Probiotics

Probiotics

Advanced Food and Health Applications

1st Edition - December 2, 2021

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  • Editor: Adriano Brandelli
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323903554
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323851701

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Description

Probiotics: Advanced Food and Health Applications presents the functional properties and advanced technological aspects of probiotics for food formulation, nutrition, and health implications. Specifically, the book addresses the fundamentals of probiotics, from their discovery to actual developments, the microbiological aspects of the main genus showing probiotic properties, the natural occurrence of probiotic strains in foods, the development of nutraceuticals based on probiotics, and the relationship of probiotics to health. The book also includes a discussion on regulatory aspects.  This book is an excellent resource for food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, pharmaceutical scientists, and others working with probiotics or studying related fields. 

Key Features

  • Introduces basic concepts on probiotics and describes the properties of main microorganisms with applications in probiotics
  • Provides a description on the natural presence of probiotics in different food matrixes and how probiotics can be developed for incorporation in food formulations
  • Offers advice on how probiotics can be used as nutritional input, along with their value on the preservation of healthy intestinal status, and their potential benefits in specific illnesses
  • Contains definitions, applications, literature reviews and recent developments
  • Includes a general introduction to the subject, taxonomy, biology, primary sources of probiotics and development of probiotics as food ingredients, human nutrition and health properties, and the use of high-throughput technologies in probiotics characterization

Readership

Food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, pharmaceutical scientists and others working in or studying related fields

