Produced Water Treatment Field Manual presents different methods used in produced water treatment systems in the oil and gas industry. Produced water is salty water that is produced as a byproduct along with oil or gas during the treatment. Water is brought along with the oil and gas when these are lifted from the surface. The water is then treated before the discharge or re-injection process. In the introduction, the book discusses the basic terms and concepts that describe produced water treatment. It also presents the different methods involved in the treatment. It further discusses the design, operation, maintenance, and sizing of the produced water treatment systems. In the latter part of the book, the ways to remove impurities in water are discussed, including choosing the proper filter, filtering equipment, filtering methods, and filtering types. The main objective of this book is to provide information about proper water management. Readers who are involved in this field will find this book relevant.

Key Features

  • Present a description of the various water treating equipment that are currently in use
  • Provide performance data for each unit
  • Develop a "feel" for the parameters needed for design and their relative importance
  • Develop and understanding of the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the design of the various items of equipment
  • Outline sizing procedures and equipment selection


Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

Table of Contents

Part 1 Produced Water Treating Systems     Introduction     Disposal Standards          Offshore Operations          Onshore Operations     Characteristics of Produced Water          Dissolved Solids          Precipitated Solids (Scales)     Scale Removal     Controlling Scale Using Chemical Inhibitors     Sand and Other Suspended Solids          Dissolved Gases          Oil-in-Water Emulsions          Dissolved Oil Concentrations          Lab Tests          Dispersed Oil     System Description     Theory          Gravity Separation          Coalescence          Dispersion          Flotation          Number of Cells          Filtration     Equipment Description and Sizing          Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels          Coalescers          Example 1-1: Determining the Dispersed Oil Content in the Effluent Water from a CPI Plate Separator          Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators          Skimmer/Coalescers          Precipitators/Coalescing Filters          Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers          Performance Considerations          Flotation Units          Hydrocyclones          General Considerations          Operating Principles          Separation Mechanism          Orientation and Operating Considerations          Static Hydrocyclones          Dynamic Hydrocyclones          Selection Criteria and Application Guidelines          Sizing and Design          Disposal Piles          Skim Piles          Skim Pile Sizing     Drain Systems          Pressure (Closed) Drain System          Atmospheric (Open) Drain System          Environmental Considerations     Information Required for Design          Design Basis          Effluent Quality          Produced Water Flow Rate          Water Specific Gravity          Water Viscosity          Oil Concentration          Soluble Oil Concentration          Oil Specific Gravity          Oil Droplet Size Distribution          Oil Drop Size Distribution: Open Drains  


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© 2011
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the authors

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company

Ken Arnold

Ken Arnold is a Senior Technical Advisor for WorleyParsons in Houston, TX. Spanning over 50 years of experience, he spent 16 years' in facilities engineering, project engineering and engineering management with Shell before forming Paragon Engineering Services in 1980. Arnold retired from Paragon in 2007 and formed K Arnold Consulting, Inc. In 2010, he joined WorleyParsons as part-time advisor while still managing the consulting firm. He participated in the initial development of several API safety related Recommended Practices including RP 75 and RP 14J and most recently was Chair of the National Academies Committee on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. He has served on the Board of SPE as its first Director of Projects, Facilities and Construction and then later as VP Finance. He is currently Treasurer of The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas. Arnold has a BSCE degree from Cornell and MS degree from Tulane and has taught facilities engineering in the University of Houston Petroleum Engineering program and for several oil companies. He is a registered professional engineer and serves on the advisory board of the engineering schools of Tulane University, Cornell University and the Petroleum Engineering Advisory Board of the University of Houston. Recently, Ken received the 2013 Distinguished Achievement Award, considered one of the highest recognitions anyone can achieve in the offshore industry, at this year's Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, TX for his outstanding leadership and extensive contributions to the E&P industry. His many achievements include playing an integral role in the offshore industry's focus on safety through the development of Recommended Practices for offshore design and safety management, and he developed approaches to both equipment sizing and facility project management that are still in use today. He has also been instrumental in the effort to establish oilfiel

Affiliations and Expertise

Ken Arnold Consulting Inc.


"Published in a handy small format (4.5x7.5 inches), but not so small it inhibits readability, this guide contains the essential information necessary for produced water treatment using the format of an outline, with subjects followed by short definitions which in turn are followed by lists of key points and in some cases, a list of sample figures. Appendices contain definition of terms, descriptions of water sampling, and oil concentration analysis techniques. Many schematics, drawings, and tables are included. The book is derived from the authors' two-volume Surface production operations. Thoughtfully produced and authoritative, this volume will be essential to engineers and process designers in the field."--Reference and Research Book News