Primitive Money

Primitive Money

In its Ethnological, Historical and Economic Aspects

2nd Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Author: Paul Einzig
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483157153

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Primitive Money: In its Ethnological, Historical and Economic Aspects: Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged deals with the study of the role of money in the past and in selected regions of the world. This selection is divided into three sections, designated as Book I, Book II, and Book III. Book I discusses the ethnology of money extending back to more than 5,000 years ago, to the dark age when not much written evidence existed, and to today's various communities scattered around the world. The text covers the regions of Oceania, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Book II looks into the historical aspect of money, from the ancient period comprising prehistoric currencies such as tools and ornaments, to the Medieval period, and then to modern times. Book III is the theoretical section that attempts to define primitive money, its functions, and its perceived value. This book applies something modern when it discusses primitive monetary policy, such as active and passive attitudes of the State, restrictionist policy, stabilizationist policy, and expansionist monetary policy. This section also discusses the philosophy of primitive money, and its economic and historical roles. The change from primitive to modern money is examined, and the future prospects such as the continuance or redemption of primitive money is discussed. Anthropologists, sociologists, economists, historians, students and academicians doing sociological research, and even businessmen and industrialists can benefit from reading this text.

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Revised Edition

    Preface to the First Edition


    Chapter 1. The Study of Primitive Money

    Chapter 2. Primitive Money still Terra Incognita

    Chapter 3. The Background to Primitive Money

    Chapter 4. Treatment of the Subject

    Book I — Ethnological Section

    Part I. Oceania

    Chapter 1. Mat and Bark Cloth Money in Samoa

    Chapter 2. Whales' Teeth Currency of Fiji

    Chapter 3. Other Currencies of the Eastern Pacific

    Chapter 4. The Stone Money of Yap

    Chapter 5. The Bead Currency of Pelew

    Chapter 6. Other Micronesian Currencies

    Chapter 7. Pig Exchanges on the New Hebrides

    Chapter 8. The Feather Money of Santa Cruz

    Chapter 9. Shell Loans on the Banks Islands

    Chapter 10. Shell and Teeth Currencies on the Solomon Islands

    Chapter 11. The Intricate Currency of Rossel Island

    Chapter 12. Debts in Dogs' Teeth on the Admiralty Islands

    Chapter 13. Shell and Yam Currencies of the Trobriand Islands

    Chapter 14. The "Sacred" Money of New Britain

    Chapter 15. New Guinea's Boar Tusk and Shell Currencies

    Part II. Asia

    Chapter 16. Rice Standard in the Philippines

    Chapter 17. The Drum Currency of Alor

    Chapter 18. Bronze Guns, Bees' Wax and Buffaloes as Money in Borneo

    Chapter 19. Other Moneys of the Indonesian Archipelago

    Chapter 20. "Homeric" Currencies in Cambodia

    Chapter 21. Gambling Counters as Money in Siam

    Chapter 22. Tin Ingots and Gold Dust in Malaya

    Chapter 23. Weighed Silver and Lead Currency in Burma

    Chapter 24. Tea Brick Currency in Mongolia

    Chapter 25. Coconut Standard on the Nicobars

    Chapter 26. Grain Medium of Exchange in India

    Chapter 27. Reindeer and Cattle Standard in Asiatic Russia

    Chapter 28. Currencies at the Persian Gulf

    Part III. Africa

    Chapter 29. Iron Currency in Sudan

    Chapter 30. Salt Money of Ethiopia

    Chapter 31. Livestock Standard in Kenya

    Chapter 32. Bead Money of Tanzania

    Chapter 33. Cowries as Currency in Uganda

    Chapter 34. Other East African Currencies

    Chapter 35. Calico Currency in Zambia

    Chapter 36. Cloth, Metals and Slaves as Currency in Equatorial Africa

    Chapter 37. Cowrie Crises in the Former French Sudan

    Chapter 38. Cowries, Slaves, Cloth and Gin Money of Nigeria

    Chapter 39. Gold Dust Currency of Ghana

    Chapter 40. Other Moneys of the Guinea Bay

    Chapter 41. Debased Brass Rod Currency of the Congo

    Chapter 42. Shell Money of Angola

    Chapter 43. Cattle and Bead Money of South-West Africa

    Chapter 44. Cattle Currency in South Africa

    Part IV. America

    Chapter 45. Fur Currency in Alaska

    Chapter 46. Shell, Fur and Blanket Currency of Canada

    Chapter 47. Wampum and Other Shell Currencies in the United States

    Chapter 48. Cocoa Bean Currency of Mexico

    Chapter 49. Maize Money of Guatemala

    Chapter 50. Cattle Standard in Colombia

    Chapter 51. Arrows and Guns as Currency in Brazil

    Chapter 52. Snail Shell Currency in Paraguay

    Chapter 53. Other Latin American Currencies

    Book II — Historical Section

    Part I. Ancient Period

    Chapter 1. Prehistoric Currencies

