Principles of Desalination - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956606, 9780323145251

Principles of Desalination

1st Edition

Editors: K Spiegler
eBook ISBN: 9780323145251
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 582
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Description

Principles of Desalination focuses on the principles of the developing technology of large-scale desalting. This book presents the principal desalting methods and explores the process of hyperfiltration or reverse osmosis. Comprised of 11 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the water use and the problem of a potential water shortage. This text then discusses the fundamentals of the major desalting methods in use and explores the basic scientific and design principles that underlie the methods. Other chapters consider the method of vapor reheat distillation, which incorporates the liquid–liquid heat exchange principle. This book discusses as well the various aspects of ion exchange and explores the mechanisms in dual-purpose plants producing both distilled water and steam-turbine raised power. The final chapter considers the cost of conventional water supplies. This book is a valuable resource for technologists and scientists. Students in the graduate courses of engineering will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1. Desalination Research and Water Resources

I. The Water Problem

II. Nature of Water and Its Solutions

III. Current Technology of Desalination

References

Chapter 2. Thermoeconomic Considerations of Sea Water Demineralization

I. Introduction

II. Exergy Balances

III. Combining Exergy and Cost Balances

IV. Conclusions

Appendix A. Basic Relationships among Entropy, Exergy, Energy, and Availability

Appendix B. On the Use of the General Exergy Balance

Appendix C. Minimization of the Nonlinear Cost Equation

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 3. Distillation

I. General System Engineering of Distillation Plant

II. Internal System Engineering of Distillation Plant

List of Symbols

Units

Chapter 4. Vapor Reheat Distillation

I. Introduction

II. Structural Features of Flash Chambers and Condensers

III. Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers

IV. Economics of the Vapor Reheat Process

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 5. Solar Distillation

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Direct Solar Distillation

III. Design and Construction of Direct Solar Stills

IV. Performance of Direct Solar Stills

V. Economic Aspects of Direct Solar Distillation

VI. Indirect Solar Desalination

VII. Summary

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 6. Electrodialysis

I. Introduction

II. Membrane

III. Theory of Selective Transport across Ion Exchange Membranes

IV. Practical Considerations

V. Process and Equipment Design

VI. Development of Performance Equations

VII. Process Economics

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 7. Freezing Methods

I. Introduction

II. Theory of Crystallization

III. Theory of Separation and Wash

IV. Description of Basic Freezing Processes

V. Detailed Analysis and Description of Direct-Refrigeration Vacuum Freezing-Vapor Compression System

VI. Desalting with Hydrates

References

Chapter 8. Hyperfiltration (Reverse Osmosis)

I. Introduction

II. Historical Background

III. Conceptual Design

IV. Energy Requirements

V. Thermodynamic Relations

VI. Transport Relations and Mechanism of Salt Rejection

VII. Membranes

VIII. Concentration Polarization

IX. Equipment

X. Economic Considerations

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 9. Preparation of Ultrapure Water

I. Introduction

II. Impurities in Water Supplies

III. Ultrapure-Water-Treatment Processes

IV. Industries Requiring Ultrapure Water

V. Storage of Ultrapure Water — Materials of Construction

VI. Analytical and Control Tools

VII. Materials Used in Preparation of Ultrapure Water

VIII. Re-Use of Water and Waste Treatment

IX. Cost Calculation

X. Future Trends

References

Chapter 10. Scale Formation and Prevention

I. Significance of Scale

II. Solubility and Supersaturation

III. Nucleation and Contact Time

IV. Nucleation Sites

V. Scale-Prevention Techniques

References

Chapter 11. The Cost of Conventional Water Supply

I. Introduction

II. The Components of Conventional and Conversion Supplies

III. The Concept of Synthesized Costs

IV. Cost of Impoundment

V. Cost of Conveyance

VI. Cost of Treatment

VII. Cost of Intake

VIII. Illustrative Conventional-Supply Costs

List of Symbols

Bibliography

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
582
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323145251

About the Editor

K Spiegler