Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 3

Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 3

Fundamental Wave Optics

2nd Edition - February 18, 2022

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  • Authors: Peter Hawkes, Erwin Kasper
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128189801
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128189795

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Description

Principles of Electron Optic: Volume Three: Wave Optics, discusses this essential topic in microscopy to help readers understand the propagation of electrons from the source to the specimen, and through the latter (and from it) to the image plane of the instrument. In addition, it also explains interference phenomena, notably holography, and informal coherence theory. This third volume accompanies volumes one and two that cover new content on holography and interference, improved and new modes of image formation, aberration corrected imaging, simulation, and measurement, 3D-reconstruction, and more. The study of such beams forms the subject of electron optics, which divides naturally into geometrical optics where effects due to wavelength are neglected, with wave optics considered.

Key Features

  • Includes authoritative coverage of the fundamental theory behind electron beams
  • Describes the interaction of electrons with solids and the information that can be obtained from electron-beam techniques
  • Addresses recent, relevant research topics, including new content on holography and interference, new modes of image formation, 3D reconstruction and aberration corrected imaging, simulation and measurement

Readership

Materials scientists and engineers, electronic engineers, applied physicists, electron microscopists

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Chapter 54. Introduction
  • Abstract
  • 54.1 Organization of the Subject
  • 54.2 History
  • Part XI: Wave Mechanics
  • Chapter 55. The Schrödinger Equation
  • Abstract
  • 55.1 Introduction
  • 55.2 Formulation of Schrödinger’s Equation
  • 55.3 The Continuity Equation
  • 55.4 The Gauge Transformation
  • 55.5 Wave–Particle Duality
  • Chapter 56. The Relativistic Wave Equation
  • Abstract
  • 56.1 The Dirac Equation
  • 56.2 The Scalar Wave Equation
  • 56.3 Properties of the Relativistic Wave Equation
  • 56.4 Rigorous Approach
  • Chapter 57. The Eikonal Approximation
  • Abstract
  • 57.1 The Product Separation
  • 57.2 The Essential Approximation
  • 57.3 The Variational Principle
  • 57.4 The Calculation of Eikonal Functions
  • 57.5 The Calculation of Wave Amplitudes
  • Chapter 58. Paraxial Wave Optics
  • Abstract
  • 58.1 The Paraxial Schrödinger Equation
  • 58.2 Particular Solution of the Paraxial Schrödinger Equation
  • 58.3 Paraxial Image Formation
  • 58.4 Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 59. The General Theory of Electron Diffraction and Interference
  • Abstract
  • 59.1 Kirchhoff’s General Diffraction Formula
  • 59.2 Necessary Simplifications
  • 59.3 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction
  • 59.4 Electron Diffraction in the Presence of Electromagnetic Fields
  • 59.5 Asymptotic Diffraction Formulae
  • 59.6 The Observability of Diffraction and Interference Fringes
  • Chapter 60. Elementary Diffraction Patterns
  • Abstract
  • 60.1 The Object Function
  • 60.2 Rectangular Structures
  • 60.3 Circular Structures
  • 60.4 Caustic Interferences
  • 60.5 Diffraction Disc with Lens Aberrations
  • 60.6 The Rayleigh Rule and Criterion
  • Part XII: Electron Interference and Electron Holography
  • Chapter 61. General Introduction
  • Abstract
  • Chapter 62. Interferometry
  • Abstract
  • 62.1 The Electrostatic Biprism
  • 62.2 Quasi-Homogeneous Interference Fringes
  • 62.3 Coherence Problems
  • 62.4 The Ehrenberg–Siday or Aharonov–Bohm Effect
  • 62.5 The Sagnac Effect
  • 62.6 Other Topics in Electron Interference
  • Chapter 63. Holography
  • Abstract
  • 63.1 In-Line Holography
  • 63.2 Off-Axis Holography: Hologram Formation in a Two-Beam Interferometer
  • 63.3 Reconstruction Procedures
  • 63.4 Holography in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope
  • 63.5 Reflection Holography
  • 63.6 Applications and Related Topics
  • 63.7 Propagation and Reconstruction of the Density Matrix
  • Part XIII: Theory of Image Formation
  • Chapter 64. General Introduction
  • Abstract
  • Chapter 65. Fundamentals of Transfer Theory
  • Abstract
  • 65.1 The Integral Transformation
  • 65.2 Isoplanatism and Fourier Transforms
