Principles of Digital Image Synthesis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080514758

Principles of Digital Image Synthesis

1st Edition

Authors: Andrew Glassner
eBook ISBN: 9780080514758
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 28th June 2014
Page Count: 1600
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Table of Contents

Principles of Digital Image Synthesis

ereew


by Andrew S. Glassner

  • Preface


    Summary of Useful Notation


    VOLUME I (UNITS I AND II)


    I THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM AND COLOR


    chap11 The Human Visual System


    1.1 Introduction


    1.2 Structure and Optics of the Human Eye


    1.3 Spectral and Temporal Aspects of the HVS


    1.4 Visual Phenomena


    1.4.1 Contrast Sensitivity


    1.4.2 Noise


    1.4.3 Mach Bands


    1.4.4 Lightness Contrast and Constancy


    1.5 Depth Perception


    1.5.1 Oculomotor Depth


    1.5.2 Binocular Depth


    1.5.3 Monocular Depth


    1.5.4 Motion Parallax


    1.6 Color Opponency


    1.7 Perceptual Color Matching:; CIE XYZ Space


    1.8 Illusions


    1.9 Further Reading


    1.10 Exercises


    chap22 Color Spaces


    2.1 Perceptually Uniform Color Spaces: Luv and Lab


    2.2 Other Color Systems


    2.3 Further Reading


    2.4 Exercises


    chap 33 Displays


    3.1 Introduction


    3.2 CRT Displays


    3.3 Display Spot Interaction


    3.3.1 Display Spot Profile


    3.3.2 Two-Spot Interaction


    3.3.3 Display Measurement


    3.3.4 Pattern Description


    3.3.5 The Uniform Black Field (t = 0)


    3.3.6 Clusters of Four (t = .25)


    3.3.7 Clusters of Two (t = .5)


    3.3.8 The Uniform White Field (t = 1)


    3.3.9 Spot Interaction Discussion


    3.4 Monitors


    3.5 RGB Color Space


    3.5.1 Convertin XYZ to Spectra


    3.6 Gamut Mapping


    3.7 Further Reading


    3.8 Exercises


    II SIGNAL PROCESSING


    chap 44 Signals and Systems


    4.1 Introduction


    4.2 Types of Signals and Systems


    4.2.1 Continuous-Time (CT) Signals


    4.2.2 Discrete-Time (DT) Signals


    4.2.3 Periodic Signals


    4.2.4 Linear Time-Invariant Systems


    4.3 Notation


    4.3.1 The Real Numbers


    4.3.2 The Integers


    4.3.3 Intervals


    4.3.4 Product Spaces


    4.3.5 The Complex Numbers


    4.3.6 Assignment and Equality


    4.3.7 Summation and Integration


    4.3.8 The Complex Exponentials


    4.3.9 Braket Notation


    4.3.10 Spaces


    4.4 Some Useful Signals


    4.4.1 The Impulse Signal


    4.4.2 The Box Signal


    4.4.3 The Impulse Train


    4.4.4 The Sinc Signal


    4.5 Convolution


    4.5.1 A Physical Example of Convulution


    4.5.2 The Response of Composite Systems


    4.5.3 Eigenfuctions and Frequency Response of LTI Systems


    4.5.4 Discrete-Time Convolution


    4.6 Two-Dimensional Impulse Response


    4.6.1 Linear Systems


    4.6.2 Two-Dimensional Impulse Response


    4.6.3 Convolution


    4.6.4 Two-Dimensional Impulse Response


    4.6.5 Eigenfunctions and Frequency Response


    4.7 Further Reading


    4.8 Exercises


    chap55 Fourier Transforms


    5.1 Introduction


    5.2 Basis Functions


    5.2.1 Projections of Points in Space


    5.2.2 Projection of Functions


    5.2.3 Orthogonal Families of Functions


    5.2.4 The Dual Basis


    5.2.5 The Complex Exponential Basis


    5.3 Representation in Bases of Lower Dimension


    5.4 Continuous-Time Fourier Representations


    5.5 The Fourier Series


    5.5.1 Convergence


    5.6 The Continuous-Time Fouier Transform


    5.6.1 Fourier Transform of Periodic Signals


    5.6.2 Parseval's Theorem


    5.7 Examples


    5.7.1 The Box Signal


    5.7.2 The Box Specturm


    5.7.3 The Guassian


    5.7.4 The Impulse Signal


    5.7.5 The Impulse Train


    5.8 Duality


    5.9 Filtering and Convolution


    5.9.1 Some Common Filters


    5.10 The Fourier Transform Table


    5.11 Discrete-Time Fourier Represetnations


    5.11.1 The Discrete-Time Fourier Series


    5.11.2 The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform


    5.12 Fourier Series and Transforms Summary


    5.13 Convolution Revisited


    5.14 Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms


    5.14.1 Continuous-Time 2D Fourier Transforms


    5.14.2 Discrete-Time 2D Fourier Transforms


