Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 2 - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128133699, 9780128134054

Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 2

2nd Edition

Applied Geometrical Optics

Authors: Peter Hawkes Erwin Kasper
eBook ISBN: 9780128134054
Paperback ISBN: 9780128133699
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th November 2017
Page Count: 766
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Principles of Electron Optics: Applied Geometrical Optics, Second Edition gives detailed information about the many optical elements that use the theory presented in Volume 1: electrostatic and magnetic lenses, quadrupoles, cathode-lens-based instruments including the new ultrafast microscopes, low-energy-electron microscopes and photoemission electron microscopes and the mirrors found in their systems, Wien filters and deflectors. The chapter on aberration correction is largely new. The long section on electron guns describes recent theories and covers multi-column systems and carbon nanotube emitters. Monochromators are included in the section on curved-axis systems.

The lists of references include many articles that will enable the reader to go deeper into the subjects discussed in the text.

The book is intended for postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics, as well as researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy and nanolithography.

Key Features

  • Offers a fully revised and expanded new edition based on the latest research developments in electron optics
  • Written by the top experts in the field
  • Covers every significant advance in electron optics since the subject originated
  • Contains exceptionally complete and carefully selected references and notes
  • Serves both as a reference and text


Postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics; researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy, and nanolithography

Table of Contents

35. Electrostatic Lenses 
35.1. Introduction 
35.2. Immersion lenses 
35.3. Einzel lenses 
35.4. Grid or foil lenses 
35.5. Cylindrical lenses 
36. Magnetic Lenses 
36.1. Introduction 
36.2. Field models 
36.3. Measurements and universal curves 
36.4. Ultimate lens performance 
36.5. Lenses of unusual geometry 
36.6. Special purpose lenses 
37. Electron Mirrors, Low-energy-electron Microscopes and Photoemission Electron Microscopes, Cathode Lenses and Field-emisssion Microscopy 
37.1. The electron mirror microscope 
37.2. Mirrors in energy analysis 
37.3. Cathode lenses, low-energy-electron microscopes and photoemission electron microscopes
37.4. Field-emission microscopy
37.5. Ultrafast electron microscopy
38. The Wien Filter 
39. Quadrupole Lenses 
39.1. Introduction 
39.2. The rectangular and bell-shaped models 
39.3. Isolated quadrupoles and doublets 
39.4. Triplets 
39.5. Quadruplets 
39.6. Other quadrupole geometries 
40. Deflection Systems 
40.1. Introduction 
40.2. Field models for magnetic deflection systems 
40.3. The variable-axis lens 
40.4. Alternative concepts 
40.5. Deflection modes and beam-shaping techniques 

41. Aberration Correction 
41.1. Introduction 
41.2. Multipole correctors 
41.3. Foil lenses and space charge 
41.4. Axial conductors 
41.5. Mirrors
41.6. High-frequency lenses 
41.7. Other aspects of aberration correction 
41.8.  Concluding remarks
42. Caustics and their Applications 
42.1. Introduction 
42.2. The concept of the caustic 
42.3. The caustic of a round lens 
42.4. The caustic of an astigmatic lens 
42.5. Intensity considerations 
42.6. Higher order focusing properties 
42.7. Applications of annular systems 

43. General Features of Electron Guns 
43.1. Thermionic electron guns 
43.2. Schottky emission guns
43.3. Cold field electron emission guns 
43.4. Beam transport systems 
44. Theory of Electron Emission 
44.1. General relations 
44.2. Transmission through a plane barrier 
44.3. Thermionic electron emission 
44.4. The tunnel effect 
44.5. Field electron emission 
44.6. Schottky emission 
44.7. Concluding remarks 
45. Pointed Cathodes without Space Charge 
45.1. The spherical cathode 
45.2. The diode approximation 
45.3. Field calculation in electron sources with pointed cathodes 
45.4. Simple models 
46. Space Charge Effects 
46.1. The spherical diode 
46.2. Asymptotic properties and generalizations 
46.3. Determination of the space charge 
46.4. The Boersch effect
47. Brightness 
47.1. Application of Liouville’s theorem 
47.2. The maximum brightness 
47.3. The influence of apertures 
47.4. Lenz’s brightness theory 
47.5. Measurement of the brightness
47.6. Coulomb interactions and brightness 

