Proceedings of the Conference on Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant

Proceedings of the Conference on Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant

Volume 8.4

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editor: S. H. Jenkins
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483226873

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Description

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Chapter 1. Microbial Transformations of Inorganic Nitrogen

    Summary

    The Main Processes

    Fixation of Elementary Nitrogen

    in Pure Cultures

    Fixation in the Aqueous Environment

    Nitrification

    in Pure Cultures

    Nitrification in the Aqueous Environment

    Nitrate Metabolism

    in Pure Cultures

    Nitrate Reduction in the Aqueous Environment

    Discussion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 2. The Analysis of Nitrogen Forms in Waters and Wastewaters

    Summary

    Introduction

    Ammonia Nitrogen

    Total and Organic Nitrogen

    Nitrite

    Nitrate

    References

    Chapter 3. Sources of Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant: Industrial Waste Water

    Relative Importance-of-Various-Sources

    Industrial Nitrogen Sources

    Nitrogen Discharges from the Forest Industry

    Fertilizer Industry

    The Most Important Nitrogen Discharges

    Food Processing Industry

    Summing-up

    References

    Chapter 4. Nitrogen in Organic Matter and Fertilizer as a Source of Pollution

    Summary

    Methods of Research

    Fate of Nitrogen in Soil

    Nitrogen Available to Crops

    N-Losses by Leaching

    N - Losses in Subsoil

    Indirect Effect of Fertilizer Nitrogen on N-Leaching Losses

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Nutrient Discharge from a 90 Km2 Watershed

    Introduction

    Description of Watershed

    Measurements

    Data Treatment

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6. The Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Stream Nitrate Concentrations near Alliston, Ontario, Canada

    Introduction

    Study Area

    Study Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Comparisons of Stream Nitrate Levels in 1972 and 1974

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 7. Long Term Studies on Nitrogen in Two Reservoirs Related to Field Fertilization

    Summary

    Introduction

    Localities

    Method

    Results

    Discussion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 8. The Contribution of Nutrient from Diffuse Sources

    Summary

    Methods

    Yearly Variation and Average of Nutrient Flux

    Analysis of the Two Point Measurements in Nørreåen

    Discussion

    Notation

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 9. Nitrate Reduction in the Subsoil

    Summary

    Introduction

    Nitrate Reduction in Soils

    Description of the Soil Profiles

    Chemical Analyses of the Profiles

    Physical Analyses of the Profiles

    Nitrate Reduction Experiments

    Conclusion

    Literature

    Chapter 10. Simple Methods of Predicting The Leaching of Nitrate from the Root Zone

    Summary

    Theory

    Results and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 11. Denitrification in Soils Intermittently Flooded with Sewage Water

    Summary

    Procedure

    Results and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 12. The Immobilization of Nitrogen in a Water-Sediment System by Denitrifying Bacteria as A Result of Nitrate Respiration

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Results and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 13. A Procedure for the Prediction of Nitrate Levels in Water Supplies in the United Kingdom

    Summary

    Current Situation in the United Kingdom

    Method of Approach to the Problem

    Processes Which Control Nitrogen Additions and Losses

    Processes Which Control The Rate of Nitrate Movement

    Nitrogen and the Water Resource System

    Availability and Reliability of Data

    Estimation of Nitrate Levels in a Typical Chalk Catchment

    Data Requirement

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 14. Joint FAO/IAEA/Federal Republic of Germany International Coordinated Program of Research on Agricultural Nitrogen Residues with Particular Reference to their Conservation as Fertilizers and Behavior as Potential Pollutant

    Introduction

    Background

    Current Status and Objectives

    Chapter 15. Infant Methemoglobinemia and Other Health Effects of Nitrates in Drinking Water

    Summary

    Nitrate Standards in Drinking Water

    General aspects of Methemoglobinemia

    Pathogenesis of Methemoglobinemia

    Research Program in Israel

    Nitrosamines

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 16. N-Nitroso Compounds, Nitrite, and Nitrate: Possible Implications for the Causation of Human Cancer

    Summary

    Introduction

    Carcinogenicity of NNO-Compounds

    Analysis of Food for NNO-Compounds

    Chemical Formation of NNO-Compounds

    Formation of NNO-Compounds in Vivo and by Bacteria

    Epidemiology

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 17. Nitrification and Other Factors Affecting Nitrogen in the Holston River

