Principles of Epidemiology

Principles of Epidemiology

A Self-Teaching Guide

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Authors: Lewis H. Roht, Beatrice J. Selwyn, Alfonso H. Holguin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483276342

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Description

Principles of Epidemiology: A Self-Teaching Guide consists of a series of problem-solving exercises designed to introduce and guide readers toward an understanding of the principles and methods of epidemiology, rather than the epidemiology of specific diseases or subject areas such as ""infectious disease"" or ""chronic disease"" epidemiology. The guide has been formulated to be used by itself or as a supplement to standard textbooks. It illustrates and illuminates the principles and concepts of epidemiology and provides the reader an opportunity to practice the application of these principles in a logical sequence. The guide is divided into 14 exercises. Each exercise will help readers to understand principles or methods used by epidemiologist. Topics covered include the patterns of disease, populations at risk and risk assessment, screening for disease, investigation of an epidemic, etiology of disease, principles of causation, study design in epidemiologic investigation, data interpretation, and the uses and applications of epidemiology.

Table of Contents


  • Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Part I. Basic Tenets of Epidemiology

    Exercise 1. Patterns of Disease

    I. Risks

    II. Rates

    III. Population at Risk

    IV. The "Person-Place-Time" Model

    V. The "Host-Agent-Environment" Model

    VI. Epidemics

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 2. Population at Risk

    I. Age- and Cause-Specific Rates

    II. Definition of the Term Population at Risk

    III. Populations Useful in Identifying Epidemiologic Problems

    IV. Cohort Analysis

    Suggested Responses

    Part II. Measurement

    Exercise 3. Assessing Risk

    I. Categories of Measurement

    II. Misleading Numbers

    III. Measurement of Morbidity, Mortality, and Natality

    IV. Denominators: Using Midyear Population versus Person-Time Units

    V. Standardization—Direct and Indirect Adjustment of Rates

    VI. Relative Risk and Attributable Risk

    VII. Definition of Formulas

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 4. Presentation of Data

    I. Methods for Presenting and Interpreting Health-Related Data

    II. Improperly Prepared Graphs

    III. Dividing Data into Categories

    IV. Dependent and Independent Variables

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 5. Classification Systems

    I. Definition and Purpose of Classification

    II. Clinical and Epidemiologic Classification of Diseases

    III. The International Classification of Diseases

    IV. Effect of Grouping on Interpretation of Data

    V. Defining the Numerator: What is a Case?

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 6. Screening for Disease

    I. Definition of Screening

    II. Sensitivity and Specificity

    III. The Effect of Prevalence on Screening Test Results

    IV. The Effect of Combinations of Tests

    Suggested Responses

    Part III. Epidemiologic Strategy

    Exercise 7. Investigation of an Epidemic

    I. Types of Epidemics

    II. Mode of Transmission

    III. Control Measures for Epidemics

    IV. Outline for Epidemic Investigations

    V. Investigation of a Food-Borne Epidemic

    VI. Design of Epidemiologic Record Forms

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 8. Etiology of Disease

    I. Blindness X, a Noninfectious Disease

    II. Cholera in London, 1854

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 9. Principles of Causation

    I. Concept of Causation

    II. Historical Concepts of Causation

    III. Epidemiologic Criteria of Causation. The Association between Smoking and Lung Cancer

    Suggested Responses

    Part IV. Study Design and Interpretation of Data

    Exercise 10. Study Design in Epidemiologic Investigation

    I. Identification of an Epidemiologic Problem and Formulation of a Research Question

    II. Objectives of Epidemiologic Studies

    III. Design of a Study: Identifying Advantages and Limitations

    IV. Considerations in the Design of Epidemiologic Investigations: Selecting Alternatives

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 11. Problems in the Design or Presentation of Data of Epidemiologic Studies

    I. Comparability of Case and Comparison (Control) Groups

    II. Period of Exposure to Risk

    III. Volunteers

    IV. Associations, Correlations, and Trends

    V. Inferences Derived in the Absence of a Population at Risk

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 12. Bias in Epidemiologic Investigations

    I. Definition of Bias

    II. Berkson's Bias

    III. Attrition Bias

    IV. Sources of Bias

    V. Avoiding Bias

    VI. Examples of Biased Data

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 13. Evaluation of Epidemiologic Reports

    I. Outline for Evaluating an Epidemiologic Report

    II. Reports to be Evaluated

    Suggested Responses

    Exercise 14. Uses and Applications of Epidemiology

    I. Who Needs Epidemiology?

    II. Surveillance

    III. Risk Factors and Prevention of Disease

    IV. Epidemiology in Health Services Research

    Suggested Responses

    Appendix I. Bibliography of Readings in Epidemiology and Public Health

    Appendix II. Suggested Examination Questions for Coursework Evaluation


Product details

  • No. of pages: 526
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483276342

About the Authors

Lewis H. Roht

Beatrice J. Selwyn

Alfonso H. Holguin

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