Principles of Project Finance - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123910585, 9780124157552

Principles of Project Finance

2nd Edition

Authors: E. R. Yescombe
eBook ISBN: 9780124157552
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123910585
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th November 2013
Page Count: 560
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The Second Edition of this best-selling introduction for practitioners uses new material and updates to describe the changing environment for project finance.  Integrating recent developments in credit markets with revised insights into making project finance deals, the second edition offers a balanced view of project financing by combining legal, contractual, scheduling, and other subjects. Its emphasis on concepts and techniques makes it critical for those who want to succeed in financing large projects.  With extensive cross-references and a comprehensive glossary, the Second Edition presents anew a guide to the principles and practical issues that can commonly cause difficulties in commercial and financial negotiations.

Key Features

  • Provides a basic introduction to project finance and its relationship with other financing techniques
  • Describes and explains: sources of project finance; typical commercial contracts (e.g., for construction of the project and sale of its product or services) and their effects on project-finance structures; project-finance risk assessment from the points of view of lenders, investors, and other project parties; how lenders and investors evaluate the risks and returns on a project; the rôle of the public sector in public-private partnerships and other privately-financed infrastructure projects; how all these issues are dealt with in the financing agreements


Private sector investors and lenders who intend to make project finance deals. Upper-division undergraduates and graduate students worldwide working in subjects studying the financing of large-scale single projects

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. What is Project Finance?

§2.1 Introduction

§2.2 Definition and Basic Characteristics

§2.3 Development of Project Finance

§2.4 Elements of a Project-Finance Structure

§2.5 Examples of Project-Finance Structures

§2.6 Why Use Project Finance?

Chapter 3. Project Development and Management

§3.1 Introduction

§3.2 Sponsors and Other Investors

§3.3 Project Development

§3.4 The Rôle of Advisors

§3.5 Joint-Venture Issues

§3.6 The Project Company

§3.7 Public Procurement

Chapter 4. The Project-Finance Markets

§4.1 Introduction

§4.2 Commercial Banks

§4.3 Bonds

§4.4 Other Non-Bank Lenders

§4.5 Other Sources of Private-Sector Debt

Chapter 5. Working with Lenders

§5.1 Introduction

§5.2 Commercial Banks

§5.3 Bonds

§5.4 Bank Loans Versus Bonds

§5.5 Lenders’ Due-Diligence and External Advisors

§5.6 Lenders and the Public-Procurement Process

Chapter 6. Types of Project Agreement

§6.1 Introduction

§6.2 BOT, BTO et al.

§6.3 Offtake Contract

§6.4 Availability-based Contract

§6.5 Concession Agreement

§6.6 Other ‘PPP-like’ Contracts

Chapter 7. Common Aspects of Project Agreements

§7.1 Introduction

§7.2 Term

§7.3 Payment Mechanism

§7.4 Contract Monitoring by the Offtaker/Contracting Authority

§7.5 Performance Bonding and other Guarantees

§7.6 Compensation Events

§7.7 Excusing Causes

§7.8 Relief Events

§7.9 Step-in by the Offtaker/Contracting Authority

§7.10 Termination of the Project Agreement

§7.11 Change of Ownership

§7.12 Dispute Resolution

Chapter 8. Sub-Contracts and Other Related Agreements

§8.1 Introduction

§8.2 Construction Contract

§8.3 O&M/Maintenance Contract(s)

§8.4 Building-Services Contract

§8.5 Fuel or Other Input-Supply Contract

§8.6 Insurance

§8.7 Site Lease and other Usage Rights

§8.8 Permits and Other Rights

§8.9 Amendments to and Replacement of Sub-Contracts

§8.10 Parent-Company Guarantees

§8.11 Direct Agreements

Chapter 9. Commercial Risks

§9.1 Introduction

§9.2 Risk Evaluation and Allocation

§9.3 Analysis of Commercial Risks

§9.4 Commercial Viability

§9.5 Construction Risks

§9.6 Revenue Risks

§9.7 Operating Risks

§9.8 Input-Supply Risks

§9.9 Uninsured Risks and Related issues

§9.10 Environmental Risks

§9.11 Residual-Value Risk

§9.12 Contract Mismatch

§9.13 Recourse to the Sponsors

§9.14 Risks for an Offtaker/Contracting Authority

§9.15 Why Do Projects Fail?