    5.15 Higher-Order Transforms


    5.16 The Fast Fourier Transform


    5.17 Further Reading


    5.18 Exercises


    chap66 Wavelet Transforms


    6.1 Introduction


    6.2 Short-Time Fourier Transform


    6.3 Scale and Resolution


    6.4 The Dilation Equation and the Haar Transform


    6.5 Decomposition and Reconstruction


    6.5.1 Building the Operators


    6.6 Compression


    6.7 Coefficient Conditions


    6.8 Multiresolution Analysis


    6.9 Wavelets in the Fourier Domain


    6.10 Two-Dimensional Wavelets


    6.10.1 The Rectangular Wavelet Decomposition


    6.10.2 The Square Wavelet Decomposition


    6.11 Further Reading


    6.12 Exercises


    chap 77 Monte Carlo Integration


    7.1 Introduction


    7.2 Baisc Monte Carlo Ideas


    7.3 Confidence


    7.4 Blind Monte Carlo


    7.4.1 Crude Monte Carlo


    7.4.2 Rejection Monte Carlo


    7.4.3 Blind Stratified Sampling


    7.4.4 Quasi Monte Carlo


    7.4.5 Weighted Monte Carlo


    7.4.6 Multidimensional Weighted Monte Carlo


    7.5 Informed Monte Carlo


    7.5.1 Informed Stratified Sampling


    7.5.2 Importance Sampling


    7.5.3 Control Variates


    7.5.4 Antithetic Variates


    7.6 Adaptive Sampling


    7.7 Other Approaches


    7.8 Summary


    7.9 Further Reading


    7.10 Exercises


    chap 88 Uniform Sampling and Reconstruction


    8.1 Introduction


    8.1.1 Sampling: Anti-Aliasing in a Pixel


    8.1.2 Reconstruction: Evaluating Incident Light at a Point


    8.1.3 Outline of this Chapter


    8.1.4 Uniform Sampling and Reconstruction of a 1D Continuous Signal


    8.1.5 What Signal are Bandlimited?


    8.2 Reconstruction


    8.2.1 Zero-Order Hold Reconstruction


    8.3 Sampling in Two Dimensions


    8.4 Two-Dimensional Reconstruction


    8.5 Reconstruction in Image Space


    8.5.1 The Box Reconstruction Filter


    8.5.2 Other Reconstruction Filters


    8.6 Supersampling


    8.7 Further Reading


    8.8 Exercises


    chap99 Nonuniform Sampling and Reconstruction


    9.1 Introduction


    9.1.1 Variable Sampling Density


    9.1.2 Trading Aliasing for Noise


    9.1.3 Summary


    9.2 Nonuniform Sampling


    9.2.1 Adaptive Sampling


    9.2.2 Aperiodic Sampling


    9.2.3 Sampling Pattern Comparison


    9.3 Informed Sampling


    9.4 Stratified Sampling


    9.4.1 Importance Sampling


    9.4.2 Importance and Stratified Sampling


    9.5 Interlude: The Duality of Aliasing and Noise


    9.6 Nonuniform Reconstruction


    9.7 Further REAding


    9.8 Exercises


    chap1010 Sampling and Reconstruction Techniques


    10.1 Introduction


    10.2 General Outline of Signal Estimation n


    10.3 Initial Sampling Patterns


    10.4 Uniform and Nonuniform Sampling


    10.5 Initial Sampling


    10.5.1 Uniform Sampling


    10.5.2 Rectangular Lattice


    10.5.3 Hexagonal Lattice


    10.5.4 Triangular Lattice


    10.5.5 Diamond Lattice


    10.5.6 Comparison of Subdivided Hexagonal and Square Lattices


    10.5.7 Nonuniform Sampling


    10.5.8 Poisson Sampling


    10.5.9 N-Rooks Sampling


    10.5.10 Jitter Distribution


    10.5.11 Poisson-Disk Pattern


    10.5.12 Precomputed Poisson-Disk Patterns


    10.5.13 Multiple-Scale Poisson-disk Patterns


    10.5.14 Sampling Tiles


    10.5.15 Dynamic Poisson-Disk Patterns


    10.5.16 Importance Sampling


    10.5.17 Multidimensional Patterns


    10.5.18 Discussion


    10.6 Refinement


    10.6.1 Sample Intensity


    10.7 Refinement Tests


    10.7.1 Intensity Comparison Refinement Test


    10.7.2 Contrast Refinement Test


    10.7.3 Object-Based Refinement Test


    10.7.4 Ray-Tree Comparison Refinement Test


    10.7.5 Intensity Statistics Refinement Test


    10.8 Refinement Sample Geometry


    10.9 Refinement Geometry


    10.9.1 Linear Bisection


    10.9.2 Area Bisection


    10.9.3 Nonuniform Geometry


    10.9.4 Multiple-Level Sampling


    10.9.5 Tree-Based Sampling


    10.9.6 Multiple-Scale Template Refinement


    10.10 Interpolation and Recontruction


    10.10.1 Functional Techniques


    10.10.2 Warping


    10.10.3 Piecewise-Continuous Recontruction


    10.10.5 Local Filtering


    10.10.6 Yen's Method


    10.10.7 Multistep Reconstruction


    10.11 Further Reading


    10.12 Exercises Bibiography


    Index


    VOLUME II (UNITS III, IV, AND V)