    Chapter 2. Copper Unit of Account in Ancient Egypt

    Chapter 3. Barley and Silver Money of Babylonia and Assyria

    Chapter 4. Sealed Ingots in Cappadocia

    Chapter 5. Sheep and Silver Currency in the Hittite Empire

    Chapter 6. Livestock and Weighed Silver Money of the Jews

    Chapter 7. Delayed Adoption of Coinage in Phoenicia and Carthage

    Chapter 8. Invention of Coinage in Lydia

    Chapter 9. Livestock Standard in Ancient Persia

    Chapter 10. Ox and Base Metal Currencies in Greece

    Chapter 11. Crude Bronze Currency of Pre-Roman Italy and Rome

    Chapter 12. Bronze Axes and Wheels as Currencies in Gaul

    Chapter 13. Cattle Currency of the Ancient Germans

    Chapter 14. Iron Sword Currency of Britain

    Chapter 15. Slave Girl Money of Ireland

    Chapter 16. Cattle Currency of India

    Chapter 17. Shell, Silk and Metal Currencies of China

    Part II. Medieval Period

    Chapter 18. Rings and Weighed Metal Currencies of the British Isles

    Chapter 19. Cattle Money in Ireland

    Chapter 20. Cattle, Cloth and Weighed Metal Money in Germany

    Chapter 21. Leather Currency in Italy and France

    Chapter 22. Cattle, Cloth and Fish Currency of Iceland

    Chapter 23. Ring Money of Denmark

    Chapter 24. Cattle and Cloth Currency of Sweden

    Chapter 25. Butter as Currency in Norway

    Chapter 26. Calves as Monetary Unit in Hungary

    Chapter 27. Fur Money of Russia

    Chapter 28. Other European Currencies

    Chapter 29. Cowries as Currency in India

    Chapter 30. Livestock Standard of the Mongols

    Chapter 31. Salt Money of China

    Chapter 32. Gold Dust Money of Japan

    Part III. Modern Period

    Chapter 33. Commodity-Currencies of the United States

    Chapter 34. Leather Money of the British Isles

    Chapter 35. Cattle Currency of Ireland

    Chapter 36. Rum Currency in Australia

    Chapter 37. Fur and Wheat Currency in Canada

    Chapter 38. Sugar Money of Barbados

    Chapter 39. Tobacco Money of the Bermudas

    Chapter 40. Tobacco and Sugar Money of the Leeward Islands

    Chapter 41. Mahogany Logs as Currency in British Honduras

    Chapter 42. Uncoined Silver Money in Russia

    Chapter 43. Grain Money in France

    Chapter 44. Commodity Units of Account in Germany and Austria

    Chapter 45. Other European Currencies

    Chapter 46. Almonds as Currency in India

    Chapter 47. Fictitious Monetary Unit in China

    Chapter 48. Rice Money in Japan

    Book III — Theoretical Section

    Part I. What is Primitive Money

    Chapter 1. Definition of Primitive Money

    Chapter 2. What is not Primitive Money

    Chapter 3. Requirements of Primitive Money

    Chapter 4. Classification of Primitive Money

    Part II. The Origin of Money

    Chapter 5. Moneyless Communities

    Chapter 6. Evolution of Barter

    Chapter 7. Origin of Money—The Medium of Exchange Theory

    Chapter 8. Origin through External Trade

    Chapter 9. Origin through Internal Trade

    Chapter 10. The Standard of Value Theory

    Chapter 11. The Store of Value Theory

    Chapter 12. Origin from Standard of Deferred Payments

    Chapter 13. Origin through Ornamental and Ceremonial Functions

    Chapter 14. Religious Origin

    Chapter 15. Political Origin

    Chapter 16. Matrimonial Origin

    Chapter 17. Origin through Status Symbol Function

    Part III. The Value of Primitive Money

    Chapter 18. Primitive v. Modern Monetary Theory

    Chapter 19. The Supply and Demand Theory

    Chapter 20. The Quantity Theory

    Chapter 21. The Quality Theory

    Chapter 22. The Cost of Production Theory

    Chapter 23. The State Theory

    Chapter 24. Gresham's Law

    Chapter 25. Price Levels in Semi-Natural Economies

    Chapter 26. Dual Character of Primitive Money

    Chapter 27. Multiple Currencies

    Chapter 28. Limited Currencies

    Part IV. The Functions of Primitive Money

    Chapter 29. Separation of Functions

    Chapter 30. Medium of Exchange

    Chapter 31. Standard of Value

    Chapter 32. Store of Value

    Chapter 33. Liquid Reserves

    Chapter 34. Standard of Deferred Payments

    Chapter 35. Means of Deferred Payments

    Chapter 36. Means of Non-Commercial Payments

    Chapter 37. Primitive Foreign Exchange

    Part V. Primitive Monetary Policy

    Chapter 38. Active and Passive Attitudes of the State Authority

    Chapter 39. Restrictionist Monetary Policy

    Chapter 40. Stabilizationist Policy

    Chapter 41. Expansionist Monetary Policy

    Chapter 42. Foreign Exchange Policy

    Part VI. The Philosophy of Primitive Money

    Chapter 43. The Economic Role of Primitive Money

    Chapter 44. A Social Theory of Money

    Chapter 45. The Historical Role of Primitive Money

    Chapter 46. Money and Civilization

    Chapter 47. Change from Primitive to Modern Money

    Chapter 48. The Future of Primitive Money


    Name Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483157153

About the Author

Paul Einzig

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