Principles of Addiction

Principles of Addiction

Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders, Volume 1

1st Edition - February 26, 2013

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Peter Miller
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123983619
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123983367

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Description

Principles of Addiction provides a solid understanding of the definitional and diagnostic differences between use, abuse, and disorder. It describes in great detail the characteristics of these syndromes and various etiological models. The book's three main sections examine the nature of addiction, including epidemiology, symptoms, and course; alcohol and drug use among adolescents and college students; and detailed descriptions of a wide variety of addictive behaviors and disorders, encompassing not only drugs and alcohol, but caffeine, food, gambling, exercise, sex, work, social networking, and many other areas. This volume is especially important in providing a basic introduction to the field as well as an in-depth review of our current understanding of the nature and process of addictive behaviors. Principles of Addiction is one of three volumes comprising the 2,500-page series, Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. This series provides the most complete collection of current knowledge on addictive behaviors and disorders to date. In short, it is the definitive reference work on addictions.

Key Features

  • Each article provides glossary, full references, suggested readings, and a list of web resources
  • Edited and authored by the leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Encompasses types of addiction, as well as personality and environmental influences on addiction

Readership

Researchers and students in psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience and neurology

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Scope and Format

    Volume 1: Principles of Addiction

    Editors: Biographies

    List of Contributors

    Section 1: The Nature of Addiction

    Chapter 1. Historical Understandings of Addiction

    Background

    Models for Understanding Addiction Existing Prior to 1600 AD

    Models Appearing Between 1600 and 1900 AD

    Models Appearing Since 1900 AD

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Chapter 2. The Terminology of Addictive Behavior

    Scientific Terminology

    Connotations

    Emphasis

    Models and Analogies

    Diagnostic Terms

    Risk

    Disclaimer

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Addiction

    Introduction

    Definition of Addiction

    Definition of Epidemiology

    Part 1. The Epidemiology of Substance Use in the United States

    Part 2. The Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders in the United States

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 4. An Evolutionary Perspective on Addiction

    Introduction

    What is an Evolutionary Perspective?

    Could Addiction Evolve?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 5. International Perspectives on Addiction

    Drug Use Across Time and Place

    Evolutionary and Biological Explanations

    Norms, Values, and Expectations

    Reconceptualizing Drug Abuse and Addiction: A Culture-Inclusive Approach

    Diverse Treatment Approaches

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 6. The Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction

    Biopsychosocial vs. Biomedical Models of Addiction

    Conceptual Models of Addictive Behavior

    Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction

    Biological Factors and the Development of Addictive Behaviors

    Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Addictive Behaviors

    The Biopsychosocial Model and Addiction Treatment

    Psychosocial Factors in the Treatment of Addiction

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 7. Disease Model

    History and Overview

    Strengths of the Disease Model

    Critique of Model

    Positive Contributions of the Model

    Summary and Future Directions

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Further Reading

    Chapter 8. Denial and Lack of Awareness in Substance Dependence: Insights from the Neuropsychology of Addiction

    Introduction

    Awareness, Lie, and Denial in Addiction: A Neuroscientific Approach

    Self-Awareness, Denial, and Cognitive Deficits

    Conclusions and Clinical Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 9. Gateway Hypothesis

    Introduction

    The Mechanisms of Progression in Drug Use

    An Assessment of the Validity of Gateway Hypothesis

    Challenging Accounts of the Gateway Hypothesis

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 10. Adolescent Substance Use: Symptoms and Course

    Addiction: A Developmental Disorder

    Adolescent Developmental Maturation and Risk for Substance Involvement

    Two Developmental Pathways of Risk for Early Substance Involvement

    Peak Periods of Risk for Substance Use Onset

    Sequencing of Substance Use Initiation

    Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use

    Contexts and Motives for Adolescent Substance Use

    Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Use

    Predictors and Outcomes of Adolescent Substance Use

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Definition of SUD

    Limitations of DSM-IV SUDs

    Developmentally Tailored Assessment of Substance Involvement in Youth

    Development of SUDs in Adolescents

    Prevalence of Adolescent SUDs

    Adolescent SUD Course in Community Samples

    Adolescent SUD Treatment

    Post-treatment Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Involvement

    Implications for Improving Adolescent Substance Use Prevention and Intervention

    See also

    Acknowledgments

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 11. Symptoms and Course: Alcohol Use Disorder in Adulthood