    III MATTER AND ENERGY


    chap1111 Light


    11.1 Introduction


    11.2 The Double-Slit Experiment


    11.3 The Wave Nature of Light


    11.4 Polarization


    11.5 The Photoelectric Effect


    11.6 Particle-Wave Duality


    11.7 Reflection and Transmission


    11.8 Index of Refraction


    11.8.1 Sellmeier's Formula


    11.8.2 Cauchy's Formula


    11.9 Computing Specular Vectors


    11.9.1 The Reflected Vector


    11.9.2 Total Internal Reflection


    11.9.3 Transmitted Vector


    11.10 Further Reading


    11.11 Exercises


    chap1212 Energy Transport


    12.1 Introduction


    12.2 The Rod Model


    12.3 Particle Density and Flux


    12.4 Scattering


    12.4.1 Counting New Particles


    12.5 The Scattering-Only Particle Distribution Equations


    12.6 A More Complete Medium


    12.6.1 Explicit Flux


    12.6.2 Implicit Flux


    12.7 Particle Transport in 3D


    12.7.1 Points


    12.7.2 Projected Areas


    12.7.3 Directions


    12.7.4 Solid Angles


    12.7.5 Integrating over solid Angles


    12.7.6 Direction Sets


    12.7.7 Particles


    12.7.8 Flux


    12.8 Scattering in 3D


    12.9 Components of 3D Transport


    12.9.1 Streaming


    12.9.2 Emission


    12.9.3 Absorption


    12.9.4 Outscattering


    12.9.5 Inscattering


    12.9.6 A Complete Transport Model


    12.9.7 Isotropic Materials


    12.10 Boundary Conditions


    12.11 The Integral Form


    12.11.1 An Example


    12.11.2 The Integral Form of the Transport Equation


    12.12 The Light Transport Equation


    12.13 Further Reading


    12.14 Exercises


    chap1313 Radiometry


    13.1 Introduction


    13.2 Radiometric Conventions


    13.3 Notation


    13.4 Spherical Patches


    13.5 Radiometric Terms


    13.6 Radiometric Relations


    13.6.1 Discussion of Radiance


    13.6.2 Spectral Radiometry


    13.6.3 Photometry


    13.7 Reflectance


    13.7.1 The BRDF fr


    13.7.2 Reflectance p


    13.7.3 Reflectance Factor R


    13.8 Examples


    13.8.1 Perfect Diffuse


    13.8.2 Perfect Specular


    13.9 Spherical Harmonics


    13.10 Further Reading


    13.11 Exercises


    chap1414 Materials


    14.1 Introduction


    14.2 Atomic Structure


    14.3 Particle Statistics


    14.3.1 Fermi-Dirac Statistics


    14.4 Molecular Structure


    14.4.1 Ionic Bonds


    14.4.2 Molecular-Orbital Bonds


    14.5 Radiation


    14.6 Blackbodies


    14.6.1 Bose-Einstein Statistics


    14.7 Blackbody Energy Distribution


    14.7.1 Constant Index of Refraction


    14.7.2 Linear Index of Refraction


    14.7.3 Radiators


    14.8 Phosphors


    14.9 Further Reading


    14.10 Exercises


    chap1515 Shading


    15.1 Introduction


    15.2 Lambert, Phong, and Blinn-Phong Shading Models


    15.2.1 Diffuse Plus Specular


    15.3 Cook-Torrance Shading Models


    15.3.1 Torrance-Sparrow Microfacets


    15.3.2 Fresnel's Formulas


    15.3.3 Roughness


    15.3.4 The Cook-Torrance Model


    15.3.5 Polarization


    15.4 Anistropy


    15.4.1 The Kajiya Model


    15.4.2 The Poulin-Fournier Model


    15.5 The HTSG Model


    15.6 Empirical Models


    15.6.1 The Strauss Model


    15.6.2 The Ward Model


    15.6.3 The Programmable Model


    15.7 Precomputed BRDF


    15.7.1 Sampled Hemispheres


    15.7.2 Spherical Harmonics


    15.8 Volume Shading


    15.8.1 Phase Functions


    15.8.2 Atmospheric Modeling


    15.8.3 The Earth's Ocean


    15.8.4 The Kubelka-Munk Pigment Model


