Process Risk and Reliability Management

Process Risk and Reliability Management

Operational Integrity Management

1st Edition - April 9, 2010

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  • Author: Ian Sutton
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437778069

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Description

In the last twenty years considerable progress has been made in process safety, particularly in regard to regulatory compliance.  Many companies are now looking to go beyond mere compliance; they are expanding their process safety management (PSM) programs to improve performance not just in safety, but also in environmental compliance, quaility control and overall profitability.  Techniques and principles are illustrated with numerous examples from chemical plants, refineries, transportation, pipelines and offshore oil and gas.  This book helps executives, managers and technical professionals achieve not only their current PSM goals, but also to make the transition to a broader operational integrity strategy.  The book focuses on the energy and process industries- from refineries, to pipelines, chemical plants, transportation, alternative energy and offshore facilities.  The techniques described in the book can also be applied to a wide range of non-process industries. The book is both thorough and practical.  It discusses theoretical principles in a wide variety of areas such as management of change, risk analysis and incident investigation, and then goes on to show how these principles work in practice, either in the design office or in an opperating facility.

Key Features

  • Learn how to develop process safety, operational integrity and operational excellence programs
  • Go beyond traditional hazards analysis and risk management programs to explore a company's entire range of procedures, processes and mangement issues
  • Understand how to develop a culture of process safety and operational excellence that goes beyond simple rule complience

Readership

Managers and technical staff in the oil and gas industry: refineries, pipelines, transportation, offshore facilities.
Managers and engineers in the process industries.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Operational Integrity Management
    Introduction
    Operational Integrity / Excellence
    Process Safety Management
    Major Events
    Examples
    Example 1 - Facility Design
    Example 2 - Process Flow
    Example 3 - Heat Exchanger
    Example 4 - Risk Management Workflow
    External Standard
    Guidance
    Risk Analysis Plan and Implement
    Audit / Deltas
    Success / Continuous Improvement
    Fundamentals of PSM
    Safe Limits
    Set Point Values
    Operating, Safe and Emergency Limits
    Non-Prescriptive
    Performance / Risk Based
    Process - Not Occupational - Safety
    Measurement Strategies
    Involvement and Thoroughness
    Holistic
    Definition of Process Safety Management
    Trends
    Health, Safety & Environmental Programs
    Environmental / Sustainability
    Health
    Safety
    Quality Management
    Statistical Process Control
    ISO 9000 / 14001
    Six Sigma
    Risk
    Hazards
    Consequence / Likelihood
    Bow-Tie Method
    Presence of Persons
    Single Contingency Events
    Economies of Scale
    Subjective Nature of Risk
    Degree of Control
    Familiarity with the Hazard
    Direct Benefit
    Personal Impact
    Natural vs. Man-Made Risks
    Recency of Events
    Perception of the Consequence Term
    Comprehension Time
    Quantification of Risk
    Frequency
    Predicted Frequency
    Probability
    Likelihood and Failure Rate
    Error / Statistical Significance Confidence
    Failure / Fault
    Independence and Randomness
    Acceptable Risk
    As Low as Reasonably Practical - ALARP
    De Minimis Risk
    Citations / "Case Law"
    RAGAGEP
    Indexing Methods
    Risk Matrices
    Consequence Matrix
    Worker Safety
    Public Safety and Health
    Environmental Impact
    Economic Loss
    Frequency Matrix
    Risk Matrix

    Chapter 2 - Culture and Employee Involvement
    Introduction
    Elements of Culture
    On-Going and Consistent
    Words and Actions
    External Evaluation
    Learning from Incidents
    Attention to Basics
    Historical Development
    1. Safety as a Value
    2. Codes and Standards
    3. Workers Compensation
    4. Occupational Safety
    5. Systems Analysis
    6. Regulations
    7. Management Systems
    8. Behavior-Based Safety
    9. Safety Culture
    Warning Flags over Your Organization
    Flag One - Unrealistic Stretch Goals
    Production Creep
    Production Records
    Initiative Overload
    Flag Two - Excessive Cost Reduction
    Reduction of "Non-Essentials"
    Reductions in Work Force
    The "Big Crew Change"
    Flattened Organizations
    Aging Infrastructure
    Out-Sourcing
    Not Enough Time for Detailed Work
    Project Cutbacks
    Flag Three - Belief That "It Cannot Happen Here"
    Lack of Direct Experience
    Good Occupational Safety Performance
    Lack of Imaginative Thinking
    Failure to Learn from Near-Misses
    Failure to Draw on Experience Elsewhere
    Flag Four - Excessive Belief in Rule Compliance
    Flag Five - Ineffective Information Flow
    Critical Safety Information Is Buried, Lost or Diluted
    Team Player Culture
    Fear of Litigation
    Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestitures
    Flag Six - Ineffective Audit Process
    Softened News to Senior Managers
    Failure to Identify Root Causes
    Inadequate Follow Up
    Developing a Strong Culture
    Mission Statement
    Guiding Tenets
    Detailed Program
    Workforce and Stakeholder Involvement
    Workforce Involvement
    Safety Committees
    Involvement in OIM Elements
    Difficulties with Workforce Involvement
    Inefficiencies
    Unwillingness to Accept Change
    Labor / Management Relations
    Stakeholder Outreach
    Contractors
    Types of Contractor
    Selection of a Contract Company
    Contractor Training
    Safety Meetings
    Post-Contract Evaluation

