Principles of Training

Principles of Training

The Commonwealth and International Library: Psychology Division

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: D. H. Holding
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483160078

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Principles of Training provides insight into the different variables presented by training tasks. It presents a wide sample of experimental data to reveal to the intending practitioner of training—whether in industry, in sport, in the defense services or other fields—that awareness of experimental findings must be paralleled by competence in analyzing tasks in order to determine how and where any particular principles may reasonably be applied. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the evaluation of training, experiments on training, limitations of training, and training problems. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss how trainers can influence the course of learning by manipulating knowledge of results; methods for minimizing errors in early learning; visual training methods; the use of words and actions in training; and the importance of practice in learning. Subsequent chapters cover the transfer of training; automatic teaching, or ""programmed instruction""; and recommendations for trainers.

Table of Contents

  • Editor's Foreword

    1. Introduction

    Evaluation of Training

    Experiments on Training

    Limitations of Training

    Training Problems

    Types of Task

    Skilled Behavior

    2. Knowledge of Results

    Removing Feedback

    Action and Learning Feedback

    Information and Incentive

    A Classification

    Intrinsic or Artificial

    Concurrent or Terminal

    Immediate or Delayed

    Verbal or Non-Verbal

    Separate or Accumulated


    3. Guidance

    Restricting Alternatives

    Types of Guidance

    Animal Work

    Human Maze Learning

    Mazes and Forced-Response

    Adjustive Skills

    Graded Movements

    Knowledge of Alternatives


    4. Visual Methods

    Visual Guidance

    Changes in Display

    Visual Magnification


    Static Visual Aids

    Moving Films


    5. Words and Actions

    Verbal and Motor Learning

    Verbal and Motor Behavior



    Verbal Pre-training

    Verbal Guidance and Hints


    6. Practice

    Learning Curves

    Speed and Accuracy

    Part and Whole Methods


    Massed and Spaced Practice

    Residual Effects

    Mental Practice


    7. Transfer of Training

    Sameness and Difference

    Relations between Tasks

    Negative Transfer

    Long-Term Effects

    Task Difficulty

    Transfer of Principles


    8. Programmed Learning

    Teaching Machines

    Motor Learning

    Linear Programs

    Program Characteristics

    Branching Programs

    Comparison of Methods



    9. Recommendations



    Further Reading

    References and Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 172
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483160078

About the Author

D. H. Holding

About the Editor

G. P. Meredith

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