    Introduction

    Heavy Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Early Onset of Drinking and the Development of Alcohol Dependence

    Gender and the Progression of Alcohol Dependence

    Alcohol Dependence and Physical Health

    Alcohol Dependence and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Alcohol Dependence and Co-Occurring Substance Use

    Alcohol Dependence, Treatment, and Recovery

    Typological Classifications of Alcohol-Dependent Persons

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 12. Symptoms and Course: Older Age and Substance Abuse

    Introduction

    Alcohol

    Tobacco

    Prescription/Over-the-Counter Medication

    Illicit Drugs

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 13. Relapse and Lapse

    Models of Relapse

    Determinants of Relapse

    Relapse Prevention

    Pharmacotherapy Approaches to Relapse Prevention

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 14. Natural Recovery

    Introduction

    Value of Natural Recovery Research

    Rates of Natural Recovery

    Review of the Natural Recovery Literature

    Process of Natural Recovery

    Maintenance of Natural Recovery

    Methodological Issues

    Natural Recovery from Problem Gambling

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 15. Gender Differences

    Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Related Problems

    Social Context for Men’s and Women’s Drinking

    Biological Contributors to the Gender Difference

    Psychosocial Contributors to the Gender Difference

    Consequences of Men’s and Women’s Drinking

    Gender and Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 16. Minority Groups and Addictions

    Definition of a Minority Group Member

    Historical Circumstances

    Cultural Factors Associated with Substance Use Patterns and Treatment Outcomes

    Special Considerations for Research and Clinical Practice

    Health Disparities and Addictive Behaviors

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 17. Medical Toxicology of Drugs of Abuse

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Psychoactive Drugs

    Adulterants and Contaminants

    Polydrug Use

    Toxicological Properties of Selected Drugs

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 18. Tolerance and Withdrawal

    Tolerance

    Withdrawal

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 19. Overdose

    Definition of Overdose

    Symptom and Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Epidemiology

    Prevalence and Mortality

    Risk Factors

    Consequences and Complications

    Prevention

    Summary

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Further Reading

    Chapter 20. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Illicit Substances

    Introduction

    Biological Effects of Prenatal Substance Use

    Specific Substances

    Addressing Prenatal Substance Use

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 21. Impulsivity, Disinhibition, and Risk Taking in Addiction

    Introduction

    Defining Disinhibition, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking

    Relation to Addictive Behaviors

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 22. Emotions and Addictive Processes

    Introduction: The Complex Relationship between Emotions and Addictive Processes

    Clarification of Terms: Addiction and Emotion

    Theoretical Frameworks for the Role of Emotion in Addictive Processes

    Addiction and Emotion: Developmental Phases

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 23. Stress and Addiction

    Introduction

    Stress, Emotions, and Adaptive Behavior

    Stress and the Development of Addictive Behaviors

    Drug Use and Abuse and Changes in Stress and Reward Pathways

    Novel Treatment Approaches to Address Stress and Drug Craving

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 24. Self-Medication

    Neurobiological Basis of Substance Use and Addiction

    Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders

    Support for the SMH

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 25. Contextual Factors in Addiction

    Introduction

    Laboratory Studies

    Contingency Management

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 26. Behavioral Economic Factors in Addictive Processes

    Effect of Availability and Price of Drugs and Alternative Reinforcers

    Behavioral Economic Intervention Approaches

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 27. Cognitive Factors in Addictive Processes

    Introduction

    Outcome Expectancies

    Motives

    Social Norms

    Behavioral Intentions

    Social Cognitive Theory

    Abstinence Violation Effect/Limit Violation Effect

    Implicit Cognitive Factors

    Self-Regulation

    Specific Substance Effects

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 28. Personality and Addiction Processes

    Personality Traits Implicated in Addiction

    Causal Pathways to Addiction

    Summary and Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 29. Spirituality and Addiction

