Principles of Sugar Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232522, 9781483275109

Principles of Sugar Technology

1st Edition

Editors: Pieter Honig
eBook ISBN: 9781483275109
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1953
Page Count: 790
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Principles of Sugar Technology focuses on the principles, methodologies, and processes involved in sugar technology, including properties of sugar and agents involved in its manufacture.
The selection first offers information on the chemical and physical properties of sucrose, as well as decomposition, structure of the sucrose molecule, sucrose derivatives, crystallized and amorphous sucrose, and solvents. The book then takes a look at the physical and chemical properties of reducing sugars and non-nitrogenous organic acids of sugarcane.
The publication ponders on nitrogen-containing nonsugars (amino acids and proteins), complex organic nonsugars of high molecular weight, and lipids of sugarcane. Discussions focus on the distribution of nitrogen in sugarcane, amino acids in cane juice and leaves, lignin, pectin, proteins, and significance of waxy and fatty lipids in sugar manufacture. The text also examines color and colored nonsugars, inorganic nonsugars, and agents used in sugar manufacture.
The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in sugar technology.

Table of Contents



Part One - Physical and Chemical Properties of Sugars and Nonsugars

1. Chemical Properties of Sucrose

1. Structure of the Sucrose Molecule

2. Synthesis of Sucrose

3. Sucrose Derivatives

4. Decomposition of Sucrose

5. Biochemical Reactions


2. Physical Properties of Sucrose

1. Sucrose Molecule

2. Crystallized Sucrose

3. Amorphous Sucrose

4. Aqueous Sucrose Solutions

5. Various Solvents


3. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Reducing Sugars (Dextrose and Levulose)