  • 65.3 The Wave Transfer Function
  • 65.4 Explicit Formulae
  • Chapter 66. Image Formation in the Conventional Transmission Electron Microscope
  • Abstract
  • 66.1 Image Contrast for Weakly Scattering Specimens
  • 66.2 Spectral Distributions of the Illumination
  • 66.3 Particular Forms of the Spectra
  • 66.4 Optimum Defocus and Resolution Limit
  • 66.5 Extensions of the Theory
  • 66.6 Forms of the Aperture Function TA: Zone Plates and Phase Plates
  • 66.7 Transfer Theory and Crystalline Specimens
  • 66.8 Contrast Transfer in Aberration-Corrected Microscopes
  • 66.9 Other Transforms Having a Convolution Theorem
  • Chapter 67. Image Formation in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope
  • Abstract
  • 67.1 Introduction
  • 67.2 Wave Propagation in STEM
  • 67.3 Detector Geometry
  • 67.4 Ptychography
  • 67.5 Detector Technology
  • 67.6 Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes
  • Chapter 68. Statistical Parameter Estimation Theory
  • Abstract
  • 68.1 Introduction
  • 68.2 Models and Parameters
  • 68.3 Estimators
  • 68.4 Fisher Information and the Cramér–Rao Bound
  • 68.5 Extension to Three Dimensions
  • 68.6 Use of Maximum a Posteriori Probability
  • 68.7 Hidden Markov Modelling
  • 68.8 Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Notes and References
  • Preface & Chapter 54
  • Part XI, Chapters 55–60
  • Part XII, Chapters 61–63
  • Part XIII, Chapters 64–68
  • Conference Proceedings
  • 1. International Congresses on Electron Microscopy, later International Microscopy Congresses
  • 2. European Regional Congresses on Electron Microscopy, later European Microscopy Congresses
  • 3. Asia-Pacific Congresses on Electron Microscopy, later Asia–Pacific Microscopy Congresses
  • 4. Charged Particle Optics Conferences
  • 5. High-voltage Electron Microscopy Conferences
  • 6. EMAG [Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group of the Institute of Physics] Meetings
  • 7. Multinational Congresses on (Electron) Microscopy (MCEM, MCM)
  • 8. The Dreiländertagungen (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) and related meetings
  • 9. Recent Trends in Charged Particle Optics and Surface Physics Instrumentation (Skalský Dvůr)
  • 10. SPIE Proceedings
  • 11. Soviet All-Union Conferences on Electron Microscopy, later Russian Conferences on Electron Microscopy
  • 12. Problems of Theoretical and Applied Electron Optics [Problemyi Teoreticheskoi i Prikladnoi Elektronnoi Optiki]
  • 13. Mathematical Morphology and Its Applications to Signal and Image Processing
  • 14. Related Meetings
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 558
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: February 18, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128189801
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128189795

About the Authors

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes
Peter Hawkes obtained his M.A. and Ph.D (and later, Sc.D.) from the University of Cambridge, where he subsequently held Fellowships of Peterhouse and of Churchill College. From 1959 – 1975, he worked in the electron microscope section of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, after which he joined the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. He was Founder-President of the European Microscopy Society and is a Fellow of the Microscopy and Optical Societies of America. He is a member of the editorial boards of several microscopy journals and serial editor of Advances in Electron Optics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder-President of the European Microscopy Society and Fellow, Microscopy and Optical Societies of America; member of the editorial boards of several microscopy journals and serial editor of Advances in Electron Optics

Erwin Kasper

Erwin Kasper studied physics at the Universities of Münster and Tübingen (Germany), where he obtained his PhD in 1965 and the habilitation to teach physics in 1969. After scientific spells in the University of Tucson, Arizona (1966) and in Munich (1970), he resumed his research and teaching in the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, where he was later appointed professor. He lectured on general physics and especially on electron optics. The subject of his research was theoretical electron optics and related numerical methods on which he published numerous papers. After his retirement in 1997, he published a book on numerical field calculation (2001).

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

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