Proceedings of the Conference on Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483213446, 9781483226873

Proceedings of the Conference on Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant

1st Edition

Volume 8.4

Editors: S. H. Jenkins
eBook ISBN: 9781483226873
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 772
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Table of Contents


Introduction

Chapter 1. Microbial Transformations of Inorganic Nitrogen

Summary

The Main Processes

Fixation of Elementary Nitrogen

in Pure Cultures

Fixation in the Aqueous Environment

Nitrification

in Pure Cultures

Nitrification in the Aqueous Environment

Nitrate Metabolism

in Pure Cultures

Nitrate Reduction in the Aqueous Environment

Discussion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 2. The Analysis of Nitrogen Forms in Waters and Wastewaters

Summary

Introduction

Ammonia Nitrogen

Total and Organic Nitrogen

Nitrite

Nitrate

References

Chapter 3. Sources of Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant: Industrial Waste Water

Relative Importance-of-Various-Sources

Industrial Nitrogen Sources

Nitrogen Discharges from the Forest Industry

Fertilizer Industry

The Most Important Nitrogen Discharges

Food Processing Industry

Summing-up

References

Chapter 4. Nitrogen in Organic Matter and Fertilizer as a Source of Pollution

Summary

Methods of Research

Fate of Nitrogen in Soil

Nitrogen Available to Crops

N-Losses by Leaching

N - Losses in Subsoil

Indirect Effect of Fertilizer Nitrogen on N-Leaching Losses

Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Nutrient Discharge from a 90 Km2 Watershed

Introduction

Description of Watershed

Measurements

Data Treatment

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6. The Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Stream Nitrate Concentrations near Alliston, Ontario, Canada

Introduction

Study Area

Study Methods

Results

Discussion

Comparisons of Stream Nitrate Levels in 1972 and 1974

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 7. Long Term Studies on Nitrogen in Two Reservoirs Related to Field Fertilization

Summary

Introduction

Localities

Method

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 8. The Contribution of Nutrient from Diffuse Sources

Summary

Methods

Yearly Variation and Average of Nutrient Flux

Analysis of the Two Point Measurements in Nørreåen

Discussion

Notation

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 9. Nitrate Reduction in the Subsoil

Summary

Introduction

Nitrate Reduction in Soils

Description of the Soil Profiles

Chemical Analyses of the Profiles

Physical Analyses of the Profiles

Nitrate Reduction Experiments

Conclusion

Literature

Chapter 10. Simple Methods of Predicting The Leaching of Nitrate from the Root Zone

Summary

Theory

Results and Discussion

References

Chapter 11. Denitrification in Soils Intermittently Flooded with Sewage Water

Summary

Procedure

Results and Discussion

References

Chapter 12. The Immobilization of Nitrogen in a Water-Sediment System by Denitrifying Bacteria as A Result of Nitrate Respiration

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results and Discussion

References

Chapter 13. A Procedure for the Prediction of Nitrate Levels in Water Supplies in the United Kingdom

Summary

Current Situation in the United Kingdom

Method of Approach to the Problem

Processes Which Control Nitrogen Additions and Losses

Processes Which Control The Rate of Nitrate Movement

Nitrogen and the Water Resource System

Availability and Reliability of Data

Estimation of Nitrate Levels in a Typical Chalk Catchment

Data Requirement

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 14. Joint FAO/IAEA/Federal Republic of Germany International Coordinated Program of Research on Agricultural Nitrogen Residues with Particular Reference to their Conservation as Fertilizers and Behavior as Potential Pollutant

Introduction

Background

Current Status and Objectives

Chapter 15. Infant Methemoglobinemia and Other Health Effects of Nitrates in Drinking Water

Summary

Nitrate Standards in Drinking Water

General aspects of Methemoglobinemia

Pathogenesis of Methemoglobinemia

Research Program in Israel

Nitrosamines

Conclusions

References

Chapter 16. N-Nitroso Compounds, Nitrite, and Nitrate: Possible Implications for the Causation of Human Cancer

Summary

Introduction

Carcinogenicity of NNO-Compounds

Analysis of Food for NNO-Compounds

Chemical Formation of NNO-Compounds

Formation of NNO-Compounds in Vivo and by Bacteria

Epidemiology

Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Nitrification and Other Factors Affecting Nitrogen in the Holston River

