Pretreatment of Biomass - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000809, 9780128003961

Pretreatment of Biomass

1st Edition

Processes and Technologies

Editors: Ashok Pandey Sangeeta Negi Parmeswaran Binod Christian Larroche
eBook ISBN: 9780128003961
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000809
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 29th September 2014
Page Count: 272
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Pretreatment of Biomass provides general information, basic data, and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources—biomass for their pretreatment—which is one of the most essential and critical aspects of biomass-based processes development. The quest to make the environment greener, less polluted, and less hazardous has led to the concept of biorefineries for developing bio-based processes and products using biomass as a feedstock. Each kind of biomass requires some kind of pretreatment to make it suitable for bioprocess. This book provides state-of-art information on the methods currently available for this.

This book provides data-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment of lignocellulosic and algal biomass for further processing. Pretreatment of biomass is considered one of the most expensive steps in the overall processing in a biomass-to-biofuel program. With the strong advancement in developing lignocellulose biomass- and algal biomass-based biorefineries, global focus has been on developing pretreatment methods and technologies that are technically and economically feasible. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in methods used for the pretreatment of biomass. An entire section is devoted to the methods and technologies of algal biomass due to the increasing global attention of its use.

Key Features

  • Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatament processes and technologies for biomass
  • Covers information on lignocellulosic and algal biomass to work on the principles of biorefinery
  • Useful for researchers intending to study scale-up
  • Provides information on integration of processes and technologies for the pretreatment of biomass


Chemical engineers, biotechnologists, microbiologists/biologists, agricultural chemists, environmental engineers, petroleum engineers and graduate and postgraduate students in these areas. The main interest of this group is research and development of new processes and they are located in research labs in A&G and industry.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Section A. Lignocellulosic Biomass
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. Overview
      • 1.2. The Role of Pretreatment
      • 1.3. Methods of Pretreatment
      • 1.4. Summary
    • Chapter 2. Analysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Infrared Methodology
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Physical Principles of IRS and Its Application
      • 2.3. Composition and Structure of Lignocellulosic Biomass
      • 2.4. Biomass Analysis via Fourier Transform NIRS
      • 2.5. Biomass Analysis via Fourier Transform Mid-infrared Spectroscopy
      • 2.6. Conclusion
    • Chapter 3. Acidic Pretreatment
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Acid-Catalyzed Reaction of Lignocellulose
      • 3.3. Inhibitors and Detoxification
      • 3.4. Process Configurations for Acidic Pretreatment
    • Chapter 4. Alkaline Treatment
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Types of Alkali
      • 4.3. Conditions of Alkali Pretreatment
      • 4.4. Mechanism of Alkali Pretreatment
      • 4.5. Physicochemical Characterization of Alkali Pretreated Biomass
      • 4.6. Prospects and Consequences
      • 4.7. Commercialization Aspects
      • 4.8. Conclusion
    • Chapter 5. Hydrothermal Treatment
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
      • 5.3. Hydrothermal Treatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
      • 5.4. The Properties of Hydrolysate and Pretreated Biomass Obtained from Hydrothermal Treatment
      • 5.5. Utilization of Hydrolysate and Pretreated Biomass Obtained from Hydrothermal Treatment
    • Chapter 6. Steam Explosion
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Mechanism
      • 6.3. Key Parameters
      • 6.4. Operation Mode
      • 6.5. Chemical Addition
      • 6.6. Physicochemical Variation of Biomass
      • 6.7. Perspective
    • Chapter 7. Ozonolysis
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Applications of Ozonolysis
      • 7.3. Ozonolysis Chemical Reactions and Structural Changes
      • 7.4. Effect of Process Parameters
      • 7.5. Challenges, Possibilities and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 8. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Ionic Liquids
      • 8.3. Potency as Solvent for Lignocellulosic Biomass
      • 8.4. Recent Research and Practices in IL Pretreatment
      • 8.5. IL Pretreatment in Combination With Other Conventional Methods
      • 8.6. Synthesis
      • 8.7. Technoeconomic Factors Affecting Commercialization of IL Pretreatment
      • 8.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Microwave Pretreatment
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. MW Application
      • 9.3. MW Pretreatment Reactors
      • 9.4. Summary and Prospects
    • Chapter 10. Torrefaction
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Torrefaction Classification
      • 10.3. Nonoxidative Torrefaction
      • 10.4. Property Variation of Biomass
      • 10.5. Oxidative Torrefaction
      • 10.6. Wet Torrefaction and Steam Explosion
      • 10.7. Applications
  • Section B. Algal Biomass
    • Chapter 11. Algal Biomass: Physical Pretreatments
      • 11.1. Microalgal Biomass
      • 11.2. Applications
      • 11.3. Potential Biofuel Products
      • 11.4. Pretreatments of Microalgae
      • 11.5. Energy and Environmental Assessment
      • 11.6. Conclusion and Final Remarks
    • Chapter 12. Chemical Pretreatment of Algal Biomass
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Choice of Pretreatment of Algal Biomass for the Production of Biofuels
      • 12.3. Pretreatments of Algal Biomass for the Production of Bioethanol, Biogas, and Biohydrogen
      • 12.4. Pretreatments for Lipid Extraction and Biodiesel Production
      • 12.5. Recent Approaches of Biofuel Production from Algal Biomass
      • 12.6. Future Prospects of Algal Pretreatment
  • Index