    Chapter 3 - Hazards Identification
    Introduction
    Hazards Management Process
    Step 1. Identify the Hazards
    Creative / Imaginative Techniques
    Experience-Based
    Logical / Rational
    Step 2. Risk Rank
    Step 3. Eliminate or Substitute the Hazard
    Step 4. Remove the People
    Step 5. Reduce the Consequence
    Step 6. Reduce the Likelihood
    Step 7. Install Safeguards
    Organization of a Hazards Analysis
    Charge / Scope Letter
    Abandoned Equipment
    Preparations
    Logistics
    Meeting Protocol
    Location of the Meeting
    Projection of Notes
    Documentation Requirements
    Security of the Information
    Time Required
    Kick-Off and Close-Out Meetings
    HAZID / Major Hazards Screening
    The Team
    Leader / Facilitator
    Process Knowledge
    Stimulate Thinking
    Creative Thinking
    Casual Remarks
    "If We Had Unlimited Money"
    Generalizations
    Team Management
    Knowledge of Actual Incidents
    Lawyer-Like Behavior
    Persona
    Personal Preparation
    Engineering Standards
    The Scribe
    Operations / Maintenance Expert
    Process and Instrument Experts
    Specialists
    Use of Sophisticated Language
    The One-Minute Engineering Department
    Results of the Analysis
    Findings
    Recommendations
    Action Items
    Risk Register
    Finding Number and Date
    Hazard
    Source
    Consequence(s) / Likelihood / Risk
    Follow-Up
    The Hazards Analysis Report
    Completeness of the Notes
    Cross-Reference
    Anonymity
    Findings Terminology
    Completeness
    "Non-Findings"
    Appearance
    Pictures
    Report Distribution
    Communication with the Public
    Table of Contents
    1. Disclaimer
    2. Executive Summary
    3. Objectives of the Analysis
    4. Summary of Findings
    5. Method Used
    6. Risk Ranking
    7. The Team
    8. Regulations
    9. Attachments
    10. Meeting Notes
    Development of the Report
    Step 1. Notes Clean-Up
    Step 2. Team Review
    Step 3. Draft Report
    Step 4. Client Review
    Step 5. Final Report
    Step 6. Risk Register
    Legal Issues
    Need to Act on Findings
    Informal Notes
    Internal Communication
    Special Types of Hazards Analysis
    Temporary and Transient Operations
    Non-Process Applications
    Decommissioning / Demolition
    Revalidation Hazards Analyses
    Benefits and Limitations of Hazard Analyses
    Strengths
    Providing Time to Think
    Challenging Conventional Thinking
    Cross-Discipline Communication
    Education
    Development of Technical Information
    Economic Payoff
    Limitations and Concerns
    Imprecision in Defining Terms
    Multiple Contingencies
    Complexities and Subtle Interactions
    Dynamic Conditions
    Common Cause Events
    Knowledge of Safe Operating Limits
    Lack of Quantification
    Team Quality
    Personal Experience
    Boredom
    Confusion with Design Reviews
    False Confidence
    Equipment Orientation
    Interfaces
    Human Error
    The Hazard and Operability Method (HAZOP)
    Step 1. Node Selection and Purpose
    Selection of Nodes
    Pressure Breaks
    Step 2. Process Guideword / Safe Limits
    Step 3. Identification of Hazards and their Causes
    Step 4. "Announcement" of the Hazard
    Step 5. Consequences
    Step 6. Identification of Safeguards
    Step 7. Predicted Frequency of the Hazard
    Step 8. Risk Rank
    Step 9. Findings
    Step 10. Next Process Guideword / Node
    Checklists
    Checklist Categories
    Guidewords
    Structure of a Checklist
    The What-If Method
    Node / Functional Area Review
    Equipment and Function Review
    Utility Systems
    Batch Processes
    Operating Procedures
    Layout Reviews
    What-If / Checklist Method
    Failure Modes & Effects Analysis
    TRIZ
    Indexing Methods
    Interface Hazards Analysis
    Hazards Analysis on Projects
    Common Hazards
    Process Hazards
    High Flow
    Low / No Flow
    Reverse Flow
    Misdirected Flow
    High Pressure
    High Temperature
    Blocked-In Pump
    Polymerization
    External Fire
    Low Pressure
    Low Temperature
    High Level
    Wrong Composition
    Corrosion
    Chemical Embrittlement
    Static Electricity
    Hazards of Utilities
    Common Cause Failure
    Process Contamination
    Electrical Power Failure
    Nitrogen
    Reverse Flow to a Utility Header
    Use of Hoses
    Survivability of Utilities
    Hazards of Water
    Water in Hydrocarbon Tanks
    Water in Very Hot Liquid
    Static Electricity
    Water and Firefighting
    Hazards of Steam
    Steaming Vessels during Turnaround
    Reboiler Leak
    Wet Steam
    Hazards of Ice
    Line Freezing
    Hydrates
    Hazards of Compressed Gas
    Gas Cylinders
    Pigging Incident
    Hazards of Air
    Flammable Mixture
    Blowing a Line Clear
    Hazards of External Events
    Flooding
    Lightning
    Earthquakes
    Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
    Furnace Firing
    Fired Heater Burnout
    Multiple Uses of Equipment
    Distributed Control Systems
    Hazards of Piping, Valves and Hoses
    Piping
    Pipe Class Transition
    Hydraulic Hammer
    Pig Launchers and Receivers
    Pressure in Relief Headers
    Overload of Overhead Vacuum Lines
    Underground Piping
    Vents and Bleeders
    Hoses
    Hoses and Truck Pull-Away
    Hose Run Over
    Hose Failure
    Backflow Preventor
    Valves
    Blocked-In Pressure Relief Valve
    Vents and Bleeders
    Fail-Safe Control Valves
    Critical Control Valves in Manual
    Shared Relief Valve
    Block Valves below Relief Valves
    SDV Bypass
    Human Error
    Errors of Intent
    Errors of Action
    Mistakes
    Slips
    Fixation
    Error in an Emergency

