Primate Anatomy - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780123725769, 9780080469119

Primate Anatomy

3rd Edition

An Introduction

Authors: Friderun Ankel-Simons
eBook ISBN: 9780080469119
Paperback ISBN: 9780123725769
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 8th January 2007
Page Count: 752
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This book is unlike ay other work on primates: it systematically reviews the biology of all living primates, including humans. It describes their bio-geographical information and provides crucial data pertaining to their body size, fur coloration external distinguishing features, habitat and basic life strategies.

Now in its third edition, Primate Anatomy discusses species that are new to science since the last edition with details concerning anatomical features among primates that were re-discovered. New research in molecular primatology is also included due to recent relevant findings in molecular biology in accordance with new technology. The basics of biological taxonomy are introduced, along with photographs of all major groups. Important new and controversal issues make this edition key for every primatologists, anthropologist, and anatomist.

Key Features

  • Offers up-to-date reviews of molecular primatology and primate genomics
  • Concentrates on living primates and their overall biology
  • Discusses the genetic connection of function where known
  • Introduces primate genomics for the first time in a textbook
  • Provides instructive and comprehensive review tables
  • Includes many unique, novel and easily understandable illustrations


Researchers and students in primatology anthropology, anatomy, mammology, and vertebrate paleontology.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Taxonomic List of Extant Primates
New Developments 22
List of Extant Primates 24

Chapter 2
Notes about Taxonomy 45
Population Biology and Classification 50
Traditional or Evolutionary Classification 51
Numerical and Phenetic Classification 52
Cladistics 53
Cladistic Terminology 55
Misunderstandings in Primate Classification 60
The Tarsier Conundrum 64

Chapter 3
A History and Objectives of Primatology
The State of Affairs 67
History 70
Primatology – a Branch of Biology 72
The Future of Primatology 76
Retrospection and Prediction 77
Definition of Order Primates 81

Chapter 4
Survey of Living Primates
Survey of Living Tupaias and Prosimii 84
Lemurs 94
Lorises 118
Tarsiers 130
Survey of Living Anthropoidea 135
New World Monkeys 137
Old World Monkeys 164
Hominoidea 194

Chapter 5
Skull development and two Kinds of Bones 205
Orbital Region 212
Nasal Region 213
Skull Base and Brain Case 219
Ear Region 222
The Sinuses 225
Comparative Skull Morphology 227

Chapter 6
Brain 236
Brain Morphology 245
New Insights Into Brain Function 265

Chapter 7
Teeth Tooth Morphology and Diet; can they
Reliably be Correlated? 266
Tooth Structure 274
Dental Formulae 277
Dental Typology 283
Functional and Morphological Variation 287
Chewing Mechanics 300
Dental Formulae and Morphology 292
What is New in Tooth Research? 336

Chapter 8
Postcranial Skeleton
Spine and Thorax 338
Shoulder Girdle 367
Pelvic Girdle 376
Hands and Feet 390
Fifth Extremity 410
Locomotion 415
New Technology Applied to the Study of Primate Locomotion 437

Chapter 9
Sense Organs and Viscera
Nose and Olfaction
Outer Nose and Rhinarium 442
Nose Based Taxonomy 449

Olfaction 450
The Olfactory Epithelium 460
The Genetic Connection of Olfaction 462

The Vomeronasal Organ 465
The Genetic Connection of Pheromone Perception 469

The Septal Organ of Masera 474
Olfactory Messages 475

Oral Cavity, Tongue and Taste
The Palate 477
The Tongue 478
The Sublingua 483
Taste 485
The Neural Connection 490
The Genetic Connection 491

Auditory Region, Hearing and Vocalization
Outer Ear 493
Inner Ear 503
Hearing 505
Vocalization and Larynx 510

Eye and Eyesight
The Substructures of the Eyeball 519
The Substructures of the Retina 523
Macula Lutea and Fovea Centralis 528
The Tapetum Lucidum 531
The Genetic Connection: Opsins and Genes 535
The Neural Connection 549
Eyelids 554
Recent Research and Review of Visual Adaptations 556

Diarhythms and Biochronology 563

Nutrition and Intestinal Tract 577
Review of the Primate Diet 581
Eating Soils and other unexpected Fare 586
Morphology of the Intestinal Tract 591
The Stomach 592
The Small Intestine 595
The Large Intestine 598
Liver and Spleen 600

Touch 601
The Sensitive Skin 603
The Genetic Connection 608

Chapter 10
Placentation and Early Development 611

Chapter 11
Reproductive Organs, Reproduction and Growth 626

Chapter 12
Chromosomes and Bloodgroups
Chromosomes 642
Bloodgroups 671

Chapter 13
Molecular Primatology 675
Molecular Clocks 684
Mitochondrial DNA 699
Problems of Phylogenetic Analysis using Molecular Data 701

Chapter 14
Primate Genomics 703
Transposable Elements and Numts 748

Chapter 15
Conclusion nd a Glance at the Future 753

Bibliography 766

Index 842


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About the Author

Friderun Ankel-Simons

Dr. Ankel-Simons did her graduate studies in marine biology, marine ecology, and marine geology at the University of Copenhagen, the Marine Biological Laboratory at Elsinore, Denmark, and the University of Giessen, Germany. She was a member of the first research team to keep the folivore primate Alouatta palliata alive in captivity for a long term of several years at the Max Planck Institut for Brain Research, Giessen, Germany. Since 1996, she has been a Research Associate in the Division of Paleontology at the Duke University Primate Center. She has published three books and numerous journal papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

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