# Principles of Electron Optics, Three Volume Set

## 1st Edition

**Authors:**Peter Hawkes E. Kasper

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780123333407

**eBook ISBN:**9780080539706

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**4th April 1996

**Page Count:**3710

## Description

Introduction. **Part I--Classical Mechanics:** Relativistic Kinematics. Different Forms of Trajectory Equations. Variational Principles. Hamiltonian Optics. **Part II--Calculation of Static Fields:** Basic Concepts and Equations. Series Expansions. Boundary-Value Problems. Integral Equations. The Boundary-Element Method. The Finite-Difference Method (FDM). The Finite-Element Method (FEM). Field-Interpolation Techniques. **Part III--The Paraxial Approximation:** Introduction. Systems with an Axis of Rotational Symmetry. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Asymptotic Image Formation. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Real Cardinal Elements. Electron Mirrors. Quadrupole Lenses. Cylindrical Lenses. **Part IV--Aberrations:** Introduction. Perturbation Theory: General Formalism. The Relation Between Permitted Types of Aberration and System Symmetry. The Geometrical Aberrations of Round Lenses. Asymptotic Aberration Coefficients. Chromatic Aberrations. Aberration Matrices and the Aberrations of Lens Combinations. The Aberrations of Mirrors and Cathode Lenses. The Aberrations of Quadrupole Lenses and Octopoles. The Aberrations of Cylindrical Lenses. Parasitic Aberrations. **Part V--Deflection Systems:** Deflection Systems and their Aberrations. **Part VI--Computer-Aided Electron Optics:** Numerical Calculation of Trajectories, Paraxial Properties and Aberrations. The Use of Computer Algebra Languages. Notes and References. Index.

**Part VII--Instrumental Optics:** Electrostatic Lenses. Magnetic Lenses. Electron Mirrors. Cathode Lenses and Field-Emission Microscopy. Quadrupole Lenses. Deflection Systems. **Part VII--Aberration Correction and Beam Intensity Distribution (Caustics):** Aberration Correction. Caustics and their Applications. **Part IX--Electron Guns:** General Features of Electron Guns. Theory of Electron Emission. Pointed Cathodes without Space Charge. Space Charge Effects. Brightness. Emittance. The Boersch Effect. Complete Electron Guns. **Part X--Systems with a Curved Optic Axis:** General Curvilinear Systems. Magnetic Sector Fields. Unified Theories of Ion Optical Systems. Notes and References. Index.**Part XI--Wave Mechanics:** The Schrodinger Equation. The Relativistic Wave Equation. The Eikonal Approximation. Paraxial Wave Optics. The General Theory of Electron Diffraction and Interference. Elementary Diffraction Patterns. **Part XII--Electron Interference and Electron Holography:** General Introduction. Principles of Interferometry. Principles of Holography. **Part XIII--Theory of Image Formation:** General Introduction. Fundamentals of Transfer Theory. The Theory of Bright-field Imaging. Image Formation in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. **Part XIV--Electron Interactions in Thin Specimens:** Electron Interactions in Amorphous Specimens. Electron Interactions in Crystalline Specimens. **Part XV--Digital Image Processing:** Introduction. Acquisition, Sampling and Coding. Enhancement. Linear Restoration. Nonlinear Restoration. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction. Image Analysis. Instrument Control and Instrumental Image Manipulation. **Part XVI--Coherence, Brightness and Spectral Functions:** Coherence and the Brightness Functions. Instrumental Aspects of Coherence. Appendix. Notes and References. Index.

## Key Features

@introbul:Key Features @bul:* The most comprehensive coverage of the field in over forty years

- Contains extensive references and notes containing the contents of many of the major papers cited in the text
- Covers every significant advance in Electron Optics since the subject originated
- Exceptionally complete and carefully selected references

## Readership

Students and researchers in optics

## Table of Contents

Introduction. **Part I--Classical Mechanics:** Relativistic Kinematics. Different Forms of Trajectory Equations. Variational Principles. Hamiltonian Optics. **Part II--Calculation of Static Fields:** Basic Concepts and Equations. Series Expansions. Boundary-Value Problems. Integral Equations. The Boundary-Element Method. The Finite-Difference Method (FDM). The Finite-Element Method (FEM). Field-Interpolation Techniques. **Part III--The Paraxial Approximation:** Introduction. Systems with an Axis of Rotational Symmetry. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Asymptotic Image Formation. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Real Cardinal Elements. Electron Mirrors. Quadrupole Lenses. Cylindrical Lenses. **Part IV--Aberrations:** Introduction. Perturbation Theory: General Formalism. The Relation Between Permitted Types of Aberration and System Symmetry. The Geometrical Aberrations of Round Lenses. Asymptotic Aberration Coefficients. Chromatic Aberrations. Aberration Matrices and the Aberrations of Lens Combinations. The Aberrations of Mirrors and Cathode Lenses. The Aberrations of Quadrupole Lenses and Octopoles. The Aberrations of Cylindrical Lenses. Parasitic Aberrations. **Part V--Deflection Systems:** Deflection Systems and their Aberrations. **Part VI--Computer-Aided Electron Optics:** Numerical Calculation of Trajectories, Paraxial Properties and Aberrations. The Use of Computer Algebra Languages. Notes and References. Index.