    Chapter 4 - Consequence and Likelihood Analysis
    Introduction
    Consequence Analysis
    Safety
    Health
    Environmental
    Economic
    Effect of a Release
    Fires
    Flammable Range
    Ignition Temperature / Energy
    Spontaneous Combustion
    Ignition Sources
    Vacuum Trucks
    Radiant Heat
    Static Electricity
    Lightning
    Pyrophorics / Iron Sulfide
    Flammability Hazard Ranking
    Passive Fire Protection / Fireproofing
    Explosions
    Physical Explosions
    Vapor Cloud Explosions
    Deflagrations and Detonations
    Blast Effects
    BLEVEs
    Dust Explosions
    Toxic Gas Releases
    Gas Release Modeling
    Effect of Toxic Gases
    Probit Equations
    Short-Term Exposure Limits
    Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs)
    Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
    Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
    Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
    Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
    Levels of Concern (EPA)
    Acutely Toxic Concentration / Levels (New Jersey/Delaware)
    Substance Hazards Index
    Hazardous Chemicals
    Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    Nitrogen (N2)
    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
    Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
    Chlorine (Cl2)
    Frequency Analysis
    The Pareto Principle
    Importance Ranking
    Fault Tree Analysis
    Gates
    OR Gate
    AND Gate
    VOTING Gate
    Events
    Top Event
    Intermediate Events
    Base Events
    House Event
    Top-Down Development of a Fault Tree
    1. Define the Top Event
    2. Build the Tree
    3. Identify the Cut Sets
    4. Eliminate Repeat Sets
    5. Eliminate Repeat Events in a Set
    6. Eliminate Redundant Events
    7. Quantify the Risk
    Mathematics of an OR Gate
    Mathematics of an AND Gate
    Mathematics of a Voting Gate
    Cut Set Quantification
    8. Risk Rank
    Event Contribution
    Important Few
    Unimportant Many
    Power of the AND Gate
    Importance Equalization
    Cost-Benefit Analysis
    Importance Ranking Using Cut Sets
    Birnbaum Factor Method
    Fussel-Vesely Method
    Perturbation Method
    Common Cause Events
    Utility Failure
    Instruments on Manual
    Instrument Pluggage
    Vibration
    External Events
    Maintenance Availability
    Human Error / Untrained Personnel
    Generic Fault Trees
    Generic Safety Fault Tree
    Generic Reliability Fault Tree
    Discussion of the Fault Tree Method
    Qualitative Fault Tree Analysis
    Event Tree Analysis
    Quantification of an Event Tree
    Scope of Event
    Combining Event Trees and Fault Trees
    Short Sequence of Events
    Many Events
    Partial Success
    Discrete Event Analysis
    Non-Linearities and Complexities
    Conveying Statistical Uncertainty
    Monte Carlo Simulation
    Random Number Generators
    Seed Numbers
    Speeding the Simulation
    Markov Models
    Importance Ranking
    Top-Down / Bottom-Up Approach
    Top-Down
    Bottom-Up
    Qualitative Insights
    Limitations to Quantification
    Mathematical Understanding
    Value-Laden Assumptions
    Lack of Exhaustivity
    Human Behavior
    Data Quality
    Safeguards
    Safeguard Level 1: Normal Operations
    Safeguard Level 2: Procedural Safeguards
    Safeguard Level 3: Safety Instrumented Systems
    Safeguard Level 4: Mechanical Safeguards
    Safeguard Level 5: Passive Safeguards
    Safeguard Level 6: Emergency Response
    Layer of Protection Analysis
    The LOPA Process
    Single Scenarios
    IPLs
    Specific
    Independent
    Dependable
    Auditable
    Human Response
    Implementing LOPA
    Team Makeup
    Timing
    Tools
    Procedures and Inspections
    Risk Criteria
    PFDs
    Failure Rate Data