    15.8.5 The Hanrahan-Krueger Multiple-Layer Model


    15.9 Texture


    15.10 Hierarchies of Scale


    15.11 Color


    15.12 Further Reading


    15.13 Exercises


    chap1616 Integral Equations


    16.1 Introduction


    16.2 Types of Integral Equations


    16.3 Operators


    16.3.1 Operator Norms


    16.4 Solution Techniques


    16.4.1 Residual Minimization


    16.5 Degenerate Kernels


    16.6 Symbolic Methods


    16.6.1 The Fubini Theorem


    16.6.2 Successive Substitution


    16.6.3 Neumann Series


    16.7 Numerical Approximations


    16.7.1 Numerical Integration (Quadrature)


    16.7.2 Method of Undetermined Coefficients


    16.7.3 Quadrature on Expanded Functions


    16.7.4 Nystrom Method


    16.7.5 Monte Carlo Quadrature


    16.8 Projection Methods


    16.8.1 Projection


    16.8.2 Pictures of the Function Space


    16.8.3 Polynomial Collocation


    16.8.4 Tchebyshev Approximation


    16.8.5 Least Squares


    16.8.6 Galerkin


    16.8.7 Wavelets


    16.8.8 Discussion


    16.9 Monte Carlo Estimation


    16.9.1 Random Walks


    16.9.2 Path Tracing


    16.9.3 The Importance Function


    16.10 Singularities


    16.10.1 Removal


    16.10.2 Factorization


    16.10.3 Divide and Conquer


    16.10.4 Coexistence


    16.11 Further Reading


    16.12 Exercises


    chap1717 The Radiance Equation


    17.1 Introduction


    17.2 Forming the Radiance Equation


    17.2.1 BDF


    17.2.2 Phosphorescence


    17.2.3 Fluorescence


    17.2.4 FRE


    17.3 TIGRE


    17.4 VTIGRE


    17.5 Solving for L


    17.6 Further Reading


    17.7 Exercises


    IV RENDERING


    chap1818 Radiosity


    18.1 Introduction


    18.2 Classical Radiosity


    18.2.1 Collocation Solution


    18.2.2 Galerkin Solution


    18.2.3 Classical Radiosity Solution


    18.2.4 Higher-Order Radiosity


    18.3 Solving the Matrix Equation


    18.3.1 Jacobi Iteration


    18.3.2 Gauss-Seidel Iteration


    18.3.3 Southwell Iteration


    18.3.4 Overrelaxation


    18.4 Solving Radiosity Matrices


    18.4.1 Jacobi Iteration


    18.4.2 Gauss-Seidel Iteration


    18.4.3 Southwell Iteration


    18.4.4 Progressive Refinement


    18.4.5 Overrelaxation


    18.4.6 Comparison


    18.5 Form Factors


    18.5.1 Analytic Methods


    18.5.2 Contour Integration


    18.5.3 Physical Devices


    18.5.4 Projection


    18.5.5 Discussion


    18.6 Hierarchical Radiosity


    18.6.1 One Step of HR


    18.6.2 Adaptive HR


    18.6.3 Importance HR


    18.6.4 Discussion


    18.7 Meshing


    18.8 Shooting Power


    18.9 Extensions to Classical Radiosity


    18.10 Further Reading


    18.11 Exercises


    chap1919 Ray Tracing


    19.1 Introduction


    19.2 Photon and Visibility Tracing


    19.3 Visibility Tracing


    19.3.1 Strata Sets


    19.3.2 Applying Resolved Strata


    19.3.3 Direct and Indirect Illumination


    19.3.4 Discussion


    19.4 Photon Tracing


    19.5 Bidirectional Ray-Tracing Methods


    19.6 Hybrid Algorithms


    19.7 Ray-Tracing Volumes


    19.8 Further Reading


    19.9 Exercises


    chap2020 Rendering and Images


    20.1 Introduction


    20.2 Postprocessing


    20.2.1 A Nonlinear Observer Model


    20.2.2 Image-Based Processing


    20.2.3 Linear Processing


    20.3 Feedback Rendering


    20.3.1 Illumination Painting


    20.3.2 Subjective Constraints


    20.3.3 Device-Directed Rendering


    20.4 Further Reading


    20.5 Exercise