§9.16 Loss on Default

Chapter 10. Macro-Economic Risks

§10.1 Introduction

§10.2 The Time Value of Money

§10.3 Interest-Rate Risks

§10.4 Inflation

§10.5 Foreign-Exchange Risks

§10.6 Refinancing Risk

Chapter 11. Regulatory and Political Risks

§11.1 Introduction

§11.2 Projects and Politics

§11.3 Change in Law

§11.4 Investment Risks

§11.5 Wider Political Risks

§11.6 ‘Sub-Sovereign’ Risk

§11.7 Government Support Agreement

§11.8 Political-Risk Insurance and Guarantees

Chapter 12. Financial Structuring

§12.1 Introduction

§12.2 Investors’ Analysis and Equity Structure

§12.3 Debt Cover Ratios

§12.4 Debt:Equity Ratio

§12.5 Debt Service Profile

§12.6 Interest Rate and Fees

§12.7 Additional Costs

§12.8 Optimizing the Financial Structure

Chapter 13. The Financial Model

§13.1 Introduction


§13.3 Model Inputs

§13.4 Macro-Economic Assumptions

§13.5 Project Costs and Financing

§13.6 Operating Revenues and Costs

§13.7 Accounting and Taxation Issues

§13.8 Model Outputs

§13.9 Sensitivity Analysis

§13.10 The Banking Case, Base Case and Financial Close

§13.11 Using the Model after Financial Close

Chapter 14. Project-Finance Loan Documentation

§14.1 Introduction

§14.2 Lenders’ Term Sheet

§14.3 Construction Phase—Drawdown of Debt

§14.4 Operating Phase—Control of Cash Flow

§14.5 Reporting Requirements

§14.6 Debt Cancellation and Prepayment

§14.7 Lenders’ Security

§14.8 Conditions Precedent

§14.9 Representations and Warranties

§14.10 Covenants

§14.11 Permissions, Waivers and Amendments

§14.12 Events of Default

§14.13 Lenders’ Decision-Making Process

§14.14 Intercreditor Issues

§14.15 Governing Law and Jurisdiction

§14.16 Debt Refinancing

§14.17 Secondary Equity Sale

Chapter 15. Public-Sector Financial Support

§15.1 Introduction

§15.2 Indirect Public-Sector Financial Support

§15.3 Direct Public-Sector Financial Support

§15.4 Mezzanine Debt

§15.5 Standby Financing

§15.6 Refinancing after Project Completion

§15.7 Gap Financing

§15.8 Policy Banks

§15.9 Credit Guarantee Finance

§15.10 Capital Grant

§15.11 Viability-Gap Funding

§15.12 Part-Construction of the Project

§15.13 Complementary Investment

§15.14 Full Debt Guarantee

§15.15 First-Loss Debt Guarantee

§15.16 Pari-Passu Debt Guarantee

§15.17 Debt Underpinning

§15.18 Minimum Revenue Guarantee (‘MRG’)

§15.19 Tariff Subsidy

§15.20 Public-Sector Project Company

§15.21 Guarantee Funds

Chapter 16. Export-Credit Agencies and Development-Finance Institutions

§16.1 Introduction

§16.2 Export Credit Agencies

§16.3 Political-Risk Insurance for Investors

§16.4 ECAs and Bilateral DFIs

§16.5 Multilateral Development-Finance Institutions

Annex: U.S. Exim ‘Project Criteria and Application Information Requirements’

Chapter 17. Recent Market Developments and Prospects for Project Finance

§17.1 Introduction

§17.2 The Effect of the 2008 Financial Crisis

§17.3 The ‘Basel Process’

§17.4 Non-Bank Lenders

§17.5 Improving Project-Finance Credit Risk

§17.6 New Models

§17.7 The Future of Project Finance

Glossary and Abbreviations



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About the Author

E. R. Yescombe

E.R. Yescombe is an independent consultant on project finance and public-private partnerships (PPPs), advising investors on financing for power, infrastructure and PPP projects, as well as public-sector entities on PPP policy issues, project procurement and contracting.

Affiliations and Expertise

YCL Consulting, London UK. Edward Yescombe is an expert in project finance, leasing, export credits, real estate finance, and asset finance.


"This book provides a concise, accurate, and updated context of project finance. Not only it is a favoured reference for project entrepreneurs, financial controllers and government regulators, but it is also a highly recommended reading for students in business and civil engineering." --Shiguang Ma, University of Wollongong

"Yescombe’s book is the best compendium of project finance concepts I know of. Principles is a detailed 'cook-book' for organizing project financings, comprehensive in its description of risks, contracts, and project participants, including sponsors, capital providers, and public and multinational institutions." --Ray Hill, Emory University

"This book is clear enough for the novice and comprehensive enough for the expert. It covers all areas in project finance and does so precisely. It is a must for anyone looking to get into project finance." --Alfonso Canella, Brandeis University

"E.R. Yescombe’s new edition of Principles of Project Finance is a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview, with detailed and balanced coverage of the economic, financial, and legal dimensions of project finance. The book is full of relevant case studies and practical advice to make project financing work in the post-financial crisis environment." --John S. Strong, College of William and Mary