    Chapter 5 - Technical Information and Industry Standards
    Introduction
    Technical Information: Table of Contents
    Process Description
    Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
    The Safety Diamond
    Engineering Information
    Block Flow Diagrams
    Process Flow Diagrams
    Piping & Instrument Diagrams
    Materials of Construction Table
    Industry Standards
    Types of Standard
    Regulations
    Codes and Industry Standards
    Development of a Standard
    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    American Petroleum Institute
    American Chemistry Council / Responsible Care(TM)
    Center for Chemical Process Safety
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
    International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    Company Standards
    Industry Information
    Open Literature
    RAGAGEP

    Chapter 6 - Asset Integrity
    Introduction
    Siting and Layout
    Blocks and Roads
    Equipment Layout and Spacing
    Pumps
    Utilities
    Piping and Valves
    Drainage
    Buildings
    Area Classification
    Electrical Equipment
    Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
    Fireproofing
    Pressure Vessels
    Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
    Effect of Temperature
    Reflux Vessels
    Small Pipe Connections and Isolation
    Pressure Tests
    Tightness Tests
    Strength Tests
    Test Media
    Testing Procedures
    Storage Tanks
    Operation
    Vapor Recovery Systems
    Pumps
    Protective Instrumentation
    Pump Casing
    Seals and Packing
    Minimum Flow Bypass
    Pump Isolation
    Compressors
    Liquid Knockout on the Compressor Suction
    Relief Valves
    Compressor Isolation
    Shutdown and Alarm Systems
    Heat Exchangers
    Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
    Air-Cooled Exchangers
    Cooling Towers
    Air Preheaters
    Boilers
    Piping and Valves
    Materials
    Insulation
    Gaskets
    Threaded Piping
    Thermal Expansion
    Identification and Labeling of Pipes
    Valves
    Trapped Liquids
    Plugs
    Valve Seat Material
    Self-Closing Valves
    Check Valves
    Emergency Isolation Valves
    Testing and Inspection
    Pressure Relief Devices
    Pressure Safety Relief Valves
    Shared Relief Valves
    Venting from Relief Valves
    Block Valves below Relief Valves
    Testing and Inspection
    Thermal Relief Valves
    Rupture Disks
    Hatches / Doors
    Flame Arrestors
    Thermal Flame Arrestors
    Water Seal-Type Flame Arrestors
    Velocity-Type Flame Arrestors
    Detonation Arrestors
    Flares
    Instrumentation and Control Systems
    Alarms
    Alarm Management
    Interlocks and Trips
    Safety Instrumented Systems
    Design Issues
    Fire Protection
    Quantitative Analysis
    Testing and Inspection
    Internal Combustion Engines
    Starter Systems
    Intake, Exhaust and Fuel Systems
    Buildings
    Process Buildings
    Temporary Buildings
    Control Buildings
    Control Building Laboratories
    Warehouses
    Inside Storage
    Inspection Programs
    Inspection Frequency
    Inspection Records
    Quality Control
    Risk-Based Inspection
    Analyze Risk
    Determine Costs
    Allocate Resources

    Chapter 7 - Reliability, Availability and Maintainability
    Introduction
    Benefits of a RAM Program
    Reliability and Safety
    Definitions
    Reliability
    Availability
    Effectiveness
    Maintainability
    Failure Modes
    Equipment Description
    Primary, Secondary and Command Failures
    Catastrophic, Degraded and Incipient Failures
    Real Failures / Necessary Replacements
    Failure Rates
    Constant / Exponential Distribution
    Lognormal Distribution
    Bathtub Curve
    Early Failures
    Constant Failure Rate
    Wear-Out Failures
    Reliability Block Diagrams
    Active / Standby Redundancy
    Quantification of Block Diagrams
    Failure Rate Data
    Conditional Probability / Bayes' Theorem
    Evaluation of Tests
    Sequential Observations
    Combining Data Sources