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: An introduction to probiotics
  • Abstract
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Probiotics: Historical context and concept evolution
  • 1.3: Selection criteria for probiotic microorganisms
  • 1.4: Safety aspects of probiotics
  • 1.5: Beneficial health properties and therapeutic potential of probiotics
  • 1.6: Probiotics legislation and challenges
  • 1.7: Conclusion and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Prebiotics and synbiotics
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Prebiotics—History, definitions, and criteria
  • 2.2: Prebiotics—Classification
  • 2.3: Prebiotic production
  • 2.4: Prebiotic health benefits
  • 2.5: Technological benefits
  • 2.6: Synbiotics
  • 2.7: Application of prebiotics and symbiotics in food products
  • 2.8: Validation methods for evaluation of prebiotic properties
  • 2.9: Summary/conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Microorganisms with food applications as probiotics
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Introduction
  • 3.2: Established probiotics
  • 3.3: Emerging probiotics
  • 3.4: Probiotics, an evolving term
  • 3.5: Future strategies to optimize selection and improve performance in food
  • 3.6: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Beneficial microbes from human and animal intestines
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Physiology of gut microbiota
  • 4.3: Ecology of the gut microbiota
  • 4.4: Gut microbiota in health and disease
  • 4.5: Tools for the characterization of microbiota
  • 4.6: Lactobacilli and their use in the promotion of animal health
  • 4.7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5: High-throughput technologies in probiotics science
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: An overview on high-throughput methodologies
  • 5.2: The impact of omics tools on probiotics research
  • 5.3: Genomics and metagenomics
  • 5.4: Transcriptomics
  • 5.5: Proteomics and metaproteomics
  • 5.6: Metabolomics
  • 5.7: Nutrigenomics
  • 5.8: Databases for probiotics
  • 5.9: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Probiotics in milk and dairy foods
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Milk as a source of probiotic bacteria
  • 6.3: Autochthone lactic acid bacteria as probiotic candidates
  • 6.4: Probiotics milk products
  • 6.5: Probiotics in the dairy industry and functional foods
  • 6.6: Probiotics as vaccine adjuvants and triggers for immune response
  • 6.7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Probiotics in meat products
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Introduction
  • 7.2: Role of lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented meat products
  • 7.3: Probiotics in meat production
  • 7.4: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Development of high-protein whey-based beverage rich in probiotics
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 8.1: Introduction
  • 8.2: Rationale for the formulation of the drink
  • 8.3: The products used in the development process
  • 8.4: Step 1: Selection of a WPI or WPC that could allow the fermentation
  • 8.5: Step 2: Selection of a WPI or WPC that had good sensory attributes
  • 8.6: Step 3: Selection of a starter that would have adequate fermentation speed and final pH as well as good sensory attributes
  • 8.7: Step 4: Selection of an appropriate probiotic culture
  • 8.8: Step 5: Selection of a growth-enhancing whey-based supplement for the probiotic strain
  • 8.9: Step 6: Development of a fermentation process that enables very high counts in probiotics
  • 8.10: What was needed… and further research needs
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Effect of food ingredients on susceptible gut indigenous bacteria
  • Abstract
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Limosilactobacillus reuteri as a Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-SIB
  • 9.3: Brown algae-SIBs
  • 9.4: Spice-SIBs
  • 9.5: Dietary protein-SIB
  • 9.6: Polyphenols modulating the gut microbiome
  • 9.7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Encapsulation of probiotics
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: Market and research trends
  • 10.3: The gastrointestinal journey of probiotics
  • 10.4: Storage of probiotic-based foods and over-the-counter (OTC) formulations
  • 10.5: Selection of probiotic strains
  • 10.6: Micro-/nanoimmobilization of probiotics
  • 10.7: Coating materials
  • 10.8: Encapsulation techniques
  • 10.9: Sensorial aspects of probiotic formulations
  • 10.10: Future trends
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Prospective applications of probiotics and prebiotics in foods
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Regulatory aspects for the commercialization of probiotics
  • 11.3: Characterization of new probiotics and their potential health and technological benefits
  • 11.4: Physiological, regulatory, and technological aspects of prebiotics
  • 11.5: Valorization of fruits, plant by-products, and whey as ingredients for probiotic and prebiotic dairy products
  • 11.6: Plant-based products as milk alternatives, snacks, and ingredients with probiotic strains and/or prebiotic ingredients
  • 11.7: Additional challenges and perspectives on the industry and consumers’ point of view
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Food-gut microbiota interactions
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Food-microbiota interaction: Microbiota composition and nutrient bioavailability
  • 12.3: Food-microbiota interactions: Effect on host health
  • 12.4: Food-microbiota interaction: Responders vs. nonresponders
  • 12.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Food-based probiotics: Functional dietary ingredients
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Introduction
  • 13.2: Microbial diversity of probiotic agents
  • 13.3: Food-based probiotics
  • 13.4: Specifications of commercial probiotic products
  • 13.5: Health benefit mechanisms of probiotic supplements
  • 13.6: Postbiotics: A new generation of functional ingredients
  • 13.7: Probiotics and COVID-19
  • 13.8: Summary and recommendations for future studies
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Probiotics in sports nutrition
  • Abstract
  • 14.1: Introduction
