specific Gravity

Water Viscosity

Oil Concentration

Soluble Oil Concentration

Oil Specific Gravity

Oil Droplet Size Distribution

Oil Drop Size Distribution: Open Drains

Equipment Selection Procedure

Equipment Specification

Skim Tank

SP Pack System

CPI Separator

Cross-Flow Devices

Flotation Unit

Disposal Pile

Example 1-2: Design the Produced Water Treating System


Part 2 Water Injection Systems


General Considerations

Solids Content

Oil Content

Produced Water

Source Water from Deep Sand Formation

Solids Removal Theory

Removal of Suspended Solids from Water

Gravity Settling


Diffusional Interception

Direct Interception

Filter Types

Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media

Fixed-Pore Structure Media

Surface Media

Summary of Filter Types

Removal Ratings

General Considerations

Nominal Rating

Absolute Rating

Beta (ß) Rating System

Choosing the Proper Filter

General Considerations

Nature of Fluid

Flow Rate


Pressure Drop

Surface Area

Void Volume

Degree of Filtration


Coagulants and Floccuation

Measuring Water Compatibility

Saturation Index (LSI)

Stability Index (RSI)

Solids Removal Equipment Description

Source Water Considerations

Gravity Settling Tanks

Chemical Scavenging Equipment

Design Example: Solid Removal Process

Complete Water Injection System


Appendix A: Definition of Key Water Treating Terms

Appendix B: Water Sampling Techniques

Appendix C: Oil Concentration Analysis Techniques



No. of pages:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2011
8th August 2011
Gulf Professional Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company, USA

Ken Arnold

Ken Arnold

Ken Arnold is a Senior Technical Advisor for WorleyParsons in Houston, TX. Spanning over 50 years of experience, he spent 16 years' in facilities engineering, project engineering and engineering management with Shell before forming Paragon Engineering Services in 1980. Arnold retired from Paragon in 2007 and formed K Arnold Consulting, Inc. In 2010, he joined WorleyParsons as part-time advisor while still managing the consulting firm. He participated in the initial development of several API safety related Recommended Practices including RP 75 and RP 14J and most recently was Chair of the National Academies Committee on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. He has served on the Board of SPE as its first Director of Projects, Facilities and Construction and then later as VP Finance. He is currently Treasurer of The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas. Arnold has a BSCE degree from Cornell and MS degree from Tulane and has taught facilities engineering in the University of Houston Petroleum Engineering program and for several oil companies. He is a registered professional engineer and serves on the advisory board of the engineering schools of Tulane University, Cornell University and the Petroleum Engineering Advisory Board of the University of Houston. Recently, Ken received the 2013 Distinguished Achievement Award, considered one of the highest recognitions anyone can achieve in the offshore industry, at this year's Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, TX for his outstanding leadership and extensive contributions to the E&P industry. His many achievements include playing an integral role in the offshore industry's focus on safety through the development of Recommended Practices for offshore design and safety management, and he developed approaches to both equipment sizing and facility project management that are still in use today. He has also been instrumental in the effort to establish oilfield facilities engineering as a recognized technical engineering specialty.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ken Arnold Consulting Inc.


"Published in a handy small format (4.5x7.5 inches), but not so small it inhibits readability, this guide contains the essential information necessary for produced water treatment using the format of an outline, with subjects followed by short definitions which in turn are followed by lists of key points and in some cases, a list of sample figures. Appendices contain definition of terms, descriptions of water sampling, and oil concentration analysis techniques. Many schematics, drawings, and tables are included. The book is derived from the authors' two-volume Surface production operations. Thoughtfully produced and authoritative, this volume will be essential to engineers and process designers in the field."--Reference and Research Book News

Ratings and Reviews