    Chapter 8 - Operations, Maintenance and Safety
    Introduction
    Safe Work Practices
    Housekeeping
    Minimizing Contact with Air
    Tank Filling and Emptying
    Catching Samples
    Flame Propagation through Drains
    Spills and Overflows
    Hot Taps
    Unplugging a Line
    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)
    Machinery Safety
    Machine Guards
    Lifting
    Stairways and Ladders
    Stairways and Railings
    Fixed Ladders
    Behavior Based Safety
    Observed Hazard Card
    Five by Five Policy
    Lone Worker Policy
    Energy Control Procedures
    Removal of the Hazard
    Positive Isolation
    Temporary Plugs
    Isolation Techniques
    Level 1 - Closed Valve
    Level 2 - Closed Valve with Open Bleeder
    Level 3 - Double Block and Bleed
    Level 4 - Block and Bleed with Line Break
    Level 5 - Block, Bleed and Spectacle Blind
    Level 6 - Double Block and Bleed with Blind
    Level 7 - Double Block and Bleed with Line Break
    Electrical Isolation
    First Break Policy
    Lockout / Tagout
    Group Lockout
    Car Seals
    Padlocks
    Tags
    Administrative Controls
    Work Permits
    General Work Permits
    Issuance of Permits
    Changes in Conditions
    Multiple Work Permits
    Hot Work Permits
    Confined Space Entry
    Preparation
    Drain Liquids
    Purge and Ventilate
    Steam
    Air
    Test
    The Entry Permit
    Personnel
    Entrant
    Supervisor
    Manway Attendant
    Gas Tester
    Maintenance
    Repair
    Condition-Based Maintenance
    Scheduled Maintenance
    Reliability Centered Maintenance
    Tie-Ins
    Maintenance Task Organization
    Step 1 - Plan the Work
    Step 2 - Conduct a Job Hazards Analysis
    Step 3 - Issue a Work Permit
    Step 4 - Shutdown and Isolate Equipment
    Step 5 - Perform the Work
    Step 6 - Close Out the Work
    Signs
    Prohibition
    Mandatory Action
    Warning
    Safe Condition
    Fire Safety
    Color Coding For Exposed Piping
    Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    Head Protection
    Hand Protection
    Clothing
    Fire Resistant Clothing
    Impervious Clothing
    Foot Protection
    Eye Protection
    Respiratory Protection
    Air-Purifying Respirators
    Supplied Air Respirators
    Chemical Canister Rebreathers
    Portable Gas Detectors
    Office Safety
    Outside Operations
    Outside Storage
    Coal and Coke Storage
    Drum Storage
    Drainage
    Fire Protection and Prevention
    Cylinders
    Loading Racks
    Drum Storage
    Emergency Showers and Eyewashes
    Components of an Emergency Shower
    Freeze Protection
    Heat Protection
    Visibility and Accessibility
    Alarms
    Inspection
    Commissioning and Start-Up
    Construction Complete
    Commissioning
    Operational Readiness Review
    Types of Review
    Review Not Required
    Small Projects / Engineering Changes
    Medium Size Projects
    Large Projects
    Restart Reviews
    Organizational Responsibility
    Time Required
    Team Structure
    Using the Elements of OIM
    Knowledge Management
    Operating Procedures
    Asset Integrity / Reliability
    Training / Performance

    Chapter 9 - Operating Procedures
    Introduction
    Definition of Operating Procedures
    Operations
    Written Instructions
    Design or Operating Intent
    Definition of Maintenance Procedures
    Terminology
    Engineering the Solution
    Quick Assessment of Operating Procedures
    The Users
    Experienced Technicians
    Less Experienced Technicians
    Engineering / Management
    DCS / SCADA Programmers
    Auditors, Regulators and Inspectors
    Translators
    Elements of OIM
    Workforce Involvement
    Knowledge Management
    Hazard Identification and Risk Management
    Management of Change
    Operational Readiness
    Emergency Management
    Information Manual
    Types of Operating Procedure
    Steady-State Operating Procedures
    Types of Steady-State Procedure
    Shift Change
    Start-Up Procedures
    Shutdown Procedures
    Levels of Shutdown
    Stand-By
    Unit Shutdown
    Process Shutdown
    Emergency Shutdown
    Turnaround
    Trouble Shooting Procedures
    Elements of Troubleshooting Procedures
    Guidance - Not Instructions
    Structure of Troubleshooting Procedures
    Temporary Operating Procedures
    Batch Procedures
    Standard Operating Procedures
    Maintenance Procedures
    Job Safe Practices
    The Operating Manual
    Software Analogy
    Modular Design
    Connecting the Modules
    If / Then / Else Instructions
    Modular Operating Manual
    Data Base Structure
    Top-Down Development
    Prototyping
    Limitations of Modularity
    Design of an Operating Manual
    Adding and Removing Modules
    Numbering the Modules
    Module Design
    The Title Block
    Procedure Name
    Module Number
    Purpose of the Procedure
    Revision Number
    Date of Revision
    Covered Persons
    Company / Facility
    Safe Upper and Lower Limits
    Special Safety Items
    Equipment Information
    Training
    The Operating Task Instructions
    Step Number Column
    Person
    Action
    Discussion / Illustration
    The Authorization Block
    Written By
    Approval - Superintendent
    Approval - Manager
    Authorization Sheet
    Overall Module
    Links to Other Procedures and Manuals
    Links to Technical Information
    Training
    Two-Page Modules
    Content Development
    Level of Detail
    Level 1 - Overview / Checklists
    Level 2 - Equipment Description
    Level 3 - Valve Detail
    Sources of Information
    Existing Procedures
    Technician Interviews
    Engineering Information
    Vendor Manuals
    Process Hazards Analyses
    The Procedures-Writing Team
    Writing and Publishing
    Project Organization
    1. Define the Scope of Work
    Physical Area / Equipment Covered
    Users
    Types of Procedure
    Job Task Analysis
    Design of the Manual
    Regulations / Standards
    Writer's Guide
    2. Create the Team
    Steering Committee
    Project Manager
    Project Lead
    Technicians
    Technology Expert
    Interviewer-Writers
    Publisher / Webmaster
    3. Develop a Detailed Plan
    Schedule and Progress Metric
    Budget
    Prepare the SOPs
    4. Collect Information
    Operator Interviews
    Existing Procedures / Vendor Manuals
    Logbooks
    5. Write the Procedures
    Draft Releases
    Plan to Throw One Away - You Will Anyway
    6. Review and Sign
    7. Publish
    Potential Difficulties
    Poorly Defined Goals
    Too Many People
    Extended Review Cycle
    Lack of Signatures
    Maintaining the Procedures
    Procedures Modification Process
    Organization
    Writing Guidelines
    Vigorous Writing
    Minimalist Writing
    Short, Pithy Instructions
    Avoid Repetition of Instructions
    Omit Needless Words
    Omit Adverbs
    Short and Old Words
    Avoid Wordy Phrases and Padded Syllables
    Writing Style
    Imperative Tense
    Active Voice
    Reading Grade Level
    List Instructions Singly
    Implied Instructions
    Bulleted Lists
    Conditional Instructions
    Positive / Negative Instructions
    Vocabulary
    Identification of Equipment
    Consistency
    Should / Would / Could
    The Word "You"
    The Word "This"
    Tautologies
    Arabic Numerals
    Adverbs and Adjectives
    Articles
    Humor
    Spelling
    Latinate Abbreviations
    Apostrophes
    Ambiguous Words
    Cobblestone Writing
    Repetition of Messages
    Danger, Warning, Caution, Note
    Proofreader Marks
    Illustrations
    Photographs
    P&IDs
    Iconic Flow Diagrams
    Maps / Plot Plans
    Publishing
    Color
    White Space
    Fonts
    Paragraph Formatting
    Emphasis Techniques
    Heading
    Page Numbering
    Single-Sided versus Double-Sided Printing
    Indexing
    Glossary
    The Binder
    Multiple Languages