    Background

    Research on the Relationship between RS and Substance Use

    RS and Mutual Help

    RS in the Treatment of SUDs

    Faith-Based Programs

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Twelve-step groups

    Christian recovery and addiction related groups

    Addiction related groups from other faiths

    Spiritual self-schema (3-S) therapy resources

    Other faith-related addiction resources

    Chapter 30. Interpersonal Factors and Addictive Disorders

    Initiation of Addictive Behaviors

    Maintenance of Addictive Behaviors

    Resolution of Addictive Behaviors

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 31. Families and Addiction

    Introduction

    Family-Based Assessment

    Romantic Dyad Relationship Satisfaction and Addiction

    Romantic Dyad Relationship Communication Behaviors and Addiction

    Partner Aggression and Addiction

    Partner’s Influence on One Another’s Alcohol Use

    Partner Influence in the Recovery from Addiction

    The Relationship between Parental Addiction Behaviors and Their Children’s Outcomes

    Pathways from Parental Addictive Behaviors to Their Children’s Behavioral Problems

    Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents

    Summary and Areas for Future Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 32. The Intergenerational Transference of Addiction

    Familial Similarities for Addictive Behavior

    Mechanisms in the Intergenerational Transference of Alcohol Problems

    Genotype-Environmental Theories

    Cognitive Perspectives

    Expectancies and Refusal Self-Efficacy

    The Intergenerational Transference of Addiction Related Cognitions

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 33. Peer Influences on Addiction

    Overview

    Theories of Peer Influence

    Direct and Indirect Influences

    Modeling

    Social Norms

    Resistance

    Iatrogenic Effects

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 34. Binge Drinking

    Current Definition of Binge Drinking

    History of the Term

    Binge Drinking in Adolescents

    Binge Drinking in Young Adults

    Binge Drinking in Adults

    Binge Drinking in the Elderly

    Gender Differences in Binge Drinking

    Ethnic Differences in Binge Drinking

    Cultural Differences in Binge Drinking

    Prevention and Intervention Efforts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 35. Alcohol’s Effects on Sexual Arousal and Sexual Functioning

    Overview

    Definitions

    Alcohol and Sexual Desire

    Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Alcohol and Orgasm

    Sexual Pain in Women

    Suggestions for Future Research

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 36. Substance Induced Myopia

    Definition

    Development of the Model

    Behaviors Thought to be Affected by Alcohol Myopia

    Does Alcohol Myopia Explain How Intoxication Can Lead to More Prudent Behavior?

    Going Beyond Alcohol: Substance Myopia?

    Limitations of Myopia-Based Explanation

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 37. Metacognition in Substance Misuse

    The Metacognitive Model of Psychopathology

    Applying the S-REF Model to Substance Misuse

    Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) for Substance Misuse

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Chapter 38. Maturing Out

    Introduction

    Definitions of SUDS

    Documenting Maturing Out

    Theoretical Models of Maturing Out

    Why Does the Peak Prevalence of SUDS Occur in the Early Twenties?

    Why Do People Tend to Mature Out of Substance Use?

    Adult Role Attainment and Role Incompatibility Theory

    Is Personality Change Associated with Maturing Out?

    Maturing Out: Normative But Not Universal

    Adult Roles Do Not Always Lead to Decreased Substance Involvement

    Developmentally Limited SUDS Can Still Be Destructive

    Cultural Differences

    Maturing Out in Emerging Adulthood – Higher Rates of Recovery or Decreased Onset of New Cases?

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 39. The Effects of Substances on Driving

    Substances and Driving

    Substances

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 40. Defining and Assessing Drug Craving

    Advantages of Assessing Craving

    Elements in the Definition of Craving

    Etiological Explanations of Craving

    Self-Reports of Subjective Urges and Craving

    Self-Reports of Other Behaviors Considered Indirect Indications of Craving

    Observation of Behavioral and Physiological Indicators of Craving

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 41. Deprivation, Craving, and Affect: Intersecting Constructs in Addiction

    Introduction

    Deprivation/Withdrawal

    Craving

    Affect

    Negative Reinforcement

    Self-Medication Models

    Positive Reinforcement

    Expectancy Theory

    Affect-Induced Craving

    Craving and Mixed Affect

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 42. Implicit and Associative Processes in Addiction

    Why Do Things That Harm?

