Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine

Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine

Sex and Gender-Specific Biology in the Postgenomic Era

4th Edition - April 17, 2023

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  • Editor: Marianne Legato
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323885348

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Awarded with the 2018 Prose Award in Clinical Medicine, the third edition of Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine explored and described exciting new areas in biomedicine that integrated technology into the treatment of disease and the augmentation of human function. Novel topics such as the sex-specific aspects of space medicine, the development and the use of genderized robots and a discussion of cyborgs were included in the third edition, providing a preview of the expanding world of sex-specific physiology and therapeutics. This Fourth Edition is a continuation of the mission to trace the relevance of biological sex to normal function and to the experience of disease in humans.We are now twenty years into the postgenomic era. The investigation of how the genome produces the phenome has led to fascinating insights as well as yet unanswered questions. Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine, Fourth Edition, has a central theme: discuss advances in understanding the role of epigenetics in regulating gene expression in a dynamic, sex-specific way during human life. It explores the protean role of epigenetics in human physiology, the relevance of environmental experience to human function, the therapeutic promise of cutting-edge methodologies like gene manipulation, the preparation of humans for space travel, the use of artificial intelligence in detection and therapeutic decisions concerning disease states, the possibilities for technological support of not only compromised individuals but of the augmentation of human function, and an analysis of the benefits, limitations and issues that surround our current expectations of personalized medicine.

Key Features

  • Covers the most important developments in biomedical research in the past decade, with a thoughtful analysis of how they impact patient care
  • Discusses the feasibility and usefulness of personalized medicine, the limits and promise of genetic editing, the basis for variation in sexual identity and how artificial intelligence and technology will affect basic human function as well as correcting disability
  • Promotes and facilitates discussions about the ethics and governance issues that surround much of what science is now able to do at the most basic levels of human’s physiology


Infertility specialists, including embryologists, reproductive endocrinologists, reproductive geneticists, andrologists and pharmacologists. Researchers, graduate and physician scientists interested in genomic biological research, in sex, gender, epigenetics, and translational research, Medical technology industry