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© Elsevier 2015
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About the Editor

Ashok Pandey

Professor Ashok Pandey is currently with the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India; he was the former Deputy Director for CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum, where he head the Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division. Professor Pandey’s research interests are on bio-based economy for the production of fuels and chemicals. He has over 1000 publications and communications, which include 14 patents and design copyright, 34 books, 99 book chapters, and 391 original and review papers. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and fellowships, including Fellow of International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, National Academy of Science (India), Biotech Research Society, India, and the International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. He was Chairman of the International Society of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Finland (Food & Health) from 2003-2004. He is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; International Coordinator and General Secretary of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, and Vice-President of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability ( and All India Biotech Association ( Professor Pandey is Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology, Honorary Executive Advisors of Journal of Water Sustainability and Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals. Prof. Pandey was also recently honoured as the Most Cited Author as per the Shanghai Ranking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects 2016.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India and Former Chief Scientist and Head, Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, India

Sangeeta Negi

Dr Sangeeta Negi is Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology at the Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India. She has a first class Master’s degree in Biochemistry and a PhD in Biotechnology from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. She has also worked as an academic guest at the Biological Engineering Department; Polytech Clermont-Ferrand; Universite Baise Pascal, France; and at the Bioenergy and Energy Planning Research Group (BPE); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Dr Negi’s current research interests are in the area of biofuels, industrial enzymes, and bioremediation. She is an editorial board member of the Journal of Waste Conversion, Bioproducts and Biotechnology, and Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainability. She has been awarded as "Outstanding reviewer" by Elsevier and has won the Young Scientist Award by DST at the National Seminar on Biological and Alternative Energies Present and Future organized by Andhra University, Visakhapatnam in 2009. She has also won Best Poster Award at the International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries (ICBF 2008) at Hyderabad. Dr Negi has contributed to nearly 50 publications, including review articles, original papers, and conference communications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Tech., Trivandrum, India

Parmeswaran Binod

Dr. Parmeswaran Binod works as a scientist in the biotechnology division at the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR, Trivandrum, India. He obtained his PhD in Biotechnology from Kerala University, Trivandrum. Dr. Binod worked as a post-doctoral fellow at the Korea Institute for Energy Research, Daejeon, South Korea in 2008. He worked at the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary in 2005. He joined CSIR-NIIST in 2009 as Project Scientist at the Centre for Biofuels. Dr. Binod obtained a gold medal for securing top marks at University level during graduation. His major areas of research are Biofuels, Biopolymers, and Industrial Enzymes Technology. He has published 65 publications, including research papers, review papers, book chapters, and conference communications.

Affiliations and Expertise

CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, India

Christian Larroche

Professor Christian Larroche is graduate in Biochemical Engineering from INSA, Toulouse, (1979), Docteur-Ingénieur in Organic Chemistry from Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3 University (1982), and Docteur ès Sciences (Ph D) in Biochemical Engineering from Blaise Pascal University (1990). He has strong research interest in the area of applied microbiology and biochemical engineering. His skills are related to the study and development of special processes for the use of microorganisms. This includes fungal spores production by solid state cultivation and their use as protein (enzyme) reservoir in biotransformations. A special interest in phase transfer phenomena coupled to metabolic engineering has to be noticed. It is applied to the design and optimisation of biotransformations involving hydrophobic compounds and carried out in biphasic liquid-liquid media. These processes are related both to the food and environment (bioremediation) areas. His interests have recently be extended to bioenergy, and he is presently co-ordinator of two French research programs on biohydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms grown on complex media.

He is author of about 150 documents including 70 research papers, two patents and 12 book chapters. He has supervised 10 PhD students and 20 MSc lab works. He is member of SFGP (French Society for Process Engineering) and Chief International Coordinator of ICBF Forum, an international network entitled "Food Bioprocessing - A global approach for advancing sustainable production of value added food". He is head of the department of "Study and Development of Processes involving Microorganisms" of the platform for technological development Biotechnology – Material Engineering of Blaise Pascal University and has in charge the team "Solid state fermentations – Biotransformations" of the Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Laboratory in the same university. He has been head of the Biological Engineering department of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, a School of Engineering of Blaise Pascal University, from 2001 to 2011. He is director of Polytech since January 2012 and, since 2008, vice-president of the university in charge of research valorization and technology transfer.

Affiliations and Expertise

Blaise Pascal University, Aubiere Cedex, France