    One Process or Multiple Processes?

    Definition

    Indirect Tests

    Different Processes

    Assessment and Findings

    Origins and Relation to the Development of Addictive Behaviors

    Potential for New Interventions

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 43. Cue Reactivity

    Cue Reactivity

    Conditioning and Learning Theories

    Cognitive Theories

    Biases in Automatic Processing of Substance Cues

    Neurobiology of Cue Reactivity

    Clinical Applications

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 44. Craving and Expectancies

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 45. Attentional Biases in Craving

    Attentional Biases in Craving

    Further Reading

    Chapter 46. Sensory Imagery in Craving

    What Is Sensory Imagery?

    The Role of Sensory Imagery in Motivation

    Sensory Imagery and Craving

    Cognitive Psychology of Imagery – Clues to Tackling Craving Imagery

    Interfering with Craving

    Directions for Treating Addiction by Tackling Craving

    Future Directions for Craving Interventions

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 47. Neural Correlates of Craving for Psychoactive Drugs

    Introduction

    Craving Elicitation and Measurement

    Spatial Dynamics of Neural Systems Involved in Drug Craving

    Role of Interoception in Craving: Insular Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Neuroimaging Evidence Linking Interoception and Craving

    Model of Interoceptive Dysfunction Associated with Craving

    Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Craving

    Methodological Issues

    Future Directions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 48. Interference with Concurrent Tasks

    Overview

    Evidence that Cravings Interfere with Cognitive Performance

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 49. Relation of Craving and Appetitive Behavior

    Craving: Definition and Conceptualization

    Assessing Craving

    The Study of Craving: Laboratory and Field-Based Research Methodologies

    Relationship between Craving and Behavior

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 50. International Data on the Prevalence and Correlates of Comorbid Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders

    United States

    Europe

    Australia

    New Zealand

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 51. Models of Relationships between Substance Use and Mental Disorders

    Secondary Psychiatric Disorder Models

    Cannabis as a Precipitant of Psychosis

    Substance Use and Precipitation of Bipolar Disorder

    Secondary Substance Use Disorder Models

    Common Factor Models

    Bidirectional Models

    Conclusions

    Further Reading

    Chapter 52. Substance Use and Mood Disorders

    The Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use Problems

    The Prevalence of Mood Disorders

    The Prevalence of Comorbid Alcohol/Other Drug Use and Mood Disorders

    Etiological Models of Alcohol/Other Drug Use and Mood Problems

    The Impact of Comorbid Alcohol/Other Drug Use and Mood Disorders

    Smoking and Mood Disorders

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 53. Substance Use in Response to Anxiety Disorders

    Importance of Self-medication

    Evidence for Self-medication

    Mediators and Moderators

    Other Questions about Self-medication

    Gaps in the Literature

    Treatment Considerations

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 54. Cannabis Use and the Development and Maintenance of Psychosis

    Introduction

    Cannabis Use and Schizophrenia Onset

    Impact of Cannabis Use on the Course of Schizophrenia

    Intervention Studies

    Biological Plausibility

    An Overall Evaluation

    Cannabis Use and Bipolar Disorder

    What are the Policy Implications of the Evidence?

    Informing Young People about the Mental Health Risks of Cannabis Use

    Policies Toward Recreational Cannabis Use

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 55. Impact of Substance Use on the Course of Serious Mental Disorders

    Causes of Comorbidity

    The Neurobiology of Substance Use in Severe Mental Disorders

    Does Causality Matter?

    What are the Common Comorbid Disorders and What is their Impact?