  • 14.2: Composition of the gut microbiome in athletes
  • 14.3: Impact on upper respiratory tract symptoms
  • 14.4: Impact on gastrointestinal tract symptoms
  • 14.5: Impact on gastrointestinal tract barrier function
  • 14.6: Potential attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage responses
  • 14.7: Nutrient absorption
  • 14.8: Enhancement of sports performance
  • 14.9: Marketing of Probiotics to athletes
  • 14.10: Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Impact of probiotic supplementation and the role of gut microbiome in obesity
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 15.1: Introduction
  • 15.2: Obesity
  • 15.3: Gut microbiome
  • 15.4: Gut microbiome and obesity
  • 15.5: Impact of probiotic supplementation: Evidences from recent clinical trials
  • 15.6: Future perspectives
  • 15.7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory mechanisms of probiotics
  • Abstract
  • 16.1: Introduction
  • 16.2: Surface layer proteins
  • 16.3: Vitamins and short chain fatty acids
  • 16.4: Bacteriocins
  • 16.5: Bacteriophages and CRISPR-Cas system
  • 16.6: Extracellular vesicles
  • 16.7: Conclusion and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Probiotics and intestinal health
  • Abstract
  • 17.1: Introduction
  • 17.2: Irritable bowel syndrome
  • 17.3: Diverticular disease
  • 17.4: Inflammatory bowel disease
  • 17.5: Prevention and treatment of diarrhea
  • 17.6: Discussion and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Probiotics and urogenital health
  • Abstract
  • 18.1: Structure of the female reproductive tract (FRT) and ecological aspects
  • 18.2: Vaginal microbiome and reproductive microbiome
  • 18.3: Innate and adaptative immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT)
  • 18.4: Factors affecting the ecological FRT equilibrium
  • 18.5: Frequency of infections in the female genital tract
  • 18.6: Requirements for probiotics for the urogenital tract
  • 18.7: Mechanisms of action of probiotics and their evidence related to the FGT
  • 18.8: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Probiotics and skin health
  • Abstract
  • 19.1: Skin structure
  • 19.2: Skin microbiota
  • 19.3: Probiotics
  • 19.4: The gut-brain-skin axis
  • 19.5: Topical probiotics in skin disorders
  • 19.6: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Probiotics in the management of diabetes
  • Abstract
  • 20.1: Introduction
  • 20.2: Current line of treatment and advantages of management by probiotics
  • 20.3: Role of gut microbiota in diabetes
  • 20.4: In vivo studies on probiotics in the management of diabetes
  • 20.5: Clinical studies
  • 20.6: Recent research on A. muciniphila
  • 20.7: Conclusions, future studies, and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Probiotics in pediatrics
  • Abstract
  • Author’s list
  • 21.1: Introduction
  • 21.2: Search strategy
  • 21.3: Probiotics for treatment of acute infectious gastroenteritis and diarrhea
  • 21.4: Probiotics for prevention and treatment of antibiotic and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
  • 21.5: Probiotics for the prevention of nosocomial infections and diarrhea
  • 21.6: Probiotics for the prevention of common respiratory infections and acute gastroenteritis in children attending day care
  • 21.7: Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection
  • 21.8: Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis
  • 21.9: Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy and atopic dermatitis
  • 21.10: Probiotics for the prevention and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis
  • 21.11: Probiotics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • 21.12: Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of regurgitation
  • 21.13: Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infant colic
  • 21.14: Probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain disorders
  • 21.15: Probiotics for the treatment of functional constipation
  • 21.16: Author’s conclusions and recommendations
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Probiotics and the gut-brain axis
  • Abstract
  • 22.1: Introduction: The gut-brain axis
  • 22.2: The gut and the enteric nervous system (ENS)
  • 22.3: Leaky gut
  • 22.4: Neurodevelopment
  • 22.5: Psychobiotics: What we know so far
  • 22.6: Probiotics and the gut-brain axis
  • 22.7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Probiotics and the gut-liver axis
  • Abstract
  • 23.1: Introduction
  • 23.2: Gut microbiota and gut-liver axis
  • 23.3: The different approaches for microbiota shaping
  • 23.4: The use of probiotics in liver diseases
  • 23.5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Next-generation probiotics
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 24.1: Introduction
  • 24.2: Next-generation probiotics mechanisms and potential health applications
  • 24.3: Impact of NGP-derived metabolites on host physiology
  • 24.4: Gut-microbiota axes
  • 24.5: Production constraints and crafty delivery systems
  • 24.6: Next-generation probiotics: Regulation framework and risk assessment
  • 24.7: Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 530
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: December 2, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323903554
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323851701

About the Editor

Adriano Brandelli

Adriano Brandelli is a Full Professor and Senior Researcher at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Research Awardee of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, and former Dean of the Institute of Food Science and Technology (Brazil). He received a B.S. from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, and his Ph.D. in Chemical Sciences from the University of Buenos Aires. His areas of expertise include Microbiology and Nanobiotechnology, with an emphasis on probiotics and bioactive peptides. He has published over 300 peer-reviewed papers in international journals, and several book chapters in the field. Member of the editorial board of the journals Food Microbiology, Annals of Microbiology and Journal of Basic Microbiology, and reviewer of several international journals in the areas of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor and Senior Researcher, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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