Principles and Measurements in Environmental Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408106375, 9781483162942

Principles and Measurements in Environmental Biology

1st Edition

Authors: F I Woodward J E Sheehy
eBook ISBN: 9781483162942
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 16th March 1983
Page Count: 274
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Description

Principles and Measurements in Environmental Biology aims to provide an understanding of some important physical principles and their application in biology. The book also aims to describe how instruments utilizing these principles can be used to measure biological and environmental processes and their interactions. This book covers the effects of the environment on biological organisms; the application of theories of radiation, kinetic theory, gas laws, and diffusion in biology; and water and its properties. The relation of plants with atmosphere near the ground is also discussed. This book also presents sampling techniques; the computation of errors used in the interpretation of data; the use of different devices; and data gathering and its practical applications. This text is for students, researchers, and professionals and experts in biology who wish to understand the mentioned principles in physics, its mathematical aspects, and their applications in the field.

Table of Contents


1 Introduction to the Effects of the Environment on Biological Organisms

Solar Radiation

Temperature

Water

Atmospheric Pressure

Air Flow

Carbon Dioxide

References and Bibliography

2 Radiation

Introduction

Electromagnetic or Wave Theory of Radiation

Quantum Theory of Radiation

Applications of Light Theories

Some General Definitions Concerning Radiation

Light and Growth

Crops and Their Radiation Environment

References and Bibliography

3 Kinetic Theory, Gas Laws and Diffusion

Introduction

The Ideal-Gas Laws

Effusion and Diffusion

Resistances (The Use of Equivalent Electrical Circuits)

Diffusion through Stomata

References and Bibliography

4 Water

Introduction

Water Molecules

Liquid Water Flow

Solutions

Osmosis

Water Vapor

Surface Tension

Water and the Atmosphere

Temperature Variations in the Atmosphere

Water Potential

Background Thermodynamics: Definitions

References and Bibliography

5 Plants and the Atmosphere near the Ground

Introduction

Turbulence

Wind Profiles

Eddy Diffusion and Vertical Transport in the Lower Atmosphere

Friction Velocity

Mixing Length

Transfer Coefficients

The Resistance Analogue

Logarithmic Wind Profiles

The Aerodynamic Method of Estimating Flux Densities

Effects of Temperature

The Influence of Temperature Gradients on Buoyancy

Monin-Obukhov Stability Function

Bowen-Ratio Method of Estimating Flux Densities

The Monteith-Modified Penman Equation

References and Bibliography

6 Sampling

Introduction

Spatial Sampling

Temporal Sampling

References and Bibliography

7 Errors

Introduction

Types of Variation

Estimation of Mean of Data and Scatter about the Mean

Standard Error and Confidence Limits

Calibration Problems

Repeatability and Accuracy

Some Examples of Measurement Errors

Summary of Equations

References and Bibliography

8 Transducers

Introduction

Temperature

Radiation

Water

Wind Speed

Wind Direction

Carbon Dioxide

Atmospheric Pressure

References and Bibliography

9 Display and Recording Devices

Introduction

Techniques for Linking Transducers to Translation Devices

Translation Devices

Interfaces

Decisions

References and Bibliography

10 Practical Applications

Introduction

Case Study 1: Barley and Its Environment

Case Study 2: Ammonia Fluxes

Case Study 3: The Design of an Enclosure

References and Bibliography

11 Growth Analysis

Introduction

Primary Model

Secondary Model

Tertiary Model

Curve Fitting

References and Bibliography

Appendix

Index

Details

No. of pages:
274
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483162942

About the Author

F I Woodward

J E Sheehy

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