Pretreatment of Biomass

Pretreatment of Biomass

Processes and Technologies

1st Edition - September 18, 2014

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  • Editors: Ashok Pandey, Sangeeta Negi, Parmeswaran Binod, Christian Larroche
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128003961
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000809

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Pretreatment of Biomass provides general information, basic data, and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources—biomass for their pretreatment—which is one of the most essential and critical aspects of biomass-based processes development. The quest to make the environment greener, less polluted, and less hazardous has led to the concept of biorefineries for developing bio-based processes and products using biomass as a feedstock. Each kind of biomass requires some kind of pretreatment to make it suitable for bioprocess. This book provides state-of-art information on the methods currently available for this. This book provides data-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment of lignocellulosic and algal biomass for further processing. Pretreatment of biomass is considered one of the most expensive steps in the overall processing in a biomass-to-biofuel program. With the strong advancement in developing lignocellulose biomass- and algal biomass-based biorefineries, global focus has been on developing pretreatment methods and technologies that are technically and economically feasible. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in methods used for the pretreatment of biomass. An entire section is devoted to the methods and technologies of algal biomass due to the increasing global attention of its use.

Key Features

  • Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatament processes and technologies for biomass
  • Covers information on lignocellulosic and algal biomass to work on the principles of biorefinery
  • Useful for researchers intending to study scale-up
  • Provides information on integration of processes and technologies for the pretreatment of biomass


Chemical engineers, biotechnologists, microbiologists/biologists, agricultural chemists, environmental engineers, petroleum engineers and graduate and postgraduate students in these areas. The main interest of this group is research and development of new processes and they are located in research labs in A&G and industry.

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Section A. Lignocellulosic Biomass
      • Chapter 1. Introduction
        • 1.1. Overview
        • 1.2. The Role of Pretreatment
        • 1.3. Methods of Pretreatment
        • 1.4. Summary
      • Chapter 2. Analysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Infrared Methodology
        • 2.1. Introduction
        • 2.2. Physical Principles of IRS and Its Application
        • 2.3. Composition and Structure of Lignocellulosic Biomass
        • 2.4. Biomass Analysis via Fourier Transform NIRS
        • 2.5. Biomass Analysis via Fourier Transform Mid-infrared Spectroscopy
        • 2.6. Conclusion
      • Chapter 3. Acidic Pretreatment
        • 3.1. Introduction
        • 3.2. Acid-Catalyzed Reaction of Lignocellulose
        • 3.3. Inhibitors and Detoxification
        • 3.4. Process Configurations for Acidic Pretreatment
      • Chapter 4. Alkaline Treatment
        • 4.1. Introduction
        • 4.2. Types of Alkali
        • 4.3. Conditions of Alkali Pretreatment
        • 4.4. Mechanism of Alkali Pretreatment
        • 4.5. Physicochemical Characterization of Alkali Pretreated Biomass
        • 4.6. Prospects and Consequences
        • 4.7. Commercialization Aspects
        • 4.8. Conclusion
      • Chapter 5. Hydrothermal Treatment
        • 5.1. Introduction
        • 5.2. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
        • 5.3. Hydrothermal Treatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
        • 5.4. The Properties of Hydrolysate and Pretreated Biomass Obtained from Hydrothermal Treatment
        • 5.5. Utilization of Hydrolysate and Pretreated Biomass Obtained from Hydrothermal Treatment
      • Chapter 6. Steam Explosion
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. Mechanism
        • 6.3. Key Parameters
        • 6.4. Operation Mode
        • 6.5. Chemical Addition
        • 6.6. Physicochemical Variation of Biomass
        • 6.7. Perspective
      • Chapter 7. Ozonolysis
        • 7.1. Introduction
        • 7.2. Applications of Ozonolysis
        • 7.3. Ozonolysis Chemical Reactions and Structural Changes
        • 7.4. Effect of Process Parameters
        • 7.5. Challenges, Possibilities and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter 8. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment
        • 8.1. Introduction
        • 8.2. Ionic Liquids
        • 8.3. Potency as Solvent for Lignocellulosic Biomass
        • 8.4. Recent Research and Practices in IL Pretreatment
        • 8.5. IL Pretreatment in Combination With Other Conventional Methods
        • 8.6. Synthesis
        • 8.7. Technoeconomic Factors Affecting Commercialization of IL Pretreatment
        • 8.8. Conclusions
      • Chapter 9. Microwave Pretreatment
        • 9.1. Introduction
        • 9.2. MW Application
        • 9.3. MW Pretreatment Reactors
        • 9.4. Summary and Prospects
      • Chapter 10. Torrefaction
        • 10.1. Introduction
        • 10.2. Torrefaction Classification
        • 10.3. Nonoxidative Torrefaction
        • 10.4. Property Variation of Biomass
        • 10.5. Oxidative Torrefaction
        • 10.6. Wet Torrefaction and Steam Explosion
        • 10.7. Applications
    • Section B. Algal Biomass
      • Chapter 11. Algal Biomass: Physical Pretreatments
        • 11.1. Microalgal Biomass
        • 11.2. Applications
        • 11.3. Potential Biofuel Products
        • 11.4. Pretreatments of Microalgae
        • 11.5. Energy and Environmental Assessment
        • 11.6. Conclusion and Final Remarks
      • Chapter 12. Chemical Pretreatment of Algal Biomass
        • 12.1. Introduction
        • 12.2. Choice of Pretreatment of Algal Biomass for the Production of Biofuels
        • 12.3. Pretreatments of Algal Biomass for the Production of Bioethanol, Biogas, and Biohydrogen
        • 12.4. Pretreatments for Lipid Extraction and Biodiesel Production
        • 12.5. Recent Approaches of Biofuel Production from Algal Biomass
        • 12.6. Future Prospects of Algal Pretreatment
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: September 18, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128003961
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000809