**Part VII--Instrumental Optics:** Electrostatic Lenses. Magnetic Lenses. Electron Mirrors. Cathode Lenses and Field-Emission Microscopy. Quadrupole Lenses. Deflection Systems. **Part VII--Aberration Correction and Beam Intensity Distribution (Caustics):** Aberration Correction. Caustics and their Applications. **Part IX--Electron Guns:** General Features of Electron Guns. Theory of Electron Emission. Pointed Cathodes without Space Charge. Space Charge Effects. Brightness. Emittance. The Boersch Effect. Complete Electron Guns. **Part X--Systems with a Curved Optic Axis:** General Curvilinear Systems. Magnetic Sector Fields. Unified Theories of Ion Optical Systems. Notes and References. Index.**Part XI--Wave Mechanics:** The Schrodinger Equation. The Relativistic Wave Equation. The Eikonal Approximation. Paraxial Wave Optics. The General Theory of Electron Diffraction and Interference. Elementary Diffraction Patterns. **Part XII--Electron Interference and Electron Holography:** General Introduction. Principles of Interferometry. Principles of Holography. **Part XIII--Theory of Image Formation:** General Introduction. Fundamentals of Transfer Theory. The Theory of Bright-field Imaging. Image Formation in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. **Part XIV--Electron Interactions in Thin Specimens:** Electron Interactions in Amorphous Specimens. Electron Interactions in Crystalline Specimens. **Part XV--Digital Image Processing:** Introduction. Acquisition, Sampling and Coding. Enhancement. Linear Restoration. Nonlinear Restoration. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction. Image Analysis. Instrument Control and Instrumental Image Manipulation. **Part XVI--Coherence, Brightness and Spectral Functions:** Coherence and the Brightness Functions. Instrumental Aspects of Coherence. Appendix. Notes and References. Index.

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 3710

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 1994

- Published:
- 4th April 1996

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780080539706

## About the Author

### Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes graduated from the University of Cambridge and subsequently obtained his PhD in the Electron Microscopy Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. He remained there for several years, working on electron optics and digital image processing before taking up a research position in the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics (now CEMES-CNRS) in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. During the Cambridge years, he was a Research Fellow of Peterhouse and a Senior Research fellow of Churchill College. He has published extensively, both books and scientific journal articles, and is a member of the editorial boards of Ultramicroscopy and the Journal of Microscopy. He was the founder-president of the European Microscopy Society, CNRS Silver Medallist in 1983 and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the Microscopy Society of America (Distinguished Scientist, Physics, 2015), Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and Honorary Member of the French Microscopy Society. In 1982, he was awarded the ScD degree by the University of Cambridge.

In 1982, he took over editorship of the Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics (now Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics) from Claire Marton (widow of the first editor, Bill Marton) and followed Marton's example in maintaining a wide range of subject matter. He added mathematical morphology to the topics regularly covered; Jean Serra and Gerhard Ritter are among those who have contributed.

In 1980, he joined Professor Wollnik (Giessen University) and Karl Brown (SLAC) in organising the first international conference on charged-particle optics, designed to bring together opticians from the worlds of electron optics, accelerator optics and spectrometer optics. This was so successful that similar meetings have been held at four-year intervals from 1986 to the present day. Peter Hawkes organised the 1990 meeting in Toulouse and has been a member of the organising committee of all the meetings. He has also participated in the organization of other microscopy-related congresses, notably EMAG in the UK and some of the

He is very interested in the history of optics and microscopy, and recently wrote long historical articles on the correction of electron lens aberrations, the first based on a lecture delivered at a meeting of the Royal Society. He likewise sponsored biographical articles for the Advances on such major figures as Ernst Ruska (Nobel Prize 1986), Helmut Ruska, Bodo von Borries, Jan Le Poole and Dennis Gabor (Nobel Prize, 1971). Two substantial volumes of the series were devoted to 'The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy' and 'The Growth of Electron Microscopy'. and others have covered 'Cold Field Emission Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy' and 'Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy', with contributions by all the main personalities of the subject.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France

### E. Kasper

### Affiliations and Expertise

Institut für Halbleitertechnik, University of Stuttgart, Gemany

## Reviews

@qu:"In electron Optics there is no precedent... a momentous accomplishment. The list of references is a demonstration of how thorough a job the authors have done...A masterpiece..." @source:--ULTRAMICROSCOPY @qu:"The first attempt inforty years to cover systematically the whole field of Electron Optics...Up to date account...highly recommended..." @source:--VACUUM @qu:"This is a monumental and timely work--well researched, carefully proof-read, and marked by clarity of thought and expression." @source:--NATURE @qu:"...I[d] like to recommend this work to each who is concerned within the field of particle optics." @source:--OPTIK @qu:"...great clarity, rigorous treatment of every optical element and device since the foundation of the subject...It takes its place as the definitive text and source book in the field..." @source:--PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL MICROSCOPIAL SOCIETY