Primitive Money - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080116792, 9781483157153

Primitive Money

2nd Edition

In its Ethnological, Historical and Economic Aspects

Authors: Paul Einzig
eBook ISBN: 9781483157153
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 576
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Primitive Money: In its Ethnological, Historical and Economic Aspects: Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged deals with the study of the role of money in the past and in selected regions of the world. This selection is divided into three sections, designated as Book I, Book II, and Book III.
Book I discusses the ethnology of money extending back to more than 5,000 years ago, to the dark age when not much written evidence existed, and to today's various communities scattered around the world. The text covers the regions of Oceania, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Book II looks into the historical aspect of money, from the ancient period comprising prehistoric currencies such as tools and ornaments, to the Medieval period, and then to modern times. Book III is the theoretical section that attempts to define primitive money, its functions, and its perceived value. This book applies something modern when it discusses primitive monetary policy, such as active and passive attitudes of the State, restrictionist policy, stabilizationist policy, and expansionist monetary policy. This section also discusses the philosophy of primitive money, and its economic and historical roles. The change from primitive to modern money is examined, and the future prospects such as the continuance or redemption of primitive money is discussed.
Anthropologists, sociologists, economists, historians, students and academicians doing sociological research, and even businessmen and industrialists can benefit from reading this text.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Revised Edition