    Schizophrenia

    Major Depressive Disorder

    Bipolar Disorder

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Section 2: Alcohol and Drug Prevention Adolescents and College Students

    Chapter 56. Developmental Risk Taking and the Natural History of Alcohol and Drug Use among Youth

    Normative Development of Risk Taking

    Initiation of Alcohol and Drug Use

    Developmental Trajectories

    Risk and Protective Factors

    Developmental Transitions

    Implications for Health and Prevention

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 57. Epidemiology of Adolescent and Young Adult Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use and Misuse in the United States

    Background

    Extent and Nature of Substance Use by Adolescents and Young Adults

    Consequences of Underage and Young Adult Substance Use

    Extent and Nature of SUDS among Adolescents and Young Adults

    A Continual Challenge – Recent and Emerging Issues

    What Does It All Mean? Summary and Final Thoughts

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 58. Alcohol and Drug Use in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth and Young Adults

    Introduction

    Overview of LGBT Populations

    Oppression of LGBT People

    Substance Use in LGBT Populations

    Substance Use Differences Across Race/Ethnicity in LGBT Populations

    Substance Use in Transgender Populations

    Correlates of Substance Use in LGBT Populations

    Substance Abuse Treatment for LGBT Populations

    LGBT Youth and Young Adults

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 59. Athletes and Substance Use

    Prevalence and Reasons for Substance Use among Athletes

    Treating and Preventing Substance Use among Athletes

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 60. Cultural Influences on Youth Alcohol and Drug Use

    Including Cultural Variables in Substance Use Research

    Rates of Substance Use Among Ethnic Minority Youth in the US

    Summary of Research Regarding Cultural Influences on Substance Use in the US

    Substance Abuse Treatment for Ethnic Minority Youth

    Research on Youth in Other Countries

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 61. Substance Use and Mental Health Issues on the College Campus

    Overview of Substance Use Trends in the United States

    Overview of Mental Health Trends in the United States

    Overview of the Overlap of Mental Health Issues and Substance Use

    Screening/Outreach Efforts

    Counseling Center Impressions

    Implications for Prevention and Intervention

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 62. Costs and Consequences (Morbidity and Mortality) Associated with Adolescent and College Drinking and Related Problems

    Heavy Episodic Drinking and Driving under the Influence of Alcohol

    Total Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injury Deaths

    Interventions to Reduce College Drinking

    Individual-Level Interventions

    Normative Re-Education Interventions

    Parent Initiatives

    Environmental Interventions: Legal Drinking Age of 21

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 63. Drinking Patterns, Alcohol Consumption, and Aggressive Behavior

    Alcohol and Aggression

    Definitions and Distinctions

    Alcohol Users and Violence

    Alcohol Use and Aggressive Events

    Experimental Studies

    Explanations for the Relationship Between Alcohol and Aggression

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 64. Alcohol and Sexual Violence

    Overview

    Prevalence of Sexual Violence

    Research on Alcohol and Sexual Violence

    Characteristics of Alcohol-Involved Assaults

    Alcohol-related Pathways to Perpetration and Victimization

    Sequelae of Alcohol-Related Victimization

    Prevention of Alcohol-Related Assaults

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 65. Alcohol, Sexual Risk Taking, and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    At-Risk Populations

    Assessment of Alcohol’s Role in Sexual Risk Taking and STIS

    Influences on Alcohol and Sexual Risk Taking

    Prevention and Intervention

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Section 3: Types of Addiction

    Chapter 66. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Defining Alcohol Use Disorders

    Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders

    Harms Associated with Alcohol Use

    Theories of Alcohol Use Disorders

    Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 67. Heroin Addiction

    Prevalence of Heroin Addiction

    Pharmacological and Clinical Aspects of Heroin Addiction

    Policy

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 68. Cocaine Addiction

    Introduction

    Botany

    History of Coca and Cocaine

    Epidemiology of Cocaine Use

    Pharmacology of Cocaine

    Treatment

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 69. Marijuana Use and Abuse

    Introduction

    Prevalence

    Pharmacokinetics and Intoxication Features

    Classification

    Motivational Bases

    Negative Correlates

    Motivation to Quit, Reasons for Quitting, and Success in Quitting

    Clinical Issues

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 70. Methamphetamine Addiction

    What is Methamphetamine?