    Factors Affecting Nitrification in the Holston River

    Impact of Nitrogen Discharges into Cherokee Reservoir

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 18. Origin and Variation of Nitrate Nitrogen in the Chalk Springs, Streams and Rivers in Dorset and Its Utilisation by Higher Plants

    Introduction

    The Study Area

    Hydrogeology

    Higher Plants

    Methods

    Results

    References

    Chapter 19. Time Series Analysis of Ammonia in the Passaic River

    Introduction

    Time Series Analysis

    Summary and Conclusions

    Appendix I - References

    Appendix II - Notation

    Chapter 20. Statistical assessment of Inorganic Nitrogen in a Small River System

    I. Introduction

    References

    Chapter 21. Nitrogen as a Growth Factor in Fresh Water

    Summary

    Forms and Amounts of N in Water

    N Sources Utilized in Aquatic Production

    Organic N Sources

    Inorganic N Sources

    N Uptake by Macrophytes

    Amounts of N in Water Plants

    N as The Most Growth Limiting Nutrient

    Research Needs

    References

    Chapter 22. Nitrogena Growth Limiting Nutrient in Eutrophic Lakes

    Summary

    Methods

    Background Data

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 23. Nitrogen as Limiting Factor for the Growth of the Blue-Green Alga Oscillatoria Agardhii

    Summary

    Model

    Materials and Methods

    Discussion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 24. Nitrogen Regime of Shallow Eutrophic Lakes on the Canadian Prairies

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Study Area and Methods

    Variations in the Nitrogen, Dissolved Oxygen and Biomass Content of Three Selected Prairie Lakes

    Correlations between Various Parameters

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 25. A Real Time Model of Nitrogen-Cycle Dynamics in an Estuarine System

    Formulation of Nitrogen-Cycle Model

    References

    Chapter 26. Kinetics of Nitrogen-Limited Algal Growth

    Summary

    Mathematical Model for Growth

    Uptake Kinetics

    Combined Model for Growth and Uptake

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Nomenclature

    Greek Letters

    References

    Chapter 27. Nitrogen Fixation-A Review of This Phenomenon as a Polluting Process

    N2-Fixation in Watersheds

    N9-Fixation and Lake Eutrophication

    Effects of N2-Fixation on Other Aquatic Environments: Streams, Estuaries, and Marshes

    Why and If N2-Fixation is A Polluting Or Eutrophying Factor in Various Ecosystems

    The Suppression of N2-Fixation in Aquatic Ecosystems

    References

    Chapter 28. Denitrification in Natural Waters

    Summary

    Microbiology and Biochemistry

    Environmental Requirements for Denitrification

    Other Mechanisms for the Production of Nitrogen Gases

    Measurement of Denitrification

    Nitrate Reduction (Immobilization)

    Occurrence and Importance of Denitrification in Natural Waters

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 29. A Review of the Literature on Sediment: Water Exchange of Nitrogen Compounds

    Incorporation of Nitrogen in the Sediment

    The Nitrogen in the Sediment

    Ammonification

    Nitrogen Fixation

    Nitrification

    Denitrification

    Transport Mechanisms

    Final Remarks

    References

    Chapter 30. Nitrogen Transformation in Lakes

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 31. Aquatic Nitrogen Determinations in Real-Time

    Summary

    I. Need for Quick Analysis of Nitrogen in Water

    Ii. Nitrogenous Chemical Forms in Wastewaters

    Iii. Description of Real-Time Measurement Techniques

    V. Discussion

    Vi. Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 32. Optical Method for Determination of Nitrogen-15 Abundance

    Sample Preparation

    Optical Measurement

    Limits of Analysis

    References



    Chapter 33. Nitrogen Oxidation and Removal Efficiency Using Activated Algae

    Summary

    Fundamental Basis

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Acknowledgment

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 34. Nitrogen Control: A Basis for Design with Activated Sludge Systems

    Summary

    Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    Discussion of Results

    Design Considerations

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 35. Intensification of the Ammonia Oxidation in a Sandbed Filter

    Introduction

    Experimental Procedures

    Results

    Summary

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 36. Nitrogen Control by Means of the Mono, Intermediate Or Dual (Mid) Step Biological Nitrification Process

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Description

    Operation

    Examples of Mid Step Nitrification Plants

    References

    Chapter 37. Biological Denitrification of Sewage: A Literature Review

    1.Introduction

    2. Biochemistry and Microbiology

    3. Important Environmental Factors

    4. Technological Alternatives for Biological Denitrification

    5. Sludge Characteristics and Treatment

    6. Economical Comparison of Approaches to Biological Denitrification

    7. Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 38. Pilot-Scale Experiments on down-Flow Filter Denitrifitcation