1. Introduction

2. Physical Properties of Dextrose Solutions

3. Physical Properties of Levulose Solutions

4. Physical Properties of Invert Sugar Solutions

5. Chemical Reactions of Dextrose and Levulose with Organic Reagents

6. Chemical Reactions of Dextrose and Levulose with Inorganic Reagents

7. Decomposition Reactions

8. Oxidation Reactions

9. Unfermentable Products in Cane Molasses

10. Methods of Analysis

11. Color Tests


4. The Non-Nitrogenous Organic Acids of Sugarcane

1. Introduction

2. Acids Isolated From Cane

3. Organic Acids Formed in Processing

4. Effect of Organic Acids On Clarification

5. Organic Acids in Molasses and Other Products

6. Commercial Production of Calcium Aconitate

7. Quantitative Determination of Aconitic Acid

8. Summary


5. The Nitrogen-Containing Nonsugars(The Amino Acids and Proteins)

1. Introduction

2. The Distribution of Nitrogen in Sugarcane

3. The Proteins of Sugarcane

4. The Amino Acids of Cane Juice

A. The Qualitative Aspect

B. The Quantitative Aspect

5. The Amino Acids in Cane Leaves

6. Other Nitrogenous Substances Present in Sugarcane

7. The Relation of Proteins and Amino Acids to the Raw Sugar Manufacturing Process


6. The Complex Organic Nonsugars of High Molecular Weight

1. Introduction

2. Cellulose

3. Hemicelluloses

4. Lignin

5. Proteins

6. Pectin

7. Starch

8. Tannin and Pigments

9. Uses of Bagasse


7. The Lipids of Sugarcane

1. Introduction

2. Occurrence

3. Constitution and Properties of Sugarcane Wax

4. Constitution and Properties of Fatty Lipids

5. Phospholipids of Sugarcane Oil and Wax

6. Significance of Waxy and Fatty Lipids in Sugar Manufacture

7. The Determination of Lipids in Sugarcane Products


8. Color and Colored Non-Sugars

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry of Colored Non-Sugars

III. Physical and Chemical Properties of Colored Non-Sugars

IV. General Principles of Color Measurement

V. Measurement of Color of Sugar Products

VI. Future Color Problems


9. Inorganic Nonsugars

1. Introduction

2. The Inorganic Substituents of Sugarcane, Juices and Sugar

3. Alkalis

4. Adsorption of Cations and Anions

5. Alkaline Earths, Calcium and Magnesium

6. Calcium in Technical Sugar Solutions

7. Calcium and Magnesium Balances in Raw Sugar Manufacture

8. Determination of Calcium and Magnesium

9. Iron

10. Aluminum

11. Chloride

12. Sulphur

13. Silicic Acid

14. Phosphates

15. Copper

16. Manganese

17. Arsenic

18. Molybdenum

19. Boron

20. Lead

21. Cobalt

22. Iodine

23. Composition and Properties of Bagasse Ash


10. The Agents Used in Sugar Manufacture

1. Introduction

2. Limestone

3. Lime

4. Kiln Gas, Carbon Dioxide

5. Sulphur

6. Sulphur Burner Gas, Sulphur Dioxide

7. Phosphoric Acid and Its Calcium and Sodium Salts

8. Soda

9. Magnesium Compounds

10. Clays

11. Bauxite

12. Diatomaceous Earth

13. Carbons

14. Sodium Hyposulphite, Blankite

15. Dyestuffs


11. The Physical and Technical Conditions in Sugar Manufacture (Temperature, Density and pH)

1. Introduction

2. General Considerations


Part Two - Purification of Technical Sugar Solutions

12. Chemical Technology of the Purification Process

1. Introduction: Beet and Cane Juices

2. Historical Development

3. The Progress During The Past Fifty Years

4. Clarification Stages

5. Screening Mill Juices

6. Suspended Nonsugars

7. Composition of Nonsugars

8. Effect of Heating

9. Optimum Clarification?

10. Effect of Ph

11. Conclusions

13. Fundamental Reactions of the Clarification Process

1. Introduction

2. Composition of Cane Juice

3. The Liming Process

4. Reactions of Clarification

5. Physical Chemistry of Clarification

6. Practical Effects of Clarification


14. Technology of the Clarification Process

1. Introduction

2. Liming

3. Heaters

4. The Lime and Heat Sequence

5. Floc Formation and Floe Conditioning

6. Subsidation Equipment

7. Auxiliary Defecants


15. Clarification of Cane Juices by Means of the Sulphitation Process

1. Introduction

2 . Origin and Development of the Sulphitation Process

3 . Properties of the Reagents and Fundamental Reactions

4. Effect of Purification

5. Technology


16. The Carbonation Process

1. Introduction

2. The Original Single Carbonation Process

3. Double Carbonation

4. The De Haan Process

5. Recent Developments of the De Haan Process

6. The Present System of Double Carbonation

7. Second Carbonation and Filtration of the Second Carbonation Juice

8. Filter Station

9. Change in the Ph of Unflltered First Carbonation Juice

10. Composition of the Precipitate of the Second Carbonation

11. Purification Effects of the Carbonation Process

12. Removal of Magnesia and Silicic Acid

13. Effect of the Carbonation Process

14. The Effect of the Second Carbonation

15. The Size of the Second Carbonation Station

16. Heating of Second Carbonation Juice

17. The Arrangement of First and Second Carbonation Station

18. The Technology of the Second Carbonation

19. The Causes of Irregularity

20. The Control Methods of the Second Carbonation

21. The Sweetening Off Process of the Filter Cake in the Carbonation Process


17. Middle Juice Carbonation

1. History

2. Treatment Prior To Carbonation

3. Inorganic Nonsugar Removal

4. Evaporator Scale

5. First Carbonation

6. First Filtration


18. Ion Exchange

1. Introduction

2. Ion Exchange Resins

3. Mechanism of Ion Exchange

4. Treatment of Sugar Juices

5. Technical Results of Cane Sugar Processing

6. Economics of Ion Exchange

7. byproducts

8. Commercial Equipment

9. New Developments


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Elsevier 1953
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Pieter Honig

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