    Chapter 10 - Training and Competence 
    Introduction
    Elements of a Training Program
    Orientation
    Initial / Basic Training
    Site Training
    Abnormal Situation Management
    Refresher Training
    Procedures and Training
    Management of a Training Program
    Training Matrix
    Budget Allocation
    Measuring Progress
    Economics of Training
    Process Simulators and Emulators
    Testing and Certification

    Chapter 11 - Emergency Management and Security
    Introduction
    Human Response
    Human Error Rate
    Fixation
    Heroism and Buddy Loyalty
    Trouble Shooting
    Levels of Emergency
    Cause of Emergency
    Emergency Operations
    Local Emergency Response
    General Emergency Response
    Recovery Operations
    Investigation and Follow Up
    Emergency Planning
    Organization and Personnel
    Emergency Response Manual
    Emergency Procedures
    Emergency Response Training
    Communications
    Fire and Gas Detection
    Fire Detection
    Fire Eyes / Flame Detectors
    Smoke Detectors
    Heat Detectors
    Fusible Links
    Low Oxygen Detectors
    Combustible Gas Detectors
    Manual Call Points
    Toxic Gas Releases
    Fire Fighting
    Single Fire Concept
    Deluge Systems
    Fire Zones
    Fire Water
    Water Capacity and Rates
    Sources of Fire Water
    Testing
    Fire Water Pumps and Drivers
    Jockey Pumps
    Main Fire Pumps
    Fixed Water Spray Systems
    Automatic Sprinkler Systems
    Fire Water Monitors
    Fire Water Distribution System
    Materials of Construction
    Layout
    Valves
    Hydrants
    Other Fire Fighting Media
    Halon
    Steam
    Foam Systems
    Carbon Dioxide Systems
    Heavy Equipment
    Portable Fire Extinguishers
    Location
    Types
    Water Extinguishers
    Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
    Dry Chemical Extinguishers
    Personnel Protective Equipment
    Bunker Gear / Turnout Clothing
    Proximity Suits
    Breathing Apparatus
    Security
    Members of the Public
    Vandalism
    Theft
    Activists
    Sabotage
    Terrorism
    Visible Security
    Population Density
    High Profile
    Chemicals
    Security Vulnerability Analyses
    Rings of Protection
    Improving Security
    Culture
    Inherent Safety
    Access Security
    Personnel Screening
    Equipment Modifications
    Response to a Threatening Call