Preface to the First Edition


Chapter 1. The Study of Primitive Money

Chapter 2. Primitive Money still Terra Incognita

Chapter 3. The Background to Primitive Money

Chapter 4. Treatment of the Subject

Book I — Ethnological Section

Part I. Oceania

Chapter 1. Mat and Bark Cloth Money in Samoa

Chapter 2. Whales' Teeth Currency of Fiji

Chapter 3. Other Currencies of the Eastern Pacific

Chapter 4. The Stone Money of Yap

Chapter 5. The Bead Currency of Pelew

Chapter 6. Other Micronesian Currencies

Chapter 7. Pig Exchanges on the New Hebrides

Chapter 8. The Feather Money of Santa Cruz

Chapter 9. Shell Loans on the Banks Islands

Chapter 10. Shell and Teeth Currencies on the Solomon Islands

Chapter 11. The Intricate Currency of Rossel Island

Chapter 12. Debts in Dogs' Teeth on the Admiralty Islands

Chapter 13. Shell and Yam Currencies of the Trobriand Islands

Chapter 14. The "Sacred" Money of New Britain

Chapter 15. New Guinea's Boar Tusk and Shell Currencies

Part II. Asia

Chapter 16. Rice Standard in the Philippines

Chapter 17. The Drum Currency of Alor

Chapter 18. Bronze Guns, Bees' Wax and Buffaloes as Money in Borneo

Chapter 19. Other Moneys of the Indonesian Archipelago

Chapter 20. "Homeric" Currencies in Cambodia

Chapter 21. Gambling Counters as Money in Siam

Chapter 22. Tin Ingots and Gold Dust in Malaya

Chapter 23. Weighed Silver and Lead Currency in Burma

Chapter 24. Tea Brick Currency in Mongolia

Chapter 25. Coconut Standard on the Nicobars

Chapter 26. Grain Medium of Exchange in India

Chapter 27. Reindeer and Cattle Standard in Asiatic Russia

Chapter 28. Currencies at the Persian Gulf

Part III. Africa

Chapter 29. Iron Currency in Sudan

Chapter 30. Salt Money of Ethiopia

Chapter 31. Livestock Standard in Kenya

Chapter 32. Bead Money of Tanzania

Chapter 33. Cowries as Currency in Uganda

Chapter 34. Other East African Currencies

Chapter 35. Calico Currency in Zambia

Chapter 36. Cloth, Metals and Slaves as Currency in Equatorial Africa

Chapter 37. Cowrie Crises in the Former French Sudan

Chapter 38. Cowries, Slaves, Cloth and Gin Money of Nigeria

Chapter 39. Gold Dust Currency of Ghana

Chapter 40. Other Moneys of the Guinea Bay

Chapter 41. Debased Brass Rod Currency of the Congo

Chapter 42. Shell Money of Angola

Chapter 43. Cattle and Bead Money of South-West Africa

Chapter 44. Cattle Currency in South Africa

Part IV. America

Chapter 45. Fur Currency in Alaska

Chapter 46. Shell, Fur and Blanket Currency of Canada

Chapter 47. Wampum and Other Shell Currencies in the United States

Chapter 48. Cocoa Bean Currency of Mexico

Chapter 49. Maize Money of Guatemala

Chapter 50. Cattle Standard in Colombia

Chapter 51. Arrows and Guns as Currency in Brazil

Chapter 52. Snail Shell Currency in Paraguay

Chapter 53. Other Latin American Currencies

Book II — Historical Section

Part I. Ancient Period

Chapter 1. Prehistoric Currencies

Chapter 2. Copper Unit of Account in Ancient Egypt

Chapter 3. Barley and Silver Money of Babylonia and Assyria

Chapter 4. Sealed Ingots in Cappadocia

Chapter 5. Sheep and Silver Currency in the Hittite Empire

Chapter 6. Livestock and Weighed Silver Money of the Jews

Chapter 7. Delayed Adoption of Coinage in Phoenicia and Carthage

Chapter 8. Invention of Coinage in Lydia

Chapter 9. Livestock Standard in Ancient Persia

Chapter 10. Ox and Base Metal Currencies in Greece

Chapter 11. Crude Bronze Currency of Pre-Roman Italy and Rome

Chapter 12. Bronze Axes and Wheels as Currencies in Gaul

Chapter 13. Cattle Currency of the Ancient Germans

Chapter 14. Iron Sword Currency of Britain

Chapter 15. Slave Girl Money of Ireland

Chapter 16. Cattle Currency of India

Chapter 17. Shell, Silk and Metal Currencies of China

Part II. Medieval Period

Chapter 18. Rings and Weighed Metal Currencies of the British Isles

Chapter 19. Cattle Money in Ireland

Chapter 20. Cattle, Cloth and Weighed Metal Money in Germany

Chapter 21. Leather Currency in Italy and France

Chapter 22. Cattle, Cloth and Fish Currency of Iceland

Chapter 23. Ring Money of Denmark

Chapter 24. Cattle and Cloth Currency of Sweden

Chapter 25. Butter as Currency in Norway

Chapter 26. Calves as Monetary Unit in Hungary

Chapter 27. Fur Money of Russia

Chapter 28. Other European Currencies

Chapter 29. Cowries as Currency in India

Chapter 30. Livestock Standard of the Mongols

Chapter 31. Salt Money of China

Chapter 32. Gold Dust Money of Japan

Part III. Modern Period

Chapter 33. Commodity-Currencies of the United States

Chapter 34. Leather Money of the British Isles

Chapter 35. Cattle Currency of Ireland

Chapter 36. Rum Currency in Australia

Chapter 37. Fur and Wheat Currency in Canada

Chapter 38. Sugar Money of Barbados

Chapter 39. Tobacco Money of the Bermudas

Chapter 40. Tobacco and Sugar Money of the Leeward Islands

Chapter 41. Mahogany Logs as Currency in British Honduras

Chapter 42. Uncoined Silver Money in Russia

Chapter 43. Grain Money in France

Chapter 44. Commodity Units of Account in Germany and Austria

Chapter 45. Other European Currencies

Chapter 46. Almonds as Currency in India

Chapter 47. Fictitious Monetary Unit in China

Chapter 48. Rice Money in Japan

Book III — Theoretical Section

Part I. What is Primitive Money

Chapter 1. Definition of Primitive Money

Chapter 2. What is not Primitive Money

Chapter 3. Requirements of Primitive Money

Chapter 4. Classification of Primitive Money

Part II. The Origin of Money

Chapter 5. Moneyless Communities

Chapter 6. Evolution of Barter

Chapter 7. Origin of Money—The Medium of Exchange Theory

Chapter 8. Origin through External Trade

Chapter 9. Origin through Internal Trade

Chapter 10. The Standard of Value Theory

Chapter 11. The Store of Value Theory

Chapter 12. Origin from Standard of Deferred Payments

Chapter 13. Origin through Ornamental and Ceremonial Functions

Chapter 14. Religious Origin

Chapter 15. Political Origin

Chapter 16. Matrimonial Origin

Chapter 17. Origin through Status Symbol Function

Part III. The Value of Primitive Money

Chapter 18. Primitive v. Modern Monetary Theory

Chapter 19. The Supply and Demand Theory

Chapter 20. The Quantity Theory

Chapter 21. The Quality Theory

Chapter 22. The Cost of Production Theory

Chapter 23. The State Theory

Chapter 24. Gresham's Law

Chapter 25. Price Levels in Semi-Natural Economies

Chapter 26. Dual Character of Primitive Money

Chapter 27. Multiple Currencies

Chapter 28. Limited Currencies

Part IV. The Functions of Primitive Money

Chapter 29. Separation of Functions

Chapter 30. Medium of Exchange

Chapter 31. Standard of Value

Chapter 32. Store of Value

Chapter 33. Liquid Reserves

Chapter 34. Standard of Deferred Payments

Chapter 35. Means of Deferred Payments

Chapter 36. Means of Non-Commercial Payments

Chapter 37. Primitive Foreign Exchange

Part V. Primitive Monetary Policy

Chapter 38. Active and Passive Attitudes of the State Authority

Chapter 39. Restrictionist Monetary Policy

Chapter 40. Stabilizationist Policy

Chapter 41. Expansionist Monetary Policy

Chapter 42. Foreign Exchange Policy

Part VI. The Philosophy of Primitive Money

Chapter 43. The Economic Role of Primitive Money

Chapter 44. A Social Theory of Money

Chapter 45. The Historical Role of Primitive Money

Chapter 46. Money and Civilization

Chapter 47. Change from Primitive to Modern Money

Chapter 48. The Future of Primitive Money


Name Index

Subject Index


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© Pergamon 1966
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Paul Einzig

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