Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine

Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine

Sex and Gender Specific Biology in the Postgenomic Era

4th Edition - August 1, 2022

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  • Editor: Marianne Legato
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323885348

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Awarded with the 2018 Prose Award in Clinical Medicine, the third edition of Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine explored and described exciting new areas in biomedicine that integrated technology into the treatment of disease and the augmentation of human function. Novel topics such as the sex-specific aspects of space medicine, the development and the use of genderized robots and a discussion of cyborgs were included in the third edition, providing a preview of the expanding world of sex-specific physiology and therapeutics. This Fourth Edition is a continuation of the mission to trace the relevance of biological sex to normal function and to the experience of disease in humans.We are now twenty years into the postgenomic era. The investigation of how the genome produces the phenome has led to fascinating insights as well as yet unanswered questions. Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine, Fourth Edition, has a central theme: discuss advances in understanding the role of epigenetics in regulating gene expression in a dynamic, sex-specific way during human life. It explores the protean role of epigenetics in human physiology, the relevance of environmental experience to human function, the therapeutic promise of cutting-edge methodologies like gene manipulation, the preparation of humans for space travel, the use of artificial intelligence in detection and therapeutic decisions concerning disease states, the possibilities for technological support of not only compromised individuals but of the augmentation of human function, and an analysis of the benefits, limitations and issues that surround our current expectations of personalized medicine.

Key Features

  • Covers the most important developments in biomedical research in the past decade, with a thoughtful analysis of how they impact patient care
  • Discusses the feasibility and usefulness of personalized medicine, the limits and promise of genetic editing, the basis for variation in sexual identity and how artificial intelligence and technology will affect basic human function as well as correcting disability
  • Promotes and facilitates discussions about the ethics and governance issues that surround much of what science is now able to do at the most basic levels of human’s physiology


Infertility specialists, including embryologists, reproductive endocrinologists, reproductive geneticists, andrologists and pharmacologists. Researchers, graduate and physician scientists interested in genomic biological research, in sex, gender, epigenetics, and translational research. Medical technology industry

Table of Contents

  • Section 1: The new science of epigenetics and the sex-specific mechanisms of gene regulation  
    1. Overview of various perceptions of epigenetics
    2. Sex differences in gene expression in the brain
    3. Epigenetics of sex differences in the brain
    4. Advances in studying epigenetics biomarkers of prognostic potential for clinical research, epigenetics of rRNA Genes
    5. Single cell look at epigenetic inheritance mechanisms
    6. Review of the epigenetics evolution
    7. Epigenetics of human disease
    8. Malignant transformation and epigenetics
    9. The role of transposable elements in human disease

    Section 2: How is sex established?
    10. Searching for sex in the genome 
    11. Concept of the “sexome”  
    12. Ovarian formation 
    13. How XX and XY supporting cells initiate sex determination

    Section 3: What is the role of the environment in shaping the phenome?
    14. Early life environment and the epigenome
    15. Mechanisms of transmission of sex-specific epigenetic changes to subsequent generations
    16. Gene-environment interactions related to epigenetic and classical genetic mechanisms
    17. Environmental epigenetics
    18. The concept of the exposome

    Section 4: New concepts of the biology that produces deviations in sexual development, sexual dysphoria and homosexuality
    19. The role of epigenetics in delineating the biological basis of human sexual orientation
    20. The epigenetic factors that may canalize homosexuality
    21. Molecular biology of sexualization of the brain

    Section 5: Commentary on the much-touted discipline of personalized medicine
    22. Deciphering individual molecular biology to prevent, detect and treat human disease
    23. Traditionally constructed large epidemiologic studies
    24. Geneome sequencing and analysis at the expense of more useful large epidemiologic studies
    25. Biological sex in the pursuit of personalized medicine
    26. Underserved communities and personalized medicine
    27. Value, pitfalls, and opportunities of pursuing personalized medicine

    Section 6: The integration of technology into the human body
    28. The use of AI/technology to diagnose and treat disease
    29. Cyborgs and the evolution of man + machine
    30. Overview of the developments and achievements in orthotic and prosthetic technology
    31. Use of brain implants to treat neurological problems
    32. The Use of technology to augment the human competence
    33. The fascinating concept of the post human
    34. The future of human intelligence
    35. Neural interface that will last a lifetime to generate neural prosthetic devices to possibly enhance brain function
    36. Application of cyborg technology and theory to space travel by humans
    37. Use of personalized medicine to supplement the lack of sex-specific information in the young field of space medicine

    Section 7: CRISPR-Cas9 technology
    38. Problems/inadequacies/limitations of CRISPRP-Cas9 Genome Editing
    39. iochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
    40. First steps on making changes in mitochondrial DNA
    41. Mitochondrial genetic manipulation
    42. Strategy for manipulating the mitochondrial genome with cytidine deaminase toxin
    43. The ethics and governance of genetic engineering 

Product details

  • No. of pages: 800
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2023
  • Published: August 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323885348

About the Editor

Marianne Legato

Dr. Marianne Legato, Professor Emerita of Clinical Medicine at Columbia University is an internationally known academic physician, author, lecturer, and specialist in gender-specific medicine. She is founding member of the International Society for Gender Medicine and also the founder and director of The Partnership for Gender-Specific Medicine at Columbia University and its next iteration, The Foundation for Gender-Specific Medicine. She has published extensively on gender and sex specific medicine, both scientifically and for the lay public. She is also the founding editor of the journal Gender Medicine, and the journal Gender and the Genome, published for the scientific community. In 1992, Dr. Legato won the American Heart Association’s Blakeslee Award for the best book written for the lay public on cardiovascular disease. She is a practicing internist in New York City and has been listed each year in New York Magazine’s "Best Doctors" since the feature’s inception in 1993.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emerita of Clinical Medicine at Columbia University, New York, NY, U.S.A.

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