    Summary

    Theory for Filter Purification

    Eksperimental Arrangement

    Filter Performance

    Kinetic Results

    Conclusion

    Nomenclature

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 39. Sources of Hydrogen Donors and their Effects on Denitrification Rates

    The Use of Internal Carbon for Denitrification

    Denitrification Rates

    Effect of the Denitrification Rates on Process Selection

    Minimal Organic Carbon Requirements for Denitrification

    Denitrification of Lime Pre-Treated Sewage

    Biological Considerations

    Phosphate Removal

    Treatment Cost

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 40. Combined Sludge Denitrification of Sewage Utilizing Internal Carbon Sources

    Summary

    Experiments

    Theory

    Discussion of Results

    Sludge Characteristics

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 41. Simultaneous Removal of Nitrogen and Organics in a New Activated Sludge Process

    Summary

    Theoretical Background

    The System

    Experimental

    Results and Discussion

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 42. Combined Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in a Low Loaded Activated Sludge System Operating on Oxidation Ditch Principles

    Summary

    1. Introduction

    2. Principles of the Present Process

    3. Description of the 500 P.E. Plant of Tno Delft

    4. Results and Discussion

    5. Conclusions

    Literature

    Chapter 43. Removal of Nitrogen by Simultaneous Nitrification - Denitrification in An Activated Sludge Plant with Mammoth Rotor Aeration

    The Vienna Blumental Treatment Plant

    Nitrogen Removal Investigations

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 44. Modification of Extended Aeration Plants in Johannesburg, South Africa, to Achieve Denitrification

    Summary

    1. Description of the Alexandra Plant

    2. Plant Operation for Complete Nitrification

    3. Plant Operation during Denitrification

    4. Mechanism of Denitrification

    5. Control of Denitrification

    6. Application of the Findings at Alexandra Works to the Olifantsvlei Works

    8. Addititional Advantages of a Denitrified Effluent

    9. Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 45. Nitrification and Denitrification in Carrousel Systems

    Summary

    1. Introduction

    2. Nitrogen Removal in Carrousel Type Oxidation Ditches

    3. Treatment Results of the Carrousel Type Oxidation Ditch in Winterswijk

    4. aspects of N-Removal in a Carrousel Aeration Unit

    5. Bench Scale Laboratory Tests

    6. Recent Design of Carrousel Installations

    7. Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 46. An Example of Design of Activated Sludge Plants with Denitrification

    Summary.

    Bio-Denitro Method

    The Design of the Test Plant

    Oxygen Demand

    Parallel versus - Serial Operation

    Tests at Bramdrupdam

    Discussion of the Results

    Temperature

    Detention Time

    Simultaneous Precipitation

    Length of Phases.

    Laboratory Experiments.

    Planning of Plants.

    Costs.

    Conclusion.

    References.

    Chapter 47. Development and Implementation of Biological Denitripication for Two Large Plants

    Summary

    Introduction

    Attached Growth Denitrification Process

    Suspended Growth Denitrification

    References

    Chapter 48. Anaerobic Columnar Denitrification of High Nitrate Wastewater

    Abstract

    Theory and Method of Expressing Denitrification Rates

    Materials and Methods

    Results and Discussion

    Denitrification Kinetics

    Methanol Utilization

    Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Literature Cited

    Chapter 49.A Review of Physical-Chemical Methods for Nitrogen Removal from Wastewaters

    Summary

    General Process Descriptions

    Research Needs - Knowledge Gaps

    References

    Chapter 50. New Method for Removal of Nitrogen from Waste Water

    Introduction

    Material and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Output

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 51. Ammonia Removal by Physical-Chemical Treatment

    Summary

    Objectives

    Methodology

    Results

    Discussion of Results

    Costs

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 52. Performance Analysis of the Primary Treatment of Wastewater from A Large Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant

    Summary

    Description of Treatment Plant

    Wastewater Characterization

    Treatment Plant Performance

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene International Association on Water Pollution Research and the Institution of Civil Engineers Announce a Symposium on Engineering, Science and Medicine in the Prevention of Tropical Water-Related Disease


Product details

  • No. of pages: 772
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483226873

About the Editor

S. H. Jenkins

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