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
    Marianne J. Legato
    Marek Glezerman
    Marianne J. Legato
    Section A
    1. Is there a role for Natural Selection in Sex Differences?
    Adriana Maggi
    2. Battle of the Sexes: How the Selection of Spermatozoa in the Female Reproductive Tract Manipulates the Sex Ratio of Offspring
    Alireza Fazeli, William Vincent Holt, Suranga Kodithuwakku, Kasun Godakumara and Lisa M. Thurston
    3. Gender/sex: Shaping identity in infancy and early childhood
    Anne Sterling and Jihyun Sung
    4. A gendered brain perspective from structure to brain network interactions
    Carme Uribe, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza and Antonio Guillamon
    5. Third Edition: Sex-specific implications of adverse intrauterine environment. Writing with Antonia Hufnagel.
    Catherine Aiken and Antonia Hufnagel
    6. Sex-Specific Brain Transcriptome of the Mouse
    Diethard Tautz and Maryam Keshavarz
    7. Using the exposome to understand the role of the environment in gender- and sex-specific medicine
    Gary W. Miller, Faith Anderson, Meghan Bucher, Yunjia Lai and Jocelyn Dicent
    8. Regulation of Gene Expression in the Brain by Sex Hormones
    Jessica Tollkuhn and Simón(e) Sun
    9. Sex-specific disparities in mitochondrial function and its role in health and disease
    Keshav K. Singh and Suresh Mishra
    10. Sex Differences  in Fetal Programming
    Marek Glezerman
    11. Sex Differences in the Brain: Focus on Developmental Mechanisms
    Margaret M. McCarthy
    12. Genes, Environments and Epigenetic Modifications
    Marla B. Sokolowski, Sydney Gram and Dustin J. Sokolowski
    13. Epigenetics: Mechanisms, Theory and Social Implications
    Maurizio Meloni
    14. Adipose-derived Stem Cells
    Satoshi Sobajima, Yoshitomo Saita, Hideki Iwaguro, Ryosuke Kuroda and Masanori Tsubosaka
    15. Role of Sex Chromosomes in Human Disease
    Neil Bradbury
    16. Best-laid plans: The establishment of biological sex, and its susceptibility to disruption
    Peter Koopman
    17. CRISPR Technology and Its Role in Treating Rare Imprinting Diseases
    Radislav Sedláček, Petr Nickl and Linn Amanda Syding
    18. Perinatal Genome and Brain Functions: The Case of Genomic Imprinting
    Valter Tucci, Angelo Serani and Alice Melloni
    19. Microbiome: Impact of Gender on Function & Characteristics of Gut Microbiome
    Veena Taneja
    Section B
    20. Geoepidemiology and the Impact of Sex on Autoimmune Diseases
    Ana Lleo
    21. Molecular Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Epilepsy
    Samba Reddy
    22. Consideration of biological sex in stem cell therapies
    Dan Gazit, Gadi Pelled, Zulma Gazit and Zoe Krut
    23. Sex and Human Brain Structure and Function: Moving Beyond the Binary
    Daphna Joel
    24. Genomic and Epigenomic Signature at the branch-point among Genome, Phenome and Sexome in health and disease: A Multi-Omics approach
    Donato Gemmati and Veronica Tisato
    25. The Importance of Gender-Specific Medicine in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Clinical Practice, and Global Health Care
    Ibis Sanchez-Serrano
    26. The neurobiology of gender identity and gender dysphoria
    ivanka SAVIC
    27. Biological Sex in the times of Precision Nutrition
    Jose M. Ordovas and D Corella
    28. The invaluable contribution of animal models in understanding sex-dependent differences in neuropsychiatric disorders
    Liana Fattore
    29. Sexual Dimorphism in Molecular Biology of Cancer
    Mehmet Tevfik Dorak
    30. The Importance of Expeditionary Fitness in Optimizing the  Human Commercial Spaceflight Experience
    Michael A. Schmidt
    31. Brain morphological changes associated with sexual orientation
    Mikhail Votinov and Andrei A. Puiu
    32. Current options for the measurement and operationalization of sex and gender
    Sabine Oertelt-Prigione
    33. Precision Medicine::  Overview and Challenges to Clinical Implementation
    Susanne Haga
    Section C
    34. Assessment of fall risks in older females and males using an automated smartphone mobility suite
    Emil Jovanov
    35. Impact of Statin Therapy on Sex Hormones
    Amirhossein Sahebkar, Željko Reiner, Hossein Chiti, Negin Parsamanesh and Tannaz Jamialahmadi
    36. The Role of Gender in Exercise Physiology and Metabolism
    Andreas M. Fritzen, Anne-Marie Lundsgaard and Bente Kiens
    37. Cerebral effects of gender affirming hormone treatments in transgender persons
    Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Antonio Guillamon and Carme Uribe
    38. Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare
    Arthur Argenson and Virginia Devi-Chou
    39. Trauma and Gender in Primary Care
    Dorte Mølgaard Christiansen
    40. Fertility Treatment and Preservation in Transgender Men and Women
    Dov Feldberg
    41. Sexual dimorphism of the pathophysiology and treatment of atrial fibrillation
    Elaine Y. Wan, Ellie Coromilas, Stephanie Kochav and Jessica Hennessey
    42. Reductionistic and Holistic Research Approaches: Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Ferric Fang and Arturo Casadevall
    43. Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Disorders: An Overview
    Fidaa Shaib and Hrayr Attarian
    44. Estrogen: Impact on Cardiomyocytes and the Heart
    Jin Kyung Kim
    45. Beyond Sex and Gender Differences: The Case for Women’s Health Research
    Liisa Galea
    46. Dimorphic or bimodal? Measurement and Meaning of Sex/Gender from Bench to Bedside
    Reubs J. Walsh
    47. Person Centred Cancer Genetic Counselling for Transgender and Gender Diverse Patients
    Josephine Giblin
    48. Musculoskeletal Complaints in Male and Female Instrumental Musicians
    Rob G.H.H Nelissen and Laura Madelinde Kok
    49. Sex, Gender, and Pain
    Roger Fillingim
    50. Urothelial Cancer: Bladder and Upper Tract
    S. F. Shariat, Reza Sari Motlagh, Fajkovic Harun and Manuela Schmidinger
    51. Beyond the mask: the role of camouflaging in managing an autistic identity for girls and women
    Jan Burns and Siobhan Tierney
    52. Vulnerable Males and Strong Females: Gender Differences in Susceptibilty to Stress Factors during Prenatal Development from the Viewpoint of Life History Theory
    Sylvia Kirchengast
    53. Robots and Gender
    Tatsuya Nomura
    54. Sex Specificity in Neonatal Outcomes
    Vineet Bhandari and Vishwanath Bhat
    55. Human Male and Female Phenotypes Depend on Lifestyles (Smoking and Hormonal Contraceptives): Implications for Prevention and Care
    Ilaria Campesi and Flavia Franconi

Product details

  • No. of pages: 930
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2023
  • Published: April 17, 2023
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323885348

About the Editor

Marianne Legato

Dr. Marianne Legato, Emerita Professor of Clinical Medicine at Columbia University, is an internationally known academic physician, author, lecturer, and specialist in gender-specific medicine. She is founding member of the International Society for Gender Medicine and the founder and director of The Partnership for Gender-Specific Medicine at Columbia University and its next iteration, The Foundation for Gender-Specific Medicine. She has published extensively on gender and sex specific medicine, both for the scientific community and for the lay public. She is also the founding editor of the Journal Gender Medicine, and the journal Gender and the Genome. In 1992, Dr. Legato won the American Heart Association’s Blakeslee Award for the best book written for the lay public on cardiovascular disease. The third edition of her textbook, Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine and her most recent book, The Plasticity of Sex., both won Prose awards from the American Association of Editors in 2021 and 2022 respectively. She is a practicing internist in New York City and has been listed each year in New York Magazine and Castle Connolly’s lists "Best Doctors" since their inception in 1993.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emerita Professor, Clinical Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons and Adjunct Professor, Medicine at Johns Hopkins Medical School

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