Principles of Training - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080111629, 9781483160078

Principles of Training

1st Edition

The Commonwealth and International Library: Psychology Division

Authors: D. H. Holding
Editors: G. P. Meredith
eBook ISBN: 9781483160078
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 172
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Description

Principles of Training provides insight into the different variables presented by training tasks. It presents a wide sample of experimental data to reveal to the intending practitioner of training—whether in industry, in sport, in the defense services or other fields—that awareness of experimental findings must be paralleled by competence in analyzing tasks in order to determine how and where any particular principles may reasonably be applied. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the evaluation of training, experiments on training, limitations of training, and training problems. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss how trainers can influence the course of learning by manipulating knowledge of results; methods for minimizing errors in early learning; visual training methods; the use of words and actions in training; and the importance of practice in learning. Subsequent chapters cover the transfer of training; automatic teaching, or ""programmed instruction""; and recommendations for trainers.

Table of Contents


Editor's Foreword

1. Introduction

Evaluation of Training

Experiments on Training

Limitations of Training

Training Problems

Types of Task

Skilled Behavior

2. Knowledge of Results

Removing Feedback

Action and Learning Feedback

Information and Incentive

A Classification

Intrinsic or Artificial

Concurrent or Terminal

Immediate or Delayed

Verbal or Non-Verbal

Separate or Accumulated

Summary

3. Guidance

Restricting Alternatives

Types of Guidance

Animal Work

Human Maze Learning

Mazes and Forced-Response

Adjustive Skills

Graded Movements

Knowledge of Alternatives

Summary

4. Visual Methods

Visual Guidance

Changes in Display

Visual Magnification

Imitation

Static Visual Aids

Moving Films

Summary

5. Words and Actions

Verbal and Motor Learning

Verbal and Motor Behavior

Instructions

Pre-differentiation

Verbal Pre-training

Verbal Guidance and Hints

Summary

6. Practice

Learning Curves

Speed and Accuracy

Part and Whole Methods

Progression

Massed and Spaced Practice

Residual Effects

Mental Practice

Summary

7. Transfer of Training

Sameness and Difference

Relations between Tasks

Negative Transfer

Long-Term Effects

Task Difficulty

Transfer of Principles

Summary

8. Programmed Learning

Teaching Machines

Motor Learning

Linear Programs

Program Characteristics

Branching Programs

Comparison of Methods

Evaluation

Summary

9. Recommendations

General

Specific

Further Reading

References and Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
172
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1965
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483160078

About the Author

D. H. Holding

About the Editor

G. P. Meredith