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Principles of Ocean Physics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120588657, 9781483288055

Principles of Ocean Physics, Volume 38

1st Edition

Author: John Apel
Editor: William L. Donn
eBook ISBN: 9781483288055
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1987
Page Count: 634
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Table of Contents



Chapter One Physical Oceanography: An Overview

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Evolution of Modern Physical Oceanography


Chapter Two Forcing Functions and Responses

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Forcing Functions On and In the Sea

2.3 Gravitational and Rotational Forces

2.4 Radiative, Thermodynamic, and Related Forces

2.5 Zonal and Meridional Variations

2.6 Wind Stress

2.7 The General Circulation of the Ocean

2.8 The Wind-Driven Oceanic Circulation

2.9 Pressure Forcing

2.10 The Thermohaline Circulation

2.11 The Sea Floor and Its Dynamics


Chapter Three Hydrodynamic Equations of the Sea

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Convective Derivative and the Momentum Equation

3.3 Gravitational Forces

3.4 Effects of Spin

3.5 The Coriolis Force

3.6 More Gravity

3.7 Tidal Forces

3.8 Total Potential Caused by Gravity and Rotation

3.9 Internal Forces in a Viscous Fluid

3.10 Conservation Equations for Mass and Salinity

3.11 The Momentum Equation

3.12 Fluctuations, Reynolds Stresses, and Eddy Coefficients

3.13 Boundary Conditions in Fluid Dynamics


Chapter Four Thermodynamics and Energy Relations

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Molecular Structure of H2O

4.3 Effects of Temperature, Salinity, and Pressure

4.4 Thermodynamics of Seawater

4.5 Additional Thermodynamic Equations

4.6 Heat Conduction Equation

4.7 Specific Volume and Salinity Equations

4.8 Equation of State

4.9 Combined Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics

4.10 Energy Flow and Energy Equations

4.11 Total Energy Equations


Chapter Five Geophysical Fluid Dynamics I: Waves and Tides

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Quasi-Steady Motions

5.3 Buoyancy and Stability

5.4 Surface Waves

5.5 Linear Capillary and Gravity Waves

5.6 Dispersion Characteristics of Surface Waves

5.7 Surface Gravity Waves

5.8 Surface Capillary Waves

5.9 Surface Wave Vorticity

5.10 The Stream Function

5.11 Energy Flow in Surface Waves

5.12 Statistical Descriptions of Surface Gravity Waves

5.13 Long-Wave, Shallow Water Equations

5.14 Tsunami and Seismic Sea Waves

5.15 Deep Sea and Coastal Tides

5.16 Internal Wave Dynamics

5.17 The Two-Layer Fluid

5.18 Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability


Chapter Six Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II: Currents and Circulation

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Surface Wind Stress and Ekman Layer Dynamics

6.3 Inertial Oscillations

6.4 Vorticity: Relative, Planetary, Absolute, and Potential

6.5 Sverdrup Transport

6.6 Western Boundary Currents and Geostrophic Flow

6.7 Vorticity Balance in a Western Boundary Current

6.8 The Rossby Radius and the Western Boundary Current

6.9 Meanderings and Other Mesoscale Motions

6.10 Quasi-Geostrophic Motion and Rossby Waves

6.11 Equatorial Waves and El Niño

6.12 A Summary Dispersion Diagram

6.13 Large-Scale Circulation


Chapter Seven Acoustical Oceanography

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Characteristics of Sound in the Sea

7.3 The Acoustic Wave Equation

7.4 The Speed of Sound

7.5 Mechanical Properties of Acoustic Waves

7.6 A Simple Solution to the Wave Equation

7.7 Ray Tracing and the Eikonal Equation

7.8 Propagation Loss

7.9 Reflection and Scattering from Ocean Surfaces

7.10 Reflection, Refraction, and Scattering at the Sea Floor

7.11 Reflection and Scattering by Bodies in the Water Column

7.12 Acoustics and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

7.13 Underwater Noise


Chapter Eight Electromagnetics and the Sea

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Maxwell's Equations and Constitutive Relations

8.3 Dielectric Function and Electrical Conductivity

8.4 Reflection at a Plane Surface

8.5 The Radar Equation for a Distributed Surface

8.6 Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation

8.7 Radar Scatter and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

8.8 Synthetic and Real Aperture Imaging Radars

8.9 The Wave Action Equation

8.10 Emission from the Sea Surface

8.11 Induced EMF's and Currents


Chapter Nine Optics of the Sea

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Optical Fields and Parameters

9.3 Surface Illumination: Sun, Sky, and Artificial

9.4 Surface Interactions: Reflection, Scattering, and Refraction

9.5 Subsurface Interactions: Pure Seawater

9.6 Subsurface Interactions: Particles, Plankton, and Gelbstoffe

9.7 Fluorescence and Bioluminescence

9.8 Radiative Transfer Beneath the Sea

9.9 Ocean Color; Underwater Imaging

9.10 Remote Sensing of Optical Parameters

9.11 Optics and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics


Appendix One Fundamental Physical Constants

Appendix Two Astronomical and Geodetic Parameters

Appendix Three Representative Values for Oceanic and Atmospheric Parameters

Appendix Four Electrical Parameters

Appendix Five Dimensionless Numbers for Fluids



In recent years, significant advances in both the theoretical and observational sides of physical oceanography have allowed the ocean's physical behavior to be described more quantitatively. This book discusses the physical mechanisms and processes of the sea, and will be valuable not only to oceanographers but also physicists, graduate students, and scientists working in dynamics or optics of the marine environment.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1987
28th January 1987
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

John Apel

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland

About the Editor

William L. Donn