Principles and Dynamics of the Critical Zone - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444633699, 9780444634122

Principles and Dynamics of the Critical Zone, Volume 19

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: John Giardino Chris Houser
eBook ISBN: 9780444634122
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633699
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th June 2015
Page Count: 674
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Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Brief history and background of the Critical Zone observation network and Critical Zone Observatories
    • 1.3. Development of the global Critical Zone network
    • 1.4. Water, the true thread of the Critical Zone
    • 1.5. The fashion of Critical Zone research
  • Chapter 2: The Role of Critical Zone Observatories in Critical Zone Science
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. The critical zone
    • 2.2. Critical zone observatories (CZOs)
    • 2.3. Common science questions
    • 2.4. Common measurements conceptual framework and goals
    • 2.5. International CZ program of research and education
    • 2.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 3: Climate of the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Soil moisture
    • 3.3. Anthropogenic influence
    • 3.4. Soil moisture–evapotranspiration coupling
    • 3.5. Soil moisture–temperature coupling
    • 3.6. Soil moisture–precipitation coupling
    • 3.7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 4: Regolith and Weathering (Rock Decay) in the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Weathering relevance to other Critical Zone processes
    • 4.3. Types of weathering (rock decay)
    • 4.4. Factors relevant to rock decay
    • 4.5. Rock decay in three dimensions: the “weathering mantle”
    • 4.6. Rock decay in the fourth dimension: time and rates in the Critical Zone
    • 4.7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 5: Soil Morphology in the Critical Zone: The Role of Climate, Geology, and Vegetation in Soil Formation in the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Models of soil formation
    • 5.3. Geochemistry and soil development
    • 5.4. Soil properties and geology
    • 5.5. Soil properties and vegetation
    • 5.6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 6: Soil Geochemistry in the Critical Zone: Influence on Atmosphere, Surface- and Groundwater Composition
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Material for soil geochemical reactions
    • 6.3. Soil biogeochemical reactions and their impact on the composition of atmosphere, surface- and groundwaters
    • 6.4. Climate as overarching control on soil geochemistry and its feedback to atmosphere, surface- and groundwater composition
    • 6.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 7: A Terrestrial Landscape Ecology Approach to the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Goal of chapter
    • 7.3. Boundaries of Critical Zone
    • 7.4. Current focus of research in landscape ecology and the Critical Zone program
    • 7.5. Development of landscape ecology as a discipline
    • 7.6. Landscape ecology definition and focus
    • 7.7. Landscape ecology concepts
    • 7.8. Landscape heterogeneity
    • 7.9. Tools for the recognition of structure, process, and change of landscapes
    • 7.10. Landscape ecology in the Critical Zone
    • 7.11. The role of interdisciplinarity in Critical Zone research
    • 7.12. Interdisciplinarity in landscape ecology and Critical Zone research
    • 7.13. How to deal with complexity in the study of the Critical Zone
    • 7.14. Complexity of landscapes and geomorphology
    • 7.15. Conclusions
  • Chapter 8: Ecohydrology and the Critical Zone: Processes and Patterns Across Scales
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Scales of interaction in ecohydrological patterns and processes
    • 8.3. Ecohydrological processes and patterns at the patch scale
    • 8.4. Ecohydrological processes and patterns at the hillslope scale
    • 8.5. Ecohydrological processes and patterns at the catchment scale
    • 8.6. Impacts and feedbacks across scales
  • Chapter 9: Rivers in the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. How rivers reflect connectivity
    • 9.3. How rivers influence connectivity
    • 9.4. Human alterations of river connectivity
    • 9.5. River restoration
    • 9.6. Rivers in the Critical Zone
  • Chapter 10: Characteristic and Role of Groundwater in the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Role of groundwater in ECZ
    • 10.3. Models of Earth-surface processes
    • 10.4. Coupled models
    • 10.5. Summary and conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 11: A Review of Mass Movement Processes and Risk in the Critical Zone of Earth
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Mass movement in the Critical Zone of Earth
    • 11.3. Forces in mass movement
    • 11.4. Types and characteristics of mass movement
    • 11.5. Causes of mass movement
    • 11.6. Spatial and temporal scale of mass movement
    • 11.7. Contribution to the evolution of mountain environments
    • 11.8. Susceptibility/slopestability mapping
    • 11.9. A case study: characteristics of landslides in western Colorado
    • 11.10. Impact of mass movement in the Critical Zone
    • 11.11. Living with mass movement in the Critical Zone
    • 11.12. Summary
  • Chapter 12: The Impact of Glacial Geomorphology on Critical Zone Processes
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Goal of this chapter
    • 12.3. Glacier mass balance
    • 12.4. Glacial chronology and Quaternary glaciation
    • 12.5. Glacial features in the Critical Zone
    • 12.6. Types of glaciers
    • 12.7. Erosional processes and forms
    • 12.8. Erosional process
    • 12.9. Erosional forms
    • 12.10. Glacial transport and deposition
    • 12.11. Glacier ecosystem
    • 12.12. Living in the Critical Zone of glaciated landscape
    • 12.13. Implications for the 21st century
    • 12.14. Summary
  • Chapter 13: Periglacial Processes and Landforms in the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Goal of this chapter
    • 13.3. What does periglacial mean?
    • 13.4. Description of permafrost
    • 13.5. Periglacial Landforms and Associated Processes
    • 13.6. Ground ice
    • 13.7. Segregated ice
    • 13.8. Ice wedges
    • 13.9. Frost mounds
    • 13.10. Pingos
    • 13.11. Patterned ground
    • 13.12. Thermokarst
    • 13.13. Description of surface to near-surface, frost-action processes
    • 13.14. Mass movement
    • 13.15. Solifluction
    • 13.16. Detachment layers
    • 13.17. Retrogressive-fall slumping
    • 13.18. Snow avalanches and slush flows
    • 13.19. Rock falls
    • 13.20. Rock glaciers
    • 13.21. The impact of the periglacial Critical Zone on human activity
    • 13.22. Summary and conclusions
  • Chapter 14: The Critical Zone in Desert Environments
    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Main features of the Critical Zone in arid lands
    • 14.3. Geomorphic and geologic factors influencing the CZ in deserts
    • 14.4. Numerical modeling of soil and regolith movement on desert hillslopes
    • 14.5. Landscape development in deserts – examples from the Mojave Desert, CA
    • 14.6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 15: The Critical Zone in Tropical Environments
    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. Importance of tropical environment and its relationship with CZ
    • 15.3. Biology and Holdridge life zones
    • 15.4. Economical importance of the CZ in the tropics
    • 15.5. Importance of CZ studies in preventing natural disasters
    • 15.6. A case study in soil weathering in tropical environments: Puerto Rico versus Sri Lanka
    • 15.7. Climate change and its effect on Critical Zones in the tropics
    • 15.8. Costa Rica: suggesting a new CZO
    • 15.9. Discussion
    • 15.10. Conclusions
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 16: The Critical Zone of Coastal Barrier Systems
    • Abstract
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Transgression and regression
    • 16.3. Coastal dunes as a central node in the Barrier Island system
    • 16.4. Alongshore and across-shore variation in the Barrier Island Critical Zone
    • 16.5. Discussion
    • 16.6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 17: Geospatial Science and Technology for Understanding the Complexities of the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Background
    • 17.3. Surface irradiance modeling
    • 17.4. Geocomputational modeling
    • 17.5. Discussion
    • 17.6. Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 18: The Built Environment in the Critical Zone: From Pre- to Postindustrial Cities
    • Abstract
    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. Urbanization and the Critical Zone
    • 18.3. Environmental and urban sustainability
    • 18.4. Compact city: a harmonic relationship between the city and the Critical Zone
    • 18.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 19: Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Groundwater in the Critical Zone of the Texas Triangle Megaregion
    • Abstract
    • 19.1. Introduction
    • 19.2. Goal of the chapter
    • 19.3. Impact of population growth
    • 19.4. Description of the study area
    • 19.5. Physical divisions and ecoregions
    • 19.6. Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub Province
    • 19.7. Aquifer structure and stratigraphy
    • 19.8. Surface water resources
    • 19.9. Living in the Critical Zone: anthropogenic factors affecting groundwater in the Critical Zone of the Texas-Triangle Megaregion
    • 19.10. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations in the Critical Zone
    • 19.11. Water management policy in the Texas Triangle Megaregion: implications for the Critical Zone
    • 19.12. Managing the water resources of the Critical Zone in Texas
    • 19.13. Summary and conclusions
  • Chapter 20: A Summary and Future Direction of the Principles and Dynamics of the Critical Zone
    • Abstract
    • 20.1. Introduction
    • 20.2. From present to the future
    • Acknowledgments
  • Subject Index