Factors Affecting Nitrification in the Holston River

Impact of Nitrogen Discharges into Cherokee Reservoir

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 18. Origin and Variation of Nitrate Nitrogen in the Chalk Springs, Streams and Rivers in Dorset and Its Utilisation by Higher Plants

Introduction

The Study Area

Hydrogeology

Higher Plants

Methods

Results

References

Chapter 19. Time Series Analysis of Ammonia in the Passaic River

Introduction

Time Series Analysis

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix I - References

Appendix II - Notation

Chapter 20. Statistical assessment of Inorganic Nitrogen in a Small River System

I. Introduction

References

Chapter 21. Nitrogen as a Growth Factor in Fresh Water

Summary

Forms and Amounts of N in Water

N Sources Utilized in Aquatic Production

Organic N Sources

Inorganic N Sources

N Uptake by Macrophytes

Amounts of N in Water Plants

N as The Most Growth Limiting Nutrient

Research Needs

References

Chapter 22. Nitrogena Growth Limiting Nutrient in Eutrophic Lakes

Summary

Methods

Background Data

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 23. Nitrogen as Limiting Factor for the Growth of the Blue-Green Alga Oscillatoria Agardhii

Summary

Model

Materials and Methods

Discussion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 24. Nitrogen Regime of Shallow Eutrophic Lakes on the Canadian Prairies

Abstract

Introduction

Study Area and Methods

Variations in the Nitrogen, Dissolved Oxygen and Biomass Content of Three Selected Prairie Lakes

Correlations between Various Parameters

Discussion

References

Chapter 25. A Real Time Model of Nitrogen-Cycle Dynamics in an Estuarine System

Formulation of Nitrogen-Cycle Model

References

Chapter 26. Kinetics of Nitrogen-Limited Algal Growth

Summary

Mathematical Model for Growth

Uptake Kinetics

Combined Model for Growth and Uptake

Discussion and Conclusion

Nomenclature

Greek Letters

References

Chapter 27. Nitrogen Fixation-A Review of This Phenomenon as a Polluting Process

N2-Fixation in Watersheds

N9-Fixation and Lake Eutrophication

Effects of N2-Fixation on Other Aquatic Environments: Streams, Estuaries, and Marshes

Why and If N2-Fixation is A Polluting Or Eutrophying Factor in Various Ecosystems

The Suppression of N2-Fixation in Aquatic Ecosystems

References

Chapter 28. Denitrification in Natural Waters

Summary

Microbiology and Biochemistry

Environmental Requirements for Denitrification

Other Mechanisms for the Production of Nitrogen Gases

Measurement of Denitrification

Nitrate Reduction (Immobilization)

Occurrence and Importance of Denitrification in Natural Waters

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 29. A Review of the Literature on Sediment: Water Exchange of Nitrogen Compounds

Incorporation of Nitrogen in the Sediment

The Nitrogen in the Sediment

Ammonification

Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrification

Denitrification

Transport Mechanisms

Final Remarks

References

Chapter 30. Nitrogen Transformation in Lakes

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 31. Aquatic Nitrogen Determinations in Real-Time

Summary

I. Need for Quick Analysis of Nitrogen in Water

Ii. Nitrogenous Chemical Forms in Wastewaters

Iii. Description of Real-Time Measurement Techniques

V. Discussion

Vi. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 32. Optical Method for Determination of Nitrogen-15 Abundance

Sample Preparation

Optical Measurement

Limits of Analysis

References



Chapter 33. Nitrogen Oxidation and Removal Efficiency Using Activated Algae

Summary

Fundamental Basis

Methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgment

Conclusions

References

Chapter 34. Nitrogen Control: A Basis for Design with Activated Sludge Systems

Summary

Pilot Plant Design and Operation

Discussion of Results

Design Considerations

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 35. Intensification of the Ammonia Oxidation in a Sandbed Filter

Introduction

Experimental Procedures

Results

Summary

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 36. Nitrogen Control by Means of the Mono, Intermediate Or Dual (Mid) Step Biological Nitrification Process

