# Principles of Electromagnetic Methods in Surface Geophysics

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Principles of Electromagnetic Methods in Surface Geophysics contains information about the theory of electromagnetic fields in a conducting media. It describes the theoretical and physical principles of the main geophysical methods using electromagnetic fields, including frequency and transient soundings, electromagnetic profiling, and magnetotelluric soundings. Special attention is paid to models and signal processing methods used in modern exploration geophysics for groundwater, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration.

## Key Features

- Offers an integrated approach to the description of electromagnetic geophysical fields used for surface geophysical surveys
- Provides a clear introduction to the physical background of electromagnetic methods and their application
- Rounds off the treatment of the main geophysical methods: gravity, magnetic seismic, electric and electromagnetic methods

## Readership

Research and exploration geophysicists, electronic engineers, graduate and undergraduate students

## Table of Contents

- Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics
- Introduction
- Acknowledgments
- Part One: The Constant Electric and Magnetic Fields
- Chapter One. The System of Equations of the Constant Electric and Magnetic Fields
- Introduction
- 1.1. Equations of the Constant Electric Field in a Conducting and Polarizable Medium
- 1.2. Interaction of Currents, Biot–Savart Law and Magnetic Field
- 1.3. The Vector Potential of the Magnetic Field
- 1.4. System of Equations of the Constant Magnetic Field
- 1.5. Behavior of the Magnetic Field
- 1.6. The System of Equations of the Constant Electromagnetic Field

- Chapter One. The System of Equations of the Constant Electric and Magnetic Fields
- Part Two: Propagation and Diffusion of Electromagnetic Fields
- Chapter Two. Physical Laws and Maxwell’s Equations
- Introduction
- 2.1. Faraday's Law
- 2.2. The Principle of Charge Conservation
- 2.3. Distribution of Electric Charges
- 2.4. Displacement Currents
- 2.5. Maxwell Equations of the Electromagnetic Field
- 2.6. Equations for the Fields E and B
- 2.7. Electromagnetic Potentials
- 2.8. Maxwell's Equations for Sinusoidal Fields
- 2.9. Electromagnetic Energy and Poynting Vector
- 2.10. Theorem of Uniqueness of a Solution of the Forward Problem

- Chapter Three. Propagation and Quasi-Stationary Field in a Nonconducting Medium
- Introduction
- 3.1. Plane Wave in a Uniform Medium
- 3.2. Quasi-Stationary Field in a Nonconducting Medium
- 3.3. Induction Current in a Thin Conducting Ring Placed in a Time-Varying Field

- Chapter Four. Propagation and Diffusion in a Uniform Medium
- 4.1. Sinusoidal Plane Wave in a Uniform Medium
- Case 1: The High-Frequency Spectrum or the Range of Large Parameter
*β*, (*β*> 1) - Case 2: The Low-Frequency Spectrum or the Range of Small Parameter
*β*, (*β*< 1) - 4.2. Field of the Magnetic Dipole in a Uniform Medium (Frequency Domain)
- 4.3. Equations for Transient Field of the Magnetic Dipole in a Uniform Conducting and Polarizable Medium
- 4.4. Behavior of the Field in a Nonconducting Medium
- 4.5. Behavior of the Transient Field in a Conducting Medium
- 4.6. Propagation and Diffusion

- Chapter Two. Physical Laws and Maxwell’s Equations
- Part Three: Quasi-Stationary Field in a Horizontally Layered Medium
- Chapter Five. The External and Internal Skin Effect, Diffusion
- Introduction
- 5.1. The Skin Effect
- 5.2. Diffusion of Induced Currents
- 5.3. Diffusion of the Magnetic Field

- Chapter Six. Quasi-Stationary Field of the Magnetic Dipole in a Uniform Medium
- Introduction
- 6.1. Quasi-Stationary Field of the Magnetic Dipole (Frequency Domain)
- 6.2. Transient Field of the Magnetic Dipole in Uniform Medium

- Chapter Seven. The Hilbert and Fourier Transforms
- Introduction
- 7.1. Hilbert Transform
- 7.2. Fourier Integrals

- Chapter Eight. Vertical Magnetic Dipole in the Presence of Uniform Half Space
- 8.1. Formulation of Boundary Value Problem
- 8.2. Solution of Helmholtz Equations
- 8.3. Expressions for the Vector Potential
- 8.4. The Field of the Magnetic Dipole in a Conducting Medium Provided that
*h*= 0,*k*_{0}= 0 - 8.5. The Field Expressions at the Earth's Surface
- 8.6. The Range of Small Parameter
*p*or Near Zone - 8.7. The Range of Large Parameters
*p*or Wave Zone - 8.8. Frequency Responses of the Field
- 8.9. The Vertical Magnetic Dipole on the Surface of a Uniform Half Space (Time Domain)

- Chapter Nine. Quasi-Stationary Field of Vertical Magnetic Dipole on the Surface of a Horizontally Layered Medium
- Introduction
- 9.1. The Field Expressions on the Surface of
*N*-Layered Medium - 9.2. Expressions for the Field in
*N*-Layered Medium - 9.3. Behavior of the Field when Interaction between Induced Currents is Negligible
- 9.4. The Field of a Vertical Magnetic Dipole in the Range of Small Parameters
*r*/δ_{i} - 9.5. Approximate Method of Field Calculation
- 9.6. The Field within the Range of Small Parameters when Basement is an Insulator
- 9.7. The Field on the Surface of a Layered Medium at the Wave Zone
- 9.8. The Second Approach of Deriving the Asymptotic Formulas for Wave Zone
- 9.9. Transient Field at the Range of Large Parameter r/τ at the Surface of a Layered Medium (Wave Zone)
- 9.10. The Late Stage of the Transient Field on the Surface of a Layered Medium
- 9.11. Field of a Vertical Magnetic Dipole in the Presence of a Horizontal Conducting Plane
- 9.12. Transient Responses of Currents in a Conducting Plane