47.7. Aberrations in the Theory of Brightness


48. Emittance 
48.1. Trace space and hyperemittance 
48.2. Two-dimensional emittances 
48.3. Brightness and emittance 
48.4. Emittance diagrams 
49. Gun optics 
49.1. The Fujita–Shimoyama theory 
49.2. Rose's theory 
49.3. Matching the paraxial approximation to a cathode surface 
50. Complete Electron Guns 
50.1. Justification of the point source model 
50.2. The lens system in field emission devices 
50.3. Hybrid emission 
50.4. Conventional thermionic guns 
50.5. Pierce guns 
50.6. Multi-electron-beam systems
50.7. Carbon nanotube emitters
50.8. Further reading 

51. General Curvilinear Systems 
51.1. Introduction of a curvilinear coordinate system 
51.2. Series expansion of the potentials and fields 
51.3. Variational principle and trajectory equations 
51.4. Simplifying symmetries 
51.5. Trajectory equations for symmetric configurations 
51.6. Aberration theory 
52. Magnetic Sector Fields 
52.1. Introduction 
52.2. Magnetic devices with a circular optic axis 
52.3. Radial (horizontal) focusing for a particular model field
52.4. The linear dispersion 
52.5. The axial (vertical) focusing 
52.6. Fringing field effects 
52.7. Aberration theory: the homogeneous field (n = 0)
52.8. Optimization procedures
52.9. Energy analysers and monochromators 
53. Unified Theories of Ion Optical Systems 
53.1. Introduction 
53.2. Electrostatic prisms 
53.3. A unified version of the theory 
53.4. The literature of ion optics

Notes and References


No. of pages:
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About the Author

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes graduated from the University of Cambridge and subsequently obtained his PhD in the Electron Microscopy Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. He remained there for several years, working on electron optics and digital image processing before taking up a research position in the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics (now CEMES-CNRS) in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. During the Cambridge years, he was a Research Fellow of Peterhouse and a Senior Research fellow of Churchill College. He has published extensively, both books and scientific journal articles, and is a member of the editorial boards of Ultramicroscopy and the Journal of Microscopy. He was the founder-president of the European Microscopy Society, CNRS Silver Medallist in 1983 and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the Microscopy Society of America (Distinguished Scientist, Physics, 2015), Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and Honorary Member of the French Microscopy Society. In 1982, he was awarded the ScD degree by the University of Cambridge.

In 1982, he took over editorship of the Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics (now Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics) from Claire Marton (widow of the first editor, Bill Marton) and followed Marton's example in maintaining a wide range of subject matter. He added mathematical morphology to the topics regularly covered; Jean Serra and Gerhard Ritter are among those who have contributed.

In 1980, he joined Professor Wollnik (Giessen University) and Karl Brown (SLAC) in organising the first international conference on charged-particle optics, designed to bring together opticians from the worlds of electron optics, accelerator optics and spectrometer optics. This was so successful that similar meetings have been held at four-year intervals from 1986 to the present day. Peter Hawkes organised the 1990 meeting in Toulouse and has been a member of the organising committee of all the meetings. He h

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France

Erwin Kasper

Erwin Kasper studied physics at the Universities of Münster and Tübingen (Germany), where he obtained his PhD in 1965 and the habilitation to teach physics in 1969. After scientific spells in the University of Tucson, Arizona (1966) and in Munich (1970), he resumed his research and teaching in the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, where he was later appointed professor. He lectured on general physics and especially on electron optics. The subject of his research was theoretical electron optics and related numerical methods on which he published numerous papers. After his retirement in 1997, he published a book on numerical field calculation (2001).

Affiliations and Expertise

Institut fuer Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, Tuebingen, Germany

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