About the Editors

Ashok Pandey

Ashok Pandey
Professor Ashok Pandey is currently Distinguished Scientist at the Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India and Executive Director (Honorary) at the Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability – India. Formerly, he was Eminent Scientist at the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali and Chief Scientist & Head of Biotechnology Division and Centre for Biofuels at CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum. His major research and technological development interests are industrial & environmental biotechnology and energy biosciences, focusing on biomass to biofuels & chemicals, waste to wealth & energy, industrial enzymes, etc. Professor Pandey is Adjunct/Visiting Professor/Scientist in universities in France, Brazil, Canada, China, Korea, South Africa, and Switzerland and also in several universities several in India. He has ~1425 publications/communications, which include 16 patents, 90 books, >700 papers and book chapters, etc with h index of 105 and ~48,800 citations (Goggle scholar). He has transferred several technologies to industries and has done industrial consultancy for about a dozen projects for Indian/international industries. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and honours, which include Highest Cited Researcher (Top 1% in the world), Clarivate Analytics, Web of Science (2020, 2019 & 2018); Top scientist in Biotechnology (#1 in India and #8 in the world), Stanford University world ranking (2020); Fellow, World Society of Sustainable Energy Technologies (2020); Fellow, Indian Chemical Society (2020); Distinguished Scientist, VDGOOD Professional Association, India (2020); Distinguished Professor of Eminence with global impact in the area of Biotechnology, Precious Cornerstone University, Nigeria (2020); IconSWM Life-time Achievement Award 2019, International Society for Solid Waste Management, KIIT, Bhubaneshwar, India (2019); Yonsei Outstanding Scholar, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea (2019); Life-Time Achievement Award from the Biotech Research Society, India (2018); Life-Time Achievement Award from Venus International Research Awards (2018), Most Outstanding Researcher Award from Career360 (2018), Life-Time Achievement Award from the International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2017); Fellow, Royal Society of Biology, UK (2016); Felow, International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2016); Academician of European Academy of Sciences and Arts, Austria (2015); Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, India (2012); Fellow, Association of Microbiologists of India (2008); Honorary Doctorate degree from Univesite Blaise Pascal, France (2007); Fellow, International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2007); Thomson Scientific India Citation Laureate Award, USA (2006); Fellow, the Biotech Research Society, India (2005); UNESCO Professor (2000); Raman Research Fellowship Award, CSIR (1995); GBF, Germany and CNRS, France Fellowships (1992) and Young Scientist Award (1989), etc. Professor Pandey is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; Founder & International Coordinator of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, Chairman of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability (, Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology (, Honorary Executive Advisor of Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (, Journal of Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing (, Journal of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (, Subject Editor, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India ( and Associate Editor, Biologia – Section Cellular and Molecular Biology ( and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Scientist, Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India