    Chapter 12 - Incident Investigation and Root Cause Analysis
    Introduction
    Management Level
    Line Supervision
    Facility Management
    Executive Management
    Industry Regulations and Standards
    Incident Investigation and Analysis Philosophy
    Trust and Candor
    Listen to the Facts
    Cause and Effect
    Technical Expertise
    Root Cause Analysis
    Project Management
    Blame and Fault-Finding
    Management Trust
    Early Reporting of Bad News
    Management Pressure
    No Good Deed Goes Unpunished
    Communications
    Definitions
    Incident
    Accident
    Near Miss / Hit
    Potential Incident
    High Potential Incident
    Six-Step Investigation and Analysis Process
    Step 1 - Initial Investigation
    Step 2 - Evaluation and Team Formation
    Step 3 - Information Gathering
    Step 4 - Timeline Development
    Step 5 - Root Cause Analysis
    Step 6 - Report and Recommendations
    1. Initial Investigation
    The "Go Team"
    Drug and Alcohol Testing
    Incident Report Form
    First Management Report
    2. Evaluation and Team Formation
    Evaluation
    Team Formation
    Outside Investigators
    Corporate Support
    Team Members
    Charter / Terms of Reference
    Team Member Qualifications
    3. Information Gathering
    Interviews
    Interview Guidelines
    Regulatory / Legal Interviews
    Witness Interviews
    Interviewer Attributes
    Documentation
    Engineering Information
    Operating Information
    Vendor Data
    Field Information
    Damage Assessment
    Photographs and DVDs
    Closed Circuit Television
    Instrument Records
    Testing / Lab Analysis
    4. Timeline Development
    Timeline Steps
    Timeline Construction
    Conditions
    Multiple Timelines
    Timeline Table
    Background Information
    5. Root Cause Analysis
    Levels of Root Cause
    Types of Root Cause Analysis
    Argument by Analogy: Story Telling
    Safeguards
    Categorization
    System Analysis
    Why Trees
    Fault Tree Analysis
    Linkage of Fault Trees to the Timeline
    Common Cause Events
    6. Report and Recommendations
    Levels of Recommendation
    Report Structure
    Issuing the Report
    Information Security and Chain of Custody
    Record Retention
    Removing Evidence
    File Systems
    Incident / Risk Register
    Feedback
    Incident Data Bases
    National Response Center (NRC)
    Accidental Release Information Program (ARIP) Database
    CFOI (Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries)
    Major Accident Reporting System (MARS)
    Marsh & McLennan Reviews
    Annual Loss Prevention Symposia
    Process Safety Beacon
    Government Agencies

    Chapter 13 - Management of Change
    Introduction
    Benefits of Management of Change
    Increased Production, Productivity and Quality
    Maintenance Expense and Safety
    Environmental Performance
    Personal Reputation
    Definition of MOC
    Deviation beyond Limits
    Impact on other Process Safety Elements
    Critical Changes
    In-Kind / Not-In-Kind Change
    Same Specification
    Same Service and Materials of Construction
    Same Storage and Handling Process
    Procedural Replacement
    Process Chemistry
    Instrumentation and Control Systems
    Types of Change
    Initiated Equipment Change
    Large and Small Changes
    Turnarounds
    Field Change
    Non-Initiated Equipment Change
    Overt Change
    Covert Change
    Temporary Changes
    Emergency Changes
    Organizational Change
    Reorganization
    Management by Contractors
    Informal Aspects of MOC
    The Management of Change Process
    Section A - Initiator Request
    Initiator
    Sponsor
    Request Process
    Management of Change Form - Section A
    Section B - First Review
    In-Kind / Not-In-Kind Change
    Selecting the First Reviewers
    Management of Change Form - Section B
    Section C - Detailed Evaluation
    Review Process
    MOC Coordinator
    Review Team
    Builders
    Project Team
    Software
    Reviewers
    Qualifications
    Recommendations
    Management of Change Form - Section C
    Section D - Formal Approval
    Management of Change Committee
    Process Hazards Analysis
    Variance Procedures
    Section E - New Limits / Process Safety Update
    Section F - Notification
    Section G - Implementation
    Section H - Follow-Up

