Printed Films - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845699888, 9780857096210

Printed Films

1st Edition

Materials Science and Applications in Sensors, Electronics and Photonics

Editors: Maria Prudenziati Jacob Hormadaly
eBook ISBN: 9780857096210
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699888
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016572
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 30th August 2012
Page Count: 608
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials



Part I: Materials and properties of printed films

Chapter 1: Technologies for printed films


1.1 Introduction: printed films in microelectronics

1.2 From thick-films and hybrids to printed electronics

1.3 Other systems

1.4 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Materials for printed films


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Active phases

2.3 Deposition medium – vehicle

2.4 Glasses and glass ceramics

2.5 Substrates

2.6 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Materials Science concepts for printed films


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Interactions of conducting materials with the organic vehicle at room temperature

3.3 Redox reactions

3.4 Chemical diffusion-related interactions during the firing cycle

3.5 Sintering, grain growth and Ostwald ripening

3.6 Reactivity interactions in other systems

3.7 The Kirkendall effect

3.8 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 4: Properties of printed films as electrical components and metallization of solar cells


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Thick-film resistors

4.3 Conductors

4.4 Dielectrics

Chapter 5: Conduction mechanisms in printed thick-film resistors


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Current understanding of the conduction mechanism in thick-film resistors

5.3 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 6: Multilayer low-temperature co-fired ceramic systems incorporating a thick-film printing process


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) compositions

6.3 LTCC manufacturing methods

6.4 An overview of LTCC applications

6.5 Future trends

6.6 Sources of further information

Part II: Applications of printed films in devices

Chapter 7: Printed resistive sensors for physical quantities


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Temperature sensors

7.3 Piezoresistive properties and related sensors

7.4 Magnetoresistive effects and sensors

7.5 Radiant sensors

7.6 Potentiometric sensors

7.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 8: Printed thick-film capacitive sensors


8.1 Introduction

8.2 General concepts

8.3 Configurations and technologies

8.4 Capacitive sensing based on geometrical variations

8.5 Capacitive sensing based on permittivity variations

8.6 Examples of devices and their applications

8.7 Conclusion and future trends

8.8 Sources of further information

Chapter 9: Printed thick-film piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and ferroelectricity

9.3 Basic theory and relationships of the piezoelectric effect

9.4 Thick-films based on ferroelectric inorganic compounds

9.5 Piezoelectric sensors

9.6 Pyroelectric sensors

9.7 Future trends

9.8 Sources of further information

9.9 Acknowledgments

Chapter 10: Printed thick-film mechanical microsystems (MEMS)


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Printed films with silicon MEMS

10.3 Printed films with ceramic MEMS

10.4 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 11: Printed semiconducting gas sensors


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Principles of operation and modeling

11.3 Functional materials

11.4 Morphological, structural and electrical properties

11.5 Applications

11.6 Future trends

11.7 Acknowledgments

Chapter 12: Printed gas sensors based on electrolytes


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Solid electrolytes

12.3 Potentiometric sensors

12.4 Thermodynamically controlled sensors

12.5 Sensors controlled by both thermodynamics and kinetics

12.6 Amperometric sensors

12.7 NOx sensing device, associating upstream oxygen pumping with potentiometric and amperometric operating principles

12.8 Conclusion and possible future trends

Chapter 13: Printed thick-film biosensors


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Pharmaceutical and medical applications of thick-film biosensors

13.3 Environmental applications of screen-printed electrodes

13.4 Conclusions

13.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 14: Printed actuators


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Films as actuators

14.3 Actuation mechanisms

14.4 Piezoelectric actuators

14.5 Piezoelectric actuator fabrication

14.6 Processing–properties–microstructure interrelationship

14.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 15: Printed heater elements


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Materials for heater fabrication

15.3 Heater designs

15.4 Heaters for sensor and actuator applications

15.5 Conclusion

Chapter 16: Screen-printing for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Fuel cells: principle, types and challenges (Hoogers, 2003; Larminie, 2000)

16.3 Electrolytes

16.4 Electrodes

16.5 Single-chamber SOFCs

16.6 Micro single-chamber SOFCs

16.7 Conclusion and trends

Chapter 17: Printed varistors


17.1 Introduction

17.2 The varistor action

17.3 Composition, preparation and microstructure of ceramic ZnO-based varistors

17.4 Printing process in varistors fabrication

17.5 Multilayer varistors

17.6 Screen-printed and fired thick-film varistors

17.7 Progress in the development of ZnO-based thick-films and tape-casted varistors

17.8 Microstructural and electrical characterization of ZnO-based varistors prepared by screen printing and tape casting

17.9 Conclusion

17.10 Acknowledgements

Chapter 18: Laser-printed micro- and meso-scale power generating devices


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Background to laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT)

18.3 Laser transfer of complex rheological systems

18.4 Laser-printed micro-power sources

18.5 Laser-printed embedded micro-power sources

18.6 Challenges and opportunities

18.7 Conclusion and future trends

18.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 19: Printed polymer solar cells


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Printing and coating methods

19.3 Manufacturing methods for complete polymer solar cells

19.4 Applications and demonstrations of polymer solar cells

19.5 Conclusions and future trends

19.6 Acknowledgements



Whilst printed films are currently used in varied devices across a wide range of fields, research into their development and properties is increasingly uncovering even greater potential. Printed films provides comprehensive coverage of the most significant recent developments in printed films and their applications.

Materials and properties of printed films are the focus of part one, beginning with a review of the concepts, technologies and materials involved in their production and use. Printed films as electrical components and silicon metallization for solar cells are discussed, as are conduction mechanisms in printed film resistors, and thick films in packaging and microelectronics. Part two goes on to review the varied applications of printed films in devices. Printed resistive sensors are considered, as is the role of printed films in capacitive, piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors, mechanical micro-systems and gas sensors. The applications of printed films in biosensors, actuators, heater elements, varistors and polymer solar cells are then explored, followed by a review of screen printing for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells and laser printed micro- and meso-scale power generating devices.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Printed films is a key text for anyone working in such fields as microelectronics, fuel cell and sensor technology in both industry and academia.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive analysis of the most significant recent developments in printed films and their applications
  • Reviews the concepts, properties, technologies and materials involved in the production and use of printed films
  • Analyses the varied applications of printed films in devices, including printed restrictive sensors for physical quantities and printed thick film mechanical micro-systems (MEMS), among others


Research and materials scientists, physicists and engineers working in the fields of sensors, actuators, packaging and printed circuits, electronic manufacturers, design engineers


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About the Editors

Maria Prudenziati Editor

Maria Prudenziati is Professor of Applied Electronics at the University of Modena, Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Modena, Physics Department, Modena, Italy

Jacob Hormadaly Editor

Jacob Hormadaly is Director of the Zandman Center for thick-film microelectronics, at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel