Principles of Epidemiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125931809, 9781483276342

Principles of Epidemiology

1st Edition

A Self-Teaching Guide

Authors: Lewis H. Roht Beatrice J. Selwyn Alfonso H. Holguin
eBook ISBN: 9781483276342
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1982
Page Count: 526
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Description

Principles of Epidemiology: A Self-Teaching Guide consists of a series of problem-solving exercises designed to introduce and guide readers toward an understanding of the principles and methods of epidemiology, rather than the epidemiology of specific diseases or subject areas such as ""infectious disease"" or ""chronic disease"" epidemiology. The guide has been formulated to be used by itself or as a supplement to standard textbooks. It illustrates and illuminates the principles and concepts of epidemiology and provides the reader an opportunity to practice the application of these principles in a logical sequence. The guide is divided into 14 exercises. Each exercise will help readers to understand principles or methods used by epidemiologist. Topics covered include the patterns of disease, populations at risk and risk assessment, screening for disease, investigation of an epidemic, etiology of disease, principles of causation, study design in epidemiologic investigation, data interpretation, and the uses and applications of epidemiology.

Table of Contents


Acknowledgments

Introduction

Part I. Basic Tenets of Epidemiology

Exercise 1. Patterns of Disease

I. Risks

II. Rates

III. Population at Risk

IV. The "Person-Place-Time" Model

V. The "Host-Agent-Environment" Model

VI. Epidemics

Suggested Responses

Exercise 2. Population at Risk

I. Age- and Cause-Specific Rates

II. Definition of the Term Population at Risk

III. Populations Useful in Identifying Epidemiologic Problems

IV. Cohort Analysis

Suggested Responses

Part II. Measurement

Exercise 3. Assessing Risk

I. Categories of Measurement

II. Misleading Numbers

III. Measurement of Morbidity, Mortality, and Natality

IV. Denominators: Using Midyear Population versus Person-Time Units

V. Standardization—Direct and Indirect Adjustment of Rates

VI. Relative Risk and Attributable Risk

VII. Definition of Formulas

Suggested Responses

Exercise 4. Presentation of Data

I. Methods for Presenting and Interpreting Health-Related Data

II. Improperly Prepared Graphs

III. Dividing Data into Categories

IV. Dependent and Independent Variables

Suggested Responses

Exercise 5. Classification Systems

I. Definition and Purpose of Classification

II. Clinical and Epidemiologic Classification of Diseases

III. The International Classification of Diseases

IV. Effect of Grouping on Interpretation of Data

V. Defining the Numerator: What is a Case?

Suggested Responses

Exercise 6. Screening for Disease

I. Definition of Screening

II. Sensitivity and Specificity

III. The Effect of Prevalence on Screening Test Results

IV. The Effect of Combinations of Tests

Suggested Responses

Part III. Epidemiologic Strategy

Exercise 7. Investigation of an Epidemic

I. Types of Epidemics

II. Mode of Transmission

III. Control Measures for Epidemics

IV. Outline for Epidemic Investigations

V. Investigation of a Food-Borne Epidemic

VI. Design of Epidemiologic Record Forms

Suggested Responses

Exercise 8. Etiology of Disease

I. Blindness X, a Noninfectious Disease

II. Cholera in London, 1854

Suggested Responses

Exercise 9. Principles of Causation

I. Concept of Causation

II. Historical Concepts of Causation

III. Epidemiologic Criteria of Causation. The Association between Smoking and Lung Cancer

Suggested Responses

Part IV. Study Design and Interpretation of Data

Exercise 10. Study Design in Epidemiologic Investigation

I. Identification of an Epidemiologic Problem and Formulation of a Research Question

II. Objectives of Epidemiologic Studies

III. Design of a Study: Identifying Advantages and Limitations

IV. Considerations in the Design of Epidemiologic Investigations: Selecting Alternatives

Suggested Responses

Exercise 11. Problems in the Design or Presentation of Data of Epidemiologic Studies

I. Comparability of Case and Comparison (Control) Groups

II. Period of Exposure to Risk

III. Volunteers

IV. Associations, Correlations, and Trends

V. Inferences Derived in the Absence of a Population at Risk

Suggested Responses

Exercise 12. Bias in Epidemiologic Investigations

I. Definition of Bias

II. Berkson's Bias

III. Attrition Bias

IV. Sources of Bias

V. Avoiding Bias

VI. Examples of Biased Data

Suggested Responses

Exercise 13. Evaluation of Epidemiologic Reports

I. Outline for Evaluating an Epidemiologic Report

II. Reports to be Evaluated

Suggested Responses

Exercise 14. Uses and Applications of Epidemiology

I. Who Needs Epidemiology?

II. Surveillance

III. Risk Factors and Prevention of Disease

IV. Epidemiology in Health Services Research

Suggested Responses

Appendix I. Bibliography of Readings in Epidemiology and Public Health

Appendix II. Suggested Examination Questions for Coursework Evaluation


Details

No. of pages:
526
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483276342

About the Author

Lewis H. Roht

Beatrice J. Selwyn

Alfonso H. Holguin