    History

    Global Trends in Use

    Effects of Methamphetamine

    Dependence on Methamphetamine

    Neurochemistry

    Pharmacokinetics

    Isomers

    Chemical Production and Precursors

    Precursor Regulation as a Method of Supply Control

    Adulterants

    Forms of Methamphetamine

    Natural History of Methamphetamine Use

    Methamphetamine Use Patterns

    Methamphetamine Injection

    Methamphetamine Smoking

    Methamphetamine Psychosis

    Aggression and Violent Behavior

    Depression and Other Mental Health Problems

    Neurotoxicity

    Cognitive Deficits

    HIV Risk

    Crime

    Dental Problems

    Cardiovascular Effects

    Mortality

    Treatment and Management

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 71. Hallucinogens

    Neurobiology of Hallucinogens

    Physiological Effects

    Psychological Effects

    Epidemiology of Hallucinogen Use

    Diagnosis of Hallucinogen Intoxication and Hallucinogen Abuse and Dependence

    Comorbidity with Other Drug Use, Drug-Use Disorders, and Psychiatric Disorders

    Prevention/Intervention

    Treatment

    See also

    Further reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 72. Ecstasy/MDMA

    What is Ecstasy/MDMA

    History of MDMA

    Neurobiology of Ecstasy Use

    Epidemiology/Patterns of Ecstasy Use

    Ecstasy Use and Special Populations

    Predictors/Correlates of Ecstasy Use

    Consequences of Ecstasy Use

    Treatment for Ecstasy Use

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 73. Inhalants

    Introduction

    What is Inhalant Use?

    Patterns of Inhalant Use

    Incidence and Prevalence of Inhalant Use

    Assessment and Diagnosis for Inhalant Use Disorders

    Prevalence and Correlates of Inhalant Use Disorders

    Psychiatric Comorbidities, Medical Consequences, and Mortality

    Prevention and Treatment

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 74. Ketamine

    Introduction

    History of Ketamine

    Pharmacological and Toxicological Effects of Ketamine

    Patterns of Use

    Effects of Ketamine

    Therapeutic Value of Ketamine in Humans

    Ketamine-Related Mortality

    Ketamine-Related Morbidity

    Ketamine Dependence

    Public Health Issues Associated with Ketamine Use

    The Legal Status of Ketamine

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Chapter 75. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Dependence

    Definition of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    History

    Prevalence of Illicit AAS Use

    AAS Dependence

    Mechanisms of AAS Dependence

    Hazards of AAS Dependence

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 76. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications

    Introduction

    Risk and Protective Factors

    Specific Medications

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 77. Tobacco

    Tobacco: An Introduction

    Theory of Addiction

    Epidemiology of Smoking

    Public Health Issues

    Vulnerable Groups

    Genetics

    Treating Tobacco Dependence

    Clinical Trials

    Tobacco Policy and Control

    Tobacco Marketing

    Summary

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 78. Caffeine and Caffeinated Energy Drinks

    Background

    Beneficial Effects of Caffeine

    Caffeine and Sports Performance

    Caffeine and Sleep Deprivation

    Caffeine and Sustained Military Operations

    Caffeine and Shift Work

    Caffeine and Safety at Work

    Caffeine and Human Error

    Caffeine and Driving

    Caffeine and Dementia

    Caffeine and Anxiety and Depression

    Chronic Health Effects of Caffeine Consumption

    Caffeine: An Atypical Drug of Dependence

    Caffeine Withdrawal

    Beneficial Effects of Caffeine or Removal of Negative Effects of Withdrawal?

    Tolerance

    Cross-Sensitization

    Caffeine and Children and Adolescents

    Energy Drinks

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 79. Food Addictions

    Definition

    Magnitude of the Problem

    Supportive Evidence

    T2DM and Why Food Addictions Matter

    Future Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 80. Gambling

    Epidemiology of Problem Gambling

    Classification of Problem Gambling

    Theoretical Models of Problem Gambling

    Screening and Diagnosing Problem Gambling

    Risk Factors and Problem Gambling

    Psychological Treatment of Problem Gambling

    Pharmacological Treatments of Problem Gambling

    Summary of Treatment Efficacy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 81. Internet Addiction: Cybersex