    chap2121 The Future


    21.1 Technical Progress


    21.1.1 Physical Optics


    21.1.2 Volume Rendering


    21.1.3 Information Theory


    21.1.4 Beyond Photo-Realism: Subjective Rendering


    21.2 Other Directions


    21.3 Summary


    V APPENDICES


    appaA Linear Algebra


    A.1 General Notation


    A.2 Linear Spaces


    A.2.1 Norms


    A.2.2 Inf and Sup


    A.2.3 Metrics


    A.2.4 Completeness


    A.2.5 Inner Products


    A.3 Function Spaces


    A.4 Further Reading


    appbB Probability


    B.1 Events and Probability


    B.2 Total Probability


    B.3 Repeated Trials


    B.4 Random Variables


    B.5 Measures


    B.6 Distributions


    B.7 Geometric Series


    B.8 Further Reading


    appcC Historical Notes


    C.1 Specular Reflection and Transmission


    C.1.1 Specular Reflection


    C.1.2 Specular Transmission


    appdD Analytic Form Factors


    D.1 Differential and Finite Surfaces


    D.1.1 Differential to Differential


    D.1.2 Differential to Finite


    D.1.3 Finite to Finite


    D.2 Two Polygons


    appeE Constants and Units


    appfF Luminaire Standards


    F.1 Terminology


    F.2 Notation


    F.3 The IES Standard


    F.3.1 The Big Picture


    F.3.2 The Tilt Block


    F.3.3 The Photometry Block


    F.4 The CIE Standard


    F.4.1 The Main Block


    F.4.2 The Measurement Block


    F.4.3 The Photometry Block


    appgG Reference Data


    G.1 Material Data


    G.2 Human Data


    G.3 Light Sources


    G.4 Phosphors


    G.5 Macbeth ColorChecker


    G.6 Real Objects


Bibliography


Index


Description

Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changes geometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popular algorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchers and implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of image synthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensive explanation of the three core fields of study that come together to form digital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signal processing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more than a basic background in calculus, Glassner transforms his passion and expertise into a thorough presentation of each of these disciplines, and their elegant orchestration into modern rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing.


Details

No. of pages:
1600
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Morgan Kaufmann 1995
Published:
Imprint:
Morgan Kaufmann
eBook ISBN:
9780080514758

About the Authors

Andrew Glassner Author

Andrew Glassner's contributions to computer graphics span 20 years. His work at Microsoft Research, Xerox PARC, the IBM Watson Research Labs, Bell Communications Research, and the Delft University of Technology has produced numerous technical articles on rendering theory and practice, animation, modeling, and new media. He currently creates new computer graphics tools at Microsoft Research. Among his recent work is Chicken Crossing, a 3D animated short film that has been shown internationally at film festivals and on television, and Dead Air, an interactive game for play over the Internet. Dr. Glassner is the author of the two volume bible, Principles of Digital Image Synthesis and 3D Computer Graphics: A Handbook for Artists and Designers. He has also edited An Introduction to Ray Tracing, and created the Graphics Gems series for programmers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Xerox PARC, Palo Alto, California