    Chapter 14 - Audits and Assessments
    Introduction
    Formal Audits
    Reasons for Audits
    Accident Follow-Up
    Regulatory / Standards Compliance
    Voluntary Check
    Insurance and Business Security
    Audit Standards
    Regulations
    Industry Standards
    Internal Standards
    Audit Personnel
    Outside Auditors
    Internal Auditors
    Team Composition
    Auditor Attributes
    Interview Skills
    Technical Knowledge
    Writing Skills
    Demeanor
    The Host Company
    First Impressions
    Employees
    Planning the Audit
    Goals
    Determine the Audit Standard
    Scope
    Budget
    Schedule
    One-Point Contact
    Pre-Audit Activities
    Audit Forms
    Conducting the Audit
    Auditor Preparation
    Kick Off Meeting
    Plant Tour
    Information Collection
    Interviews
    On-Site Inspection
    Close-Out Meeting
    Report
    Letter of Certification
    Audit Verification
    Findings
    Follow Up
    Unannounced Audits
    Lagging and Leading Indicators
    Lagging Indicators
    Leading Indicators
    Limitations
    Quality of Reporting
    Management Elements
    Reviews and Expert Assessments
    Review Issues
    Management Systems Effectiveness
    Workforce Involvement
    Real World Usefulness
    "Learned to Live with It" Problems
    Lessons Learned
    Reviewer Attributes
    Management Elements Assessment
    Level 1 - Risk Management
    Level 2 - Management Element Spreadsheet
    Level 3 - Detailed Questions
    Scoring Template
    Guidance
    Benefits of the Elements Assessment Approach
    Independent of Events
    Handling Abstraction
    Smoothing of Results
    Objectivity
    Chapter 15 - Process Safety Management Compliance
    Introduction
    Regulations, Standards and Guidance
    Rules and Regulations
    Rule-Based Approach
    Goal-Driven Approach
    Codes and Standards
    Guidance
    Analysis
    United States Federal Regulations
    The Regulatory Process
    Code of Federal Regulations
    General Duty Clauses
    The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
    OSHA Inspections
    Variances
    Enforcement
    The Entry Process
    Reasons for Entry
    Fatality / Catastrophe
    Programmed Inspections
    Complaints
    Citations
    Willful
    Serious
    Other-than-Serious
    Repeat and Failure-to-Abate
    OSHA Standards
    Part 29
    Subparts of Part 29
    Sections of Subparts
    Interpretations and Guidance
    The EPA Risk Management Program - 40 CFR 68
    Tiering / Program Levels
    Covered Chemicals
    Formal Management System
    Worst Case Release
    Emergency Plan
    Five-Year Accident History
    State Regulations
    New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act
    Delaware/Nevada
    Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board
    Minerals Management Service (MMS)
    The Safety Case Regime
    Elements of a Safety Case
    Duty-Holder Responsibility
    Responsibility of the Auditor / Assessor
    Risk Management System
    Management Systems
    Living Document
    Structure of a Safety Case
    1. Facility Description
    2. Safety Management System
    3. Formal Safety Assessment
    Preparation and Implementation
    Assessment
    Performance Measurement
    International Agencies
    The OSHA PSM Standard
    Covered Processes
    Other Standards
    Audit Guidelines
    Elements of PSM
    1. Employee Participation
    Written Plan of Action
    Consultation
    Access to Information
    2. Process Safety Information
    3. Process Hazards Analysis
    Initial Hazard Analysis
    Methodology
    Issues to Address
    Team
    Revalidation
    4. Operating Procedures
    Written Down
    Initial Start-Up
    Temporary and Emergency Operations
    Certification
    5. Training
    6. Contractors
    Application
    Employer Responsibilities
    7. Prestartup Safety Review (PSSR)
    Process Safety Information
    Construction and Equipment
    Procedures
    New / Modified Facilities
    8. Mechanical Integrity
    Application
    Written Procedures
    Training
    Inspection and Testing
    Deficiencies
    Quality Assurance
    9. Hot Work
    10. Management of Change
    Employer Responsibility
    Written Down
    Replacement In-Kind
    Factors that Affect Change
    Training and Participation / Accountability
    Information Base
    Operating Procedures
    Making the Change
    Training / PSI / Operating Procedures
    11. Incident Investigation
    Investigation
    Timing
    Team
    Report
    Follow Up
    Participation
    12. Emergency Planning and Response
    13. Compliance Audits
    Certification
    Technical Qualifications
    Report
    Response
    Retention of Reports
    14. Trade Secrets
    Chapter 16 - Managing a Risk and Reliability Program
    Introduction
    Clients / Customers
    Senior Management
    Facility Managers
    Project Managers and Design Engineers
    Regulators / Auditors
    Program Organization
    Step 1 - Determine the Objectives
    Step 2 - Set Up an Organization
    Management
    Steering Committee
    Coordinator
    Sub-Committees
    Operating Binders
    Step 3 - Create the Metrics and Baseline
    Step 4 - Develop a Plan
    Goals
    Resources Needed
    Develop a Schedule
    Reviews and Signatures
    Step 5 - Implement the Plan
    Step 6 - Audit / Improve
    Risk Management on Projects
    Phase I - Concept Selection
    Phase II - Preliminary Engineering
    Philosophies
    Hazards Analysis
    Phase III - Detailed Engineering
    Phase IV - Fabrication and Construction
    Phase V - Commissioning and Start-Up
    The Risk Management Professional
    Education and Certification
    Technical Knowledge
    Personal Attributes
    Holistic
    Eclectic
    Numerate
    Communication Skills
    Experience
    Knowledge of Past Events
    "Who You Know"
    The Resume / CV
    Consultants
    True Expertise
    The Consultant as Outsider
    Consultants - Not Doers
    Quick Study
    Role of the Client
    Communication
    Presentations
    Meetings
    Report Writing
    Draft Report
    Language of the Report
    Completeness / Thoroughness
    Personal Information
    Anecdotes
    Writing Style
    Non-Emotional Language
    Minimalist Writing - Make Every Word Tell
    Omit Needless Words
    Short, Simple Words
    Minimize "Soft" Materials
    Eschew Obfuscation
    Develop a Theme
    Modifiers
    No Typos
    Date Format
    Active/Passive Voice
    He / She
    You / I
    Choice of Words
    Use of Humor
    Copyright
    Responsible Document Creation
    Litigation Support
    Types of Litigation
    The Discovery Process
    Depositions
    Witnesses to Fact
    The Expert Witness
    Acceptance by the Court
    Prior Testimony
    Timeline / Story Line
    The Report
    Attributes of an Expert Witness
    To Thine Own Self Be True
    Be Prepared
    Be a True Expert
    Be a Teacher
    Marketing
    Privilege

     

     

Product details

  • No. of pages: 856
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2010
  • Published: April 9, 2010
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437778069

About the Author

Ian Sutton

Ian Sutton is a chemical engineer with over thirty years of experience in the process industries. He has worked on the design and operation of chemical plants, offshore platforms, refineries, pipelines and mineral processing facilities. He has extensive experience in the development and implementation of process safety management and operational excellence programs. He has published multiple books including Process Risk and Reliability Management, 2nd Edition and Offshore Safety Management, 2nd Edition, both published by Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal, Sutton Technical Books

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