Description

Principles and Dynamics of the Critical Zone is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate courses and an essential tool for researchers developing cutting-edge proposals. It provides a process-based description of the Critical Zone, a place that The National Research Council (2001) defines as the "heterogeneous, near surface environment in which complex interactions involving rock, soil, water, air, and living organisms regulate the natural habitat and determine the availability of life-sustaining resources."

This text provides a summary of Critical Zone research and outcomes from the NSF funded Critical Zone Observatories, providing a process-based description of the Critical Zone in a wide range of environments with a specific focus on the important linkages that exist amongst the processes in each zone.

This book will be useful to all scientists and students conducting research on the Critical Zone within and outside the Critical Zone Observatory Network, as well as scientists and students in the geosciences – atmosphere, geomorphology, geology and pedology.

Key Features

  • The first text to address the principles and concepts of the Critical Zone
  • A comprehensive approach to the processes responsible for the development and structure of the Critical Zone in a number of environments
  • An essential tool for undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers developing cutting-edge proposals

Readership

Scientists and students conducting research on the Critical Zone within and outside the Critical Zone Observatory Network, as well as scientists and students in the geosciences: atmosphere, geomorphology, geology and pedology


Details

No. of pages:
674
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444634122
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444633699

About the Series Volume Editors

John Giardino Series Volume Editor

Dr. John R. (Rick) Giardino is a process geomorphologist whose research is focused on mass movement and fluvial activity in periglacial environments. He studies rock glaciers, landslides and mountain streams from a system perspective focusing on the transport of mass and energy through these landform systems. Dr. Giardino is Professor in the Geology and Geophysics Department and the Water Management and Hydrological Sciences Graduate Program. He is currently Head of Geology and Geophysics, and he was the former Dean of Graduate Studies at Texas A&M University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Geology & Geophysics and Water Management and Hydrological Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Chris Houser Series Volume Editor

Dr. Chris Houser is a process geomorphologist with a focus on coastal and aeolian environments and an interest in the response and recovery of barrier islands to relative sea level rise and changes in the frequency and magnitude of storm events. An important component of his research is the exchange of sediment amongst the nearshore, beach and dune in the development of coastal dunes, which ultimately controls the development of the critical zone in coastal barrier environments. Dr. Houser is also the Director for the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Site: Ecohydrology of a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (http://costaricareu.tamu.edu/), which allows undergraduate students to characterize the hydrology of a small tropical watershed using a systems approach. Dr. Houser is currently an Associate Professor in the Departments of Geography and Geology & Geophysics at Texas A&M University and serves as the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Faculty Development.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Geography and Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA