Principles of Desalination

Principles of Desalination

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Editor: K Spiegler
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145251

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Principles of Desalination focuses on the principles of the developing technology of large-scale desalting. This book presents the principal desalting methods and explores the process of hyperfiltration or reverse osmosis. Comprised of 11 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the water use and the problem of a potential water shortage. This text then discusses the fundamentals of the major desalting methods in use and explores the basic scientific and design principles that underlie the methods. Other chapters consider the method of vapor reheat distillation, which incorporates the liquid–liquid heat exchange principle. This book discusses as well the various aspects of ion exchange and explores the mechanisms in dual-purpose plants producing both distilled water and steam-turbine raised power. The final chapter considers the cost of conventional water supplies. This book is a valuable resource for technologists and scientists. Students in the graduate courses of engineering will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1. Desalination Research and Water Resources

    I. The Water Problem

    II. Nature of Water and Its Solutions

    III. Current Technology of Desalination


    Chapter 2. Thermoeconomic Considerations of Sea Water Demineralization

    I. Introduction

    II. Exergy Balances

    III. Combining Exergy and Cost Balances

    IV. Conclusions

    Appendix A. Basic Relationships among Entropy, Exergy, Energy, and Availability

    Appendix B. On the Use of the General Exergy Balance

    Appendix C. Minimization of the Nonlinear Cost Equation

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 3. Distillation

    I. General System Engineering of Distillation Plant

    II. Internal System Engineering of Distillation Plant

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 4. Vapor Reheat Distillation

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Features of Flash Chambers and Condensers

    III. Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers

    IV. Economics of the Vapor Reheat Process

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 5. Solar Distillation

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles of Direct Solar Distillation

    III. Design and Construction of Direct Solar Stills

    IV. Performance of Direct Solar Stills

    V. Economic Aspects of Direct Solar Distillation

    VI. Indirect Solar Desalination

    VII. Summary

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 6. Electrodialysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Membrane

    III. Theory of Selective Transport across Ion Exchange Membranes

    IV. Practical Considerations

    V. Process and Equipment Design

    VI. Development of Performance Equations

    VII. Process Economics

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 7. Freezing Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory of Crystallization

    III. Theory of Separation and Wash

    IV. Description of Basic Freezing Processes

    V. Detailed Analysis and Description of Direct-Refrigeration Vacuum Freezing-Vapor Compression System

    VI. Desalting with Hydrates


    Chapter 8. Hyperfiltration (Reverse Osmosis)

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Background

    III. Conceptual Design

    IV. Energy Requirements

    V. Thermodynamic Relations

    VI. Transport Relations and Mechanism of Salt Rejection

    VII. Membranes

    VIII. Concentration Polarization

    IX. Equipment

    X. Economic Considerations

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 9. Preparation of Ultrapure Water

    I. Introduction

    II. Impurities in Water Supplies

    III. Ultrapure-Water-Treatment Processes

    IV. Industries Requiring Ultrapure Water

    V. Storage of Ultrapure Water — Materials of Construction

    VI. Analytical and Control Tools

    VII. Materials Used in Preparation of Ultrapure Water

    VIII. Re-Use of Water and Waste Treatment

    IX. Cost Calculation

    X. Future Trends


    Chapter 10. Scale Formation and Prevention

    I. Significance of Scale

    II. Solubility and Supersaturation

    III. Nucleation and Contact Time

    IV. Nucleation Sites

    V. Scale-Prevention Techniques


    Chapter 11. The Cost of Conventional Water Supply

    I. Introduction

    II. The Components of Conventional and Conversion Supplies

    III. The Concept of Synthesized Costs

    IV. Cost of Impoundment

    V. Cost of Conveyance

    VI. Cost of Treatment

    VII. Cost of Intake

    VIII. Illustrative Conventional-Supply Costs

    List of Symbols


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 582
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145251

About the Editor

K Spiegler

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