Principles of Ion Exchange Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750611152, 9781483278292

Principles of Ion Exchange Technology

1st Edition

Authors: M.J. Slater
eBook ISBN: 9781483278292
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 18th October 1991
Page Count: 196
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Description

The Principles of Ion Exchange Technology covers the fundamental properties of ion exchange resins and the chemical engineering principles of plant design to aid process and equipment evaluation, choice and design.

This text is composed of 12 chapters and begins with a discussion of the equilibrium concept and the calculation of diffusion coefficients and mass transfer coefficients, as well as the rate constants in ion exchange. The succeeding chapters deal with the kinetics of ion exchange in solution and in resin beads. These topics are followed by reviews of axial mixing, flow abnormalities, design equations, fixed bed performance calculation, and multi-component ion exchange. The final chapters explore the choices of continuous and countercurrent design techniques and the practical procedures for packed beds.

This book is of great value to chemical engineers.

Table of Contents


Acknowledgment

Trade Names of Ion Exchange Resins Mentioned

Foreword

Nomenclature

1 Introduction

2 Equilibria

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Binary Equilibria

2.3 Exchange of Ions of Equal Valence

2.4 Exchange of Univalent and Divalent Ions

2.5 Anion Exchange Resins

2.6 Empirical Equilibrium Relationships

2.7 Multi-Component Equilibria

3 Kinetics of Ion Exchange in Solution

3.1 Rate Equations for Mass Transfer in Solution

3.2 Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients and Mass Transfer Coefficients

3.3 Ion Exchange with Neutralization or Chelating Reaction in Solution

4 Kinetics of Ion Exchange in Resin Beads

4.1 Diffusion in Resin Matrix

4.2 Other Rate Expressions

4.3 Pore Diffusion

4.4 Ion Exchange with Chemical Reaction in the Resin

4.5 Shrinking Core Model

4.6 General Comment

5 Axial Mixing and Flow Abnormalities

5.1 Packed Beds

5.2 Stirred Tanks

5.3 Fluidized Beds

6 Design Equations

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Continuity Equations

6.3 Rate Equations

6.4 Equilibrium Relationships

6.5 Simplifying Assumptions

7 Calculation of the Performance of Fixed Beds

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Initial and Boundary Conditions

7.3 Normalization of Equations

7.4 Constant Pattern and Proportionate Pattern Behavior

7.5 Bed Capacities

7.6 Fixed Packed Bed Breakthrough Curves

7.7 Fixed Fluidized Bed Breakthrough Curves

7.8 Breakthrough Curves for a Series of Stirred Tanks

7.9 Elution Processes

7.10 Cyclic Operation of Fixed Beds

7.11 Parametric Pumping

8 Batch Processes

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Liquid Film Diffusion for Isotopic Binary Exchange

8.3 Liquid Film Diffusion for Non-Isotopic Binary Exchange

8.4 Resin Diffusion Controlled Isotopic Binary Exchange

8.5 Comparison of Half-Times

8.6 Resin Diffusion Controlled Non-Isotopic Binary Exchange

8.7 Mixed Kinetics of Binary Exchange

8.8 Shrinking Core Model

8.9 Neutralization Processes

8.10 Multi-Component Ion Exchange

9 Continuous Countercurrent Plant Design

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Differential Equipment: Liquid Film Diffusion Rate Control - No Axial Mixing

9.3 Differential Equipment: Liquid Film Diffusion Rate Control - Axial Mixing

9.4 Differential Equipment: Resin Diffusion Rate Control - No Axial Mixing

9.5 Differential Equipment: Resin Diffusion Rate Control - No Axial Mixing, Approximate Solutions

9.6 Differential Equipment: Mixed Kinetics - No Axial Mixing

9.7 Differential Equipment: Mixed Kinetics - Liquid Axial Mixing

9.8 Stage Equipment: Liquid Film Diffusion Rate Control - No Interstage Backflows

9.9 Stage Equipment: Liquid Film Diffusion Rate Control - Well-Mixed Resin, Axially Dispersed Liquid Flow

9.10 Stage Equipment with Backflows in Both Phases

10 Periodic Countercurrent Systems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Periodically Moving Packed Beds

10.3 Multiple Columns: Moving Feed Point

10.4 Multiple Fluidized Bed and Tank Systems

11 Laboratory and Pilot Plant Procedures

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Effect of Particle Size Distribution

11.3 Laboratory Apparatus and Procedures

11.4 Practical Procedures for Packed Beds

11.5 Fixed Packed Bed Experimental Work

11.6 Batch Experimental Work

11.7 Stirred Tank Experimental Work

11.8 Fluidized Bed Experimental Work

11.9 Exchange Zone Heights

11.10 Experimental Methods for Equilibria Determination

11.11 Concluding Remarks

12 Examples

12.1 Calculation of the Constant Pattern Breakthrough Curve for an Arbitrary Favorable Equilibrium Line

12.2 Breakthrough Curves for Unfavorable Equilibrium

12.3 Elution with Linear Equilibrium

12.4 Axial Dispersion Effects

12.5 Comparison of Curve Shapes

12.6 The Effect of Bed Shape on Breakthrough Curves

12.7 Liquid Film Mass Transfer Coefficients from a Breakthrough Curve

12.8 Loading/Elution Cycle

12.9 Metal Ion Exchange with Unfavorable Equilibrium

12.10 Batch Fluidized Bed Recovery of a Protein with Irreversible Equilibrium

12.11 Continuous Counter-Flow Multi-Stage System with Liquid Film Control and Irreversible Equilibrium

12.12 Continuous Counter-Flow Differential System with Mixed Kinetics and Irreversible Equilibrium

Bibliography

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
196
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1991
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483278292

About the Author

M.J. Slater

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bradford, UK