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Principles of Electron Optics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128189795

Principles of Electron Optics

2nd Edition

Volume 3: Wave Optics

Authors: Peter W. Hawkes Erwin Kasper
Paperback ISBN: 9780128189795
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st August 2021
Page Count: 850
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Principles of Electron Optic: Wave Optics, Volume Three discusses this essential topic in microscopy to help readers understand the propagation of electrons from the source to the specimen, and through the latter (and from it) to the image plane of the instrument. In addition, it also explains interference phenomena, notably holography, and informal coherence theory. This third volume accompanies volumes one and two that cover new content on holography and interference, improved and new modes of image formation, aberration corrected imaging, simulation, and measurement, 3D-reconstruction, and more.

The study of such beams forms the subject of electron optics, which divides naturally into geometrical optics where effects due to wavelength are neglected, with wave optics considered.

Key Features

  • Includes authoritative coverage of the fundamental theory behind electron beams
  • Describes the interaction of electrons with solids and the information that can be obtained from electron-beam techniques
  • Addresses recent, relevant research topics, including new content on holography and interference, new modes of image formation, 3D reconstruction and aberration corrected imaging, simulation and measurement


Materials scientists and engineers, electronic engineers, applied physicists, electron microscopists

Table of Contents

54. Introduction

Part XI – Wave Mechanics
55. The Schrödinger Equation
56. The Relativistic Wave Equation
57. The Eikonal Approximation
58. Paraxial Wave Optics
59. The General Theory of Electron Diffraction and Interference
60. Elementary Diffraction Patterns

Part XII, Electron Interference and Electron Holography
61. General Introduction
62. Interferometry
63. Holography

Part XIII, Theory of Image Formation
64. General Introduction
65. Fundamentals of Transfer Theory
66. The Theory of Bright-field Imaging.
67. Image Formation in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope
68. Statistical Parameter Estimation Theory

Part XIV – Electron–specimen Interactions
69. Electron Interactions in Thin Specimens

Part XV – Digital Image Processing
70. Introduction
71. Acquisition, Sampling and Coding
72. Enhancement
73. Linear Restoration
74. Nonlinear Restoration – the Phase Problem
75. Three-dimensional Reconstruction
76. Image Analysis
77. Microscope Parameter Measurement and Instrument Control

Part XVI – Coherence, Brightness and Spectral Functions
78. Coherence and the Brightness Functions
79. Wigner Optics

PART XVII – Vortex Studies, the Quantum Electron Microscope
80. Orbital Angular Momentum, Vortex Beams and the Quantum Electron Microscope


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2021
1st August 2021
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:

About the Authors

Peter W. Hawkes

Peter W. Hawkes

Peter Hawkes graduated from the University of Cambridge and subsequently obtained his PhD in the Electron Microscopy Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. He remained there for several years, working on electron optics and digital image processing before taking up a research position in the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics (now CEMES-CNRS) in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. During the Cambridge years, he was a Research Fellow of Peterhouse and a Senior Research fellow of Churchill College. He has published extensively, both books and scientific journal articles, and is a member of the editorial boards of Ultramicroscopy and the Journal of Microscopy. He was the founder-president of the European Microscopy Society, CNRS Silver Medallist in 1983 and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the Microscopy Society of America (Distinguished Scientist, Physics, 2015), Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and Honorary Member of the French Microscopy Society. In 1982, he was awarded the ScD degree by the University of Cambridge.

In 1982, he took over editorship of the Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics (now Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics) from Claire Marton (widow of the first editor, Bill Marton) and followed Marton's example in maintaining a wide range of subject matter. He added mathematical morphology to the topics regularly covered; Jean Serra and Gerhard Ritter are among those who have contributed.

In 1980, he joined Professor Wollnik (Giessen University) and Karl Brown (SLAC) in organising the first international conference on charged-particle optics, designed to bring together opticians from the worlds of electron optics, accelerator optics and spectrometer optics. This was so successful that similar meetings have been held at four-year intervals from 1986 to the present day. Peter Hawkes organised the 1990 meeting in Toulouse and has been a member of the organising committee of all the meetings. He has also participated in the organization of other microscopy-related congresses, notably EMAG in the UK and some of the International and European Congresses on electron microscopy as well as three Pfefferkorn conferences.

He is very interested in the history of optics and microscopy, and recently wrote long historical articles on the correction of electron lens aberrations, the first based on a lecture delivered at a meeting of the Royal Society. He likewise sponsored biographical articles for the Advances on such major figures as Ernst Ruska (Nobel Prize 1986), Helmut Ruska, Bodo von Borries, Jan Le Poole and Dennis Gabor (Nobel Prize, 1971). Two substantial volumes of the series were devoted to 'The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy' and 'The Growth of Electron Microscopy'. and others have covered 'Cold Field Emission Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy' and 'Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy', with contributions by all the main personalities of the subject.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France

Erwin Kasper

Erwin Kasper studied physics at the Universities of Münster and Tübingen (Germany), where he obtained his PhD in 1965 and the habilitation to teach physics in 1969. After scientific spells in the University of Tucson, Arizona (1966) and in Munich (1970), he resumed his research and teaching in the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, where he was later appointed professor. He lectured on general physics and especially on electron optics. The subject of his research was theoretical electron optics and related numerical methods on which he published numerous papers. After his retirement in 1997, he published a book on numerical field calculation (2001).

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

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