Abstract

Introduction

Description

Operation

Examples of Mid Step Nitrification Plants

References

Chapter 37. Biological Denitrification of Sewage: A Literature Review

1.Introduction

2. Biochemistry and Microbiology

3. Important Environmental Factors

4. Technological Alternatives for Biological Denitrification

5. Sludge Characteristics and Treatment

6. Economical Comparison of Approaches to Biological Denitrification

7. Conclusion

References

Chapter 38. Pilot-Scale Experiments on down-Flow Filter Denitrifitcation

Summary

Theory for Filter Purification

Eksperimental Arrangement

Filter Performance

Kinetic Results

Conclusion

Nomenclature

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 39. Sources of Hydrogen Donors and their Effects on Denitrification Rates

The Use of Internal Carbon for Denitrification

Denitrification Rates

Effect of the Denitrification Rates on Process Selection

Minimal Organic Carbon Requirements for Denitrification

Denitrification of Lime Pre-Treated Sewage

Biological Considerations

Phosphate Removal

Treatment Cost

Summary

References

Chapter 40. Combined Sludge Denitrification of Sewage Utilizing Internal Carbon Sources

Summary

Experiments

Theory

Discussion of Results

Sludge Characteristics

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 41. Simultaneous Removal of Nitrogen and Organics in a New Activated Sludge Process

Summary

Theoretical Background

The System

Experimental

Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 42. Combined Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in a Low Loaded Activated Sludge System Operating on Oxidation Ditch Principles

Summary

1. Introduction

2. Principles of the Present Process

3. Description of the 500 P.E. Plant of Tno Delft

4. Results and Discussion

5. Conclusions

Literature

Chapter 43. Removal of Nitrogen by Simultaneous Nitrification - Denitrification in An Activated Sludge Plant with Mammoth Rotor Aeration

The Vienna Blumental Treatment Plant

Nitrogen Removal Investigations

Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 44. Modification of Extended Aeration Plants in Johannesburg, South Africa, to Achieve Denitrification

Summary

1. Description of the Alexandra Plant

2. Plant Operation for Complete Nitrification

3. Plant Operation during Denitrification

4. Mechanism of Denitrification

5. Control of Denitrification

6. Application of the Findings at Alexandra Works to the Olifantsvlei Works

8. Addititional Advantages of a Denitrified Effluent

9. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 45. Nitrification and Denitrification in Carrousel Systems

Summary

1. Introduction

2. Nitrogen Removal in Carrousel Type Oxidation Ditches

3. Treatment Results of the Carrousel Type Oxidation Ditch in Winterswijk

4. aspects of N-Removal in a Carrousel Aeration Unit

5. Bench Scale Laboratory Tests

6. Recent Design of Carrousel Installations

7. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 46. An Example of Design of Activated Sludge Plants with Denitrification

Summary.

Bio-Denitro Method

The Design of the Test Plant

Oxygen Demand

Parallel versus - Serial Operation

Tests at Bramdrupdam

Discussion of the Results

Temperature

Detention Time

Simultaneous Precipitation

Length of Phases.

Laboratory Experiments.

Planning of Plants.

Costs.

Conclusion.

References.

Chapter 47. Development and Implementation of Biological Denitripication for Two Large Plants

Summary

Introduction

Attached Growth Denitrification Process

Suspended Growth Denitrification

References

Chapter 48. Anaerobic Columnar Denitrification of High Nitrate Wastewater

Abstract

Theory and Method of Expressing Denitrification Rates

Materials and Methods

Results and Discussion

Denitrification Kinetics

Methanol Utilization

Summary and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Literature Cited

Chapter 49.A Review of Physical-Chemical Methods for Nitrogen Removal from Wastewaters

Summary

General Process Descriptions

Research Needs - Knowledge Gaps

References

Chapter 50. New Method for Removal of Nitrogen from Waste Water

Introduction

Material and Methods

Results

Discussion

Output

Conclusion

References

Chapter 51. Ammonia Removal by Physical-Chemical Treatment

Summary

Objectives

Methodology

Results

Discussion of Results

Costs

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 52. Performance Analysis of the Primary Treatment of Wastewater from A Large Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant

Summary

Description of Treatment Plant

Wastewater Characterization

Treatment Plant Performance

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene International Association on Water Pollution Research and the Institution of Civil Engineers Announce a Symposium on Engineering, Science and Medicine in the Prevention of Tropical Water-Related Disease


Details

No. of pages:
772
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483226873

About the Editor

S. H. Jenkins