- Chapter Ten. Horizontal Magnetic Dipole above the Surface of a Layered Medium
- 10.1. Formulation of Boundary Value Problem for Vector Potential
- 10.2. The Vertical Component of the Vector Potential Az∗
- 10.3. The Component of the Magnetic Field
*B*_{x}

- Chapter Five. The External and Internal Skin Effect, Diffusion
- Part Four: Electromagnetic Soundings in a Horizontally Layered Medium
- Chapter Eleven. Principles of Magnetotellurics
- Introduction
- 11.1. Invention of the Method
- 11.2. Wave Zone, Quasi-Plane Wave and the Impedance of Plane Wave
- 11.3. The Impedance of the Plane Wave
- 11.4. The Apparent Resistivity and Its Behavior in a Horizontally Layered Medium
- 11.5. Development of magnetotelluric Inverse Problem Solution
- 11.6. Solution of Inverse Problem of the Electromagnetic Soundings for the Horizontally Layered Medium

- Chapter Twelve. Electromagnetic Soundings
- 12.1. Development of the Frequency and Transient Soundings
- 12.2. Frequency Soundings in the Far Zone
- 12.3. Transient Sounding in the Far Zone
- 12.4. Transient Sounding
- 12.5. Apparent Resistivity Curves
- 12.6. Frequency Sounding

- Chapter Thirteen. Quasi-Stationary Field of Electric Dipole in a Horizontally Layered Medium
- Introduction
- 13.1. The Constant Electric and Magnetic Fields (
*ω*= 0) in a Uniform Medium - 13.2. Quasi-Stationary Field of the Electric Dipole in a Uniform Medium
- 13.3. The Harmonic Field of the Horizontal Electric Dipole on the Surface of a Uniform Half Space
- 13.4. The Horizontal Electric Dipole on the Surface of a Horizontally Layered Medium
- 13.5. Transition to the Stationary Field
- 13.6. The Range of Large Induction Number (Wave Zone)
- 13.7. The Transient Field from the Electric Dipole Source on the Surface of a Uniform Half Space
- 13.8. Transient Field on the Surface of Two-Layer Medium

- Chapter Eleven. Principles of Magnetotellurics
- Part Five: Principles of Inductive Mining Prospecting
- Chapter Fourteen. Behavior of the Fields Caused by Currents in Confined Conductors
- Introduction
- 14.1. Conductive Sphere in a Uniform Magnetic Field (Frequency Domain)
- 14.2. Behavior of the Field Caused by Currents in a Nonmagnetic Sphere (The Frequency Domain)
- 14.3. The Conducting Sphere in a Uniform Magnetic Field (Time Domain)
- 14.4. Influence of Magnetization on the Field Behavior
- 14.5. Conductive Sphere in the Field Caused by a Current Loop with Axial Symmetry
- 14.6. The Circular Cylinder in a Uniform Magnetic Field (Frequency Domain)
- 14.7. Transient Responses of the Field Caused Currents in a Circular Cylinder
- 14.8. Equations for the Field Caused by Currents in a Confined Conductor
- 14.9. Behavior of the Field due to Currents in a Confined Conductor
- 14.10. Influence of Geological Noise Represented by Confined Conductors
- 14.11. Influence of a Surrounding Medium on the Field due to a Confined Conductor (Charges are Absent)
- 14.12. Elliptical Polarization of the Electric and Magnetic Field
- 14.13. Development of the Inductive Methods of Mining Prospecting
- 14.14. Dipole Electromagnetic Profiling
- 14.15. Modern Systems of Electromagnetic Profiling
- 14.16. The Transient Method of the Mining Prospecting
- 14.17. Influence of Charges on Resolution of Electromagnetic Methods of Mining Prospecting

- Chapter Fifteen. Magnetotelluric Soundings in a Laterally Inhomogeneous Medium
- Introduction
- 15.1. The Impedance Tensor
- 15.2. Behavior of the Impedance Tensor
- 15.3. The Wiese–Parkinson Vector (Tipper)
- 15.4. Behavior of the Plane Wave in a Nonhorizontal Layered Medium
- 15.5. Examples of the Field Behavior

- Chapter Fourteen. Behavior of the Fields Caused by Currents in Confined Conductors
- Appendix One. Airborne Electromagnetic Prospecting Systems
- Appendix Two. Estimation of the Impedance Tensor
- Appendix Three. Relation between Amplitude and Phase for Magnetotelluric Impedance
- Appendix Four. The Field of the Vertical Electric Dipole in the Layered Medium
- Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 794
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
- Published: June 27, 2014
- Imprint: Elsevier
- eBook ISBN: 9780444538307
- Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538291

## About the Authors

### Alex Kaufman

Emeritus Professor A.Kaufman has 28 years’ experience of teaching at the geophysical department in Colorado School of Mines He received his PhD. in Institute of Physics of the Earth (Moscow) and degree of Doctor of Science from the Russian Academy of Science . From 1981 to 20015 he published 14 monographs by Academic Press and Elsevier, describing different geophysical methods. Most of them are translated and published in Russia and China. He also holds three patents, which found application in the surface and borehole geophysics. A. Kaufman is a honorary member of SEG.

#### Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA

### Dimitry Alekseev

#### Affiliations and Expertise

P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

### Michael Oristaglio

#### Affiliations and Expertise

Seknion, Inc., Boston, MA, USA

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