Sangeeta Negi

Dr Sangeeta Negi is Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology at the Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India. She has a first class Master’s degree in Biochemistry and a PhD in Biotechnology from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. She has also worked as an academic guest at the Biological Engineering Department; Polytech Clermont-Ferrand; Universite Baise Pascal, France; and at the Bioenergy and Energy Planning Research Group (BPE); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Dr Negi’s current research interests are in the area of biofuels, industrial enzymes, and bioremediation. She is an editorial board member of the Journal of Waste Conversion, Bioproducts and Biotechnology, and Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainability. She has been awarded as "Outstanding reviewer" by Elsevier and has won the Young Scientist Award by DST at the National Seminar on Biological and Alternative Energies Present and Future organized by Andhra University, Visakhapatnam in 2009. She has also won Best Poster Award at the International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries (ICBF 2008) at Hyderabad. Dr Negi has contributed to nearly 50 publications, including review articles, original papers, and conference communications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Tech., Trivandrum, India

Parmeswaran Binod

Dr Parameswaran Binod is currently working as a Principal Scientist in the Microbial Processes and Technology Division of CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, India. He obtained PhD in Biotechnology from University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India. He had then worked as Post Doctoral fellow at Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, South Korea and later joined as a Scientist at CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, India. His research interest includes biomass to fuels and chemicals, biopolymers and enzyme technology. He has more than 130 publications in SCI journals with h-index 45. His name is listed in the top 2% scientist for the year 2019 as per the study by Stanford University. He is a recipient of several awards and fellowships including Young Scientist Award from International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses (IFIBiop), France, Kerala State Young Scientist Award from Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Prof S B Chincholkar Memorial Award of the Biotech Research Society, India, Elsevier Impactful Research Award, Elsevier Renewable Energy Best Paper Award, Visiting Fellowship, EPFL, Switzerland, Marie Curie Fellow etc. He is a Fellow of International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (ISEES). He is a National Honorary Advisory Board Member of Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability (CEES), India and Central Office Executive of The Biotech Research Society, India.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Scientist, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, India

Christian Larroche

Professor Christian Larroche is graduate in Biochemical Engineering from INSA, Toulouse, (1979), Docteur-Ingénieur in Organic Chemistry from Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3 University (1982), and Docteur ès Sciences (Ph D) in Biochemical Engineering from Blaise Pascal University (1990). He has strong research interest in the area of applied microbiology and biochemical engineering. His skills are related to the study and development of special processes for the use of microorganisms. This includes fungal spores production by solid state cultivation and their use as protein (enzyme) reservoir in biotransformations. A special interest in phase transfer phenomena coupled to metabolic engineering has to be noticed. It is applied to the design and optimisation of biotransformations involving hydrophobic compounds and carried out in biphasic liquid-liquid media. These processes are related both to the food and environment (bioremediation) areas. His interests have recently be extended to bioenergy, and he is presently co-ordinator of two French research programs on biohydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms grown on complex media.

He is author of about 150 documents including 70 research papers, two patents and 12 book chapters. He has supervised 10 PhD students and 20 MSc lab works. He is member of SFGP (French Society for Process Engineering) and Chief International Coordinator of ICBF Forum, an international network entitled "Food Bioprocessing - A global approach for advancing sustainable production of value added food". He is head of the department of "Study and Development of Processes involving Microorganisms" of the platform for technological development Biotechnology – Material Engineering of Blaise Pascal University and has in charge the team "Solid state fermentations – Biotransformations" of the Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Laboratory in the same university. He has been head of the Biological Engineering department of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, a School of Engineering of Blaise Pascal University, from 2001 to 2011. He is director of Polytech since January 2012 and, since 2008, vice-president of the university in charge of research valorization and technology transfer.

Affiliations and Expertise

Blaise Pascal University, Aubiere Cedex, France

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