Primate Locomotion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123840509, 9780323152020

Primate Locomotion

1st Edition

Authors: Farish A. Jr. Jenkins
eBook ISBN: 9780323152020
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 402
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Description

Primate Locomotion discusses researches on the concept of primate locomotion. It is organized into 11 chapters that cover biomechanical principles, which are the foundation of understanding of locomotor adaptations. This book first gives an introduction to parallels and analogs between mammalian and mechanical structures. It then describes the mechanisms of arboreal mammal locomotion, as well as the behavioral observations and locomotor patterns of tree shrew. The jumping locomotion of Galago alleni and the role of wrist specialization in the locomotor evolution of the Hominoidea are also explained. The subsequent chapter discusses the relationship between the mechanical features of the scapula and shoulder region and the characteristics of locomotor behavior. A chapter also discusses the adaptive nature of postural behavior in quadrupedal primates, represented by the New and Old World monkeys.
Moreover, this book examines the morphological differences between living Insectivora, Carnivora, Primates, and the relevant known fossils of Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Eutheria. This is to evaluate the origins, evolution, and function of the Tarsus. Another chapter presents a functional analysis of most of the foot skeleton, primarily, the Lemuriformes. The concluding chapters deal with electromyographical studies on gorillas; the mechanics of knuckle-walking; the theories on hominoid phylogeny; and the locomotor adaptations in prosimians.
This text is intended not only for researchers dealing with primate locomotion, but equally for students and others who share an interest in mammals and locomotor adaptations.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

1 An Introduction to Biomechanical Principles in Primate Locomotion and Structure

General Principles

The Body Axis

The Thorax and the Shoulder Suspension Mechanism

The Pelvic Girdle and Limbs

References

2 Pads and Claws in Arboreal Locomotion

Introduction

The Cheiridia of Arboreal Mammals

Posture and Locomotion on Horizontal Supports

Adaptations to Discontinuous Substrates

Nonhorizontal Supports and Frictional Forces

Claw Grip and Support Diameter

Locomotion on Vertical Supports

Adaptive Significance of Grasping Extremities

Reduction of Claws: Phylogeny and Functional Significance

Prehensile Specializations of the Hand

Summary

References

3 Tree Shrew Locomotion and the Origins of Primate Arborealism

Introduction

Tree Shrew Locomotion: Behavioral Observations

Locomotor Patterns of Tupaia glis

Hypotheses of Arboreal Ancestry

The Origins of Primate Arborealism

References

4 A Cineradiographical Analysis of Leaping in an African Prosimian (Galago alleni)

Introduction

Cineradiographical Techniques

General Observations

Slow-Motion Analysis

Single Frame Analysis

Discussion

References

5 The Wrist Articulations of the Anthropoidea

Introduction

Cercopithecoidea and Ceboidea

Hominoidea

References

6 Structure and Function of the Primate Scapula

Introduction

Structure of the Scapula

Scapular Form-Function Relationships

The Scapula of Australopithecus

Conclusions

References

7 Postural Adaptations in New and Old World Monkeys

Introduction

Activity Patterns

Postural Adaptations in Arboreal Monkeys

Postural Adaptations in Terrestrial Monkeys

Posture, Functional Morphology, and the Evolution of Positional Activities

References

8 Origins, Evolution, and Function of the Tarsus in Late Cretaceous Eutheria and Paleocene Primates

Introduction

Methods

Substrate

Relationships of Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Eutheria

The Tarsus of Late Cretaceous Eutherians and Paleocene Primates

Tarsal Function and Substrate Preference among the Ancestral Eutheria and Early Primates

Summary

References

9 Origins and Function of the Pes in the Eocene Adapidae (Lemuriformes, Primates)

Introduction

The Pes in the Eocene Adapidae: Morphology and Axes of Rotation

Summary

References

10 Electromyography of Forearm Musculature in Gorilla and Problems Related to Knuckle-Walking

Introduction

Electromyographical Studies of Pan gorilla

Biomechanical Inferences

Evolutionary Inferences

References

11 Locomotor Adaptations in Past and Present Prosimian Primates

Introduction

The Locomotion of Living Prosimians

The Morphological Correlates of Locomotion in Living Prosimians

The Presumed Locomotion of Extinct Prosimians

Locomotor Developments in the Prosimians

References

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
402
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323152020

About the Author

Farish A. Jr. Jenkins