    Defining Cybersex

    Text Cybersex

    Televideo Cybersex

    Cybersex and Real-Life Sex

    Appeals of Cybersex

    Safe Sex

    Fantasy Appeal

    Therapeutic Values

    Risks of Cybersex

    Emotional Risks

    Crossover into Real Life

    Cybersex Participants

    Cybersex Addiction

    Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 82. Video Game Addiction

    Introduction

    The Meaning of Video Game Addiction

    Features of Video Game Addiction

    Physical Symptoms

    Prevalence

    Course and Onset

    Demographic Profile

    Individual Risk Factors

    Video Game Structural Characteristics

    Assessment

    Treatment

    Research Issues

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 83. Exercise Dependence

    Exercise Dependence Defined

    Investigation of Exercise Dependence

    Neurobiological Explanations

    Psychological Explanations

    Primary versus Secondary Exercise Dependence

    Potential Negative Consequences of Exercise Dependence

    Measurement and Diagnosis of Exercise Dependence

    Treatment of Exercise Dependence

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 84. Work Addiction

    Introduction

    Assessment

    Prevalence

    Workaholism and Antecedents

    Outcomes and Correlates of Workaholism

    Treatment

    Future Research Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 85. Shopping Addiction

    Introduction and Definition

    Epidemiology

    Addictive Nature of the Disorder

    Other Clinical Aspects

    Differential Diagnosis

    Addictive and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Chapter 86. Sexual Addiction

    Introduction

    The Nature of Sexually Addictive Behavior

    The Prevalence of Sexually Addictive Behavior

    The Neuropsychology of Sexual Arousal and Desire

    Sexual Addiction as an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Failures of Self-Regulation

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 87. Areca Nut, Betel Quids, and Associated Products

    Introduction

    History

    Epidemiology

    Preparations (see Table 87.1)

    Route of Administration

    Sought After Effects (see Table 87.2)

    Pharmacology and Physiology

    Short-Term Adverse (see Table 87.3)

    Long-Term Effects (see Table 87.4)

    Other Health Consequences

    Effects on Pregnancy and the Newborn

    Abuse Liability and Dependence

    Assessment of Use and Dependence

    Cultivation, Commercialization, and Regulation

    Interventions

    Public Health and Policy Approaches (see Table 87.5)

    Treatment Responses (see Table 87.6)

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 88. Khat Addiction

    Introduction

    Prevalence of Khat Use

    Is Khat a Drug?

    Pharmacology

    Khat Abuse and Dependency

    Khat and Medical Problems

    Khat and Social Problems

    Khat Addiction Treatment

    Khat and Regulations

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 89. Internet: Immersive Virtual Worlds

    The Definition of Immersive Virtual Worlds

    A Brief Historical Outline of VR Technology

    The Technological Aspects of Immersive Virtual Environments

    Immersion in Virtual Worlds

    Methods to Measure Immersion

    Applications and Extensions of VR Technologies

    The Profound Effects on People’s Daily Lives

    Excessive Involvement: Internet Addiction

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 90. Waterpipe Smoking

    Introduction

    The Epidemiology of Waterpipe Smoking

    The Public Health Implications of Waterpipe Smoking

    The Intervention and Policy Implications of the Waterpipe Epidemic

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 91. The Cell Phone in the Twenty-First Century: A Risk for Addiction or a Necessary Tool?

    What Makes Cell Phone Use So Gratifying?

    What Is the Social Significance of Text Messaging?

    Differences in Usage in Terms of Gender and Age

    Is There Such a Thing as Addiction to Cell Phones?

    Summary

    See Also

    Further Reading

    Chapter 92. Overuse of Social Networking

    Introduction

    Overuse of Social Networking Sites

    Early Warning Signs of a Potential Social Networking Dependence

    Is Overuse of Social Networking a Primary or Secondary Problem?

    Risk Factors

    Protective Factors

    Treatment Considerations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 958
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: February 26, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123983619
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123983367

About the Editor in Chief

Peter Miller

Peter M. Miller, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Addictive Behaviors and an experienced researcher and clinician in the field of alcohol use disorders.

Affiliations and Expertise

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA

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