Primate Locomotion

Primate Locomotion

1st Edition - December 2, 2012

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  • Author: Farish A. Jr. Jenkins
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152020

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Description

Primate Locomotion discusses researches on the concept of primate locomotion. It is organized into 11 chapters that cover biomechanical principles, which are the foundation of understanding of locomotor adaptations. This book first gives an introduction to parallels and analogs between mammalian and mechanical structures. It then describes the mechanisms of arboreal mammal locomotion, as well as the behavioral observations and locomotor patterns of tree shrew. The jumping locomotion of Galago alleni and the role of wrist specialization in the locomotor evolution of the Hominoidea are also explained. The subsequent chapter discusses the relationship between the mechanical features of the scapula and shoulder region and the characteristics of locomotor behavior. A chapter also discusses the adaptive nature of postural behavior in quadrupedal primates, represented by the New and Old World monkeys. Moreover, this book examines the morphological differences between living Insectivora, Carnivora, Primates, and the relevant known fossils of Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Eutheria. This is to evaluate the origins, evolution, and function of the Tarsus. Another chapter presents a functional analysis of most of the foot skeleton, primarily, the Lemuriformes. The concluding chapters deal with electromyographical studies on gorillas; the mechanics of knuckle-walking; the theories on hominoid phylogeny; and the locomotor adaptations in prosimians. This text is intended not only for researchers dealing with primate locomotion, but equally for students and others who share an interest in mammals and locomotor adaptations.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    1 An Introduction to Biomechanical Principles in Primate Locomotion and Structure

    General Principles

    The Body Axis

    The Thorax and the Shoulder Suspension Mechanism

    The Pelvic Girdle and Limbs

    References

    2 Pads and Claws in Arboreal Locomotion

    Introduction

    The Cheiridia of Arboreal Mammals

    Posture and Locomotion on Horizontal Supports

    Adaptations to Discontinuous Substrates

    Nonhorizontal Supports and Frictional Forces

    Claw Grip and Support Diameter

    Locomotion on Vertical Supports

    Adaptive Significance of Grasping Extremities

    Reduction of Claws: Phylogeny and Functional Significance

    Prehensile Specializations of the Hand

    Summary

    References

    3 Tree Shrew Locomotion and the Origins of Primate Arborealism

    Introduction

    Tree Shrew Locomotion: Behavioral Observations

    Locomotor Patterns of Tupaia glis

    Hypotheses of Arboreal Ancestry

    The Origins of Primate Arborealism

    References

    4 A Cineradiographical Analysis of Leaping in an African Prosimian (Galago alleni)

    Introduction

    Cineradiographical Techniques

    General Observations

    Slow-Motion Analysis

    Single Frame Analysis

    Discussion

    References

    5 The Wrist Articulations of the Anthropoidea

    Introduction

    Cercopithecoidea and Ceboidea

    Hominoidea

    References

    6 Structure and Function of the Primate Scapula

    Introduction

    Structure of the Scapula

    Scapular Form-Function Relationships

    The Scapula of Australopithecus

    Conclusions

    References

    7 Postural Adaptations in New and Old World Monkeys

    Introduction

    Activity Patterns

    Postural Adaptations in Arboreal Monkeys

    Postural Adaptations in Terrestrial Monkeys

    Posture, Functional Morphology, and the Evolution of Positional Activities

    References

    8 Origins, Evolution, and Function of the Tarsus in Late Cretaceous Eutheria and Paleocene Primates

    Introduction

    Methods

    Substrate

    Relationships of Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Eutheria

    The Tarsus of Late Cretaceous Eutherians and Paleocene Primates

    Tarsal Function and Substrate Preference among the Ancestral Eutheria and Early Primates

    Summary

    References

    9 Origins and Function of the Pes in the Eocene Adapidae (Lemuriformes, Primates)

    Introduction

    The Pes in the Eocene Adapidae: Morphology and Axes of Rotation

    Summary

    References

    10 Electromyography of Forearm Musculature in Gorilla and Problems Related to Knuckle-Walking

    Introduction

    Electromyographical Studies of Pan gorilla

    Biomechanical Inferences

    Evolutionary Inferences

    References

    11 Locomotor Adaptations in Past and Present Prosimian Primates

    Introduction

    The Locomotion of Living Prosimians

    The Morphological Correlates of Locomotion in Living Prosimians

    The Presumed Locomotion of Extinct Prosimians

    Locomotor Developments in the Prosimians

    References

    Subject Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 402
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: December 2, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152020

About the Author

Farish A. Jr. Jenkins

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