Pressure Vessel Design Manual - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780123870001, 9780123870018

Pressure Vessel Design Manual

4th Edition

Authors: Dennis R. Moss Michael Basic
eBook ISBN: 9780123870018
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123870001
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 26th December 2012
Page Count: 832
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Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible.

Key Features

  • Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with 50+ step-by-step design procedures including a wealth of equations, explanations and data
  • Internationally recognized, widely referenced and trusted, with 20+ years of use in over 30 countries making it an accepted industry standard guide
  • Now revised with up-to-date ASME, ASCE and API regulatory code information, and dual unit coverage for increased ease of international use


Entry and mid-level Mechanical Engineers who specify, design, operate, install, inspect or manufacture pressure vessels and related equipment in a process, chemical, civil, petroleum or nuclear engineering setting. Job titles include: Pressure Vessel Design Engineers, Reliability Engineers, Fixed or Principal Equipment Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Piping Engineers, Plant Engineers, and Commissioning Engineers

Table of Contents

Preface to the 4th Edition

1. General Topics

Design Philosophy

Stress Analysis

Stress/Failure Theories

Failures in Pressure Vessels



Thermal Stresses

Discontinuity Stresses

Fatigue Analysis for Cyclic Service


Cryogenic Applications

Service Considerations

Miscellaneous Design Considerations

Items to be Included in a User’s Design Specification (UDS) for ASME VIII-2 Vessels


2. General Design

Procedure 2-1: General Vessel Formulas [1,2]

Procedure 2-2: External Pressure Design

Procedure 2-3: Properties of Stiffening Rings

Procedure 2-4: Code Case 2286 [1,8,21]

Procedure 2-5: Design of Cones

Procedure 2-6: Design of Toriconical Transitions [1,3]

Procedure 2-7: Stresses in Heads Due to Internal Pressure [2,3]

Procedure 2-8: Design of Intermediate Heads [1,3]

Procedure 2-9: Design of Flat Heads [1,2,4,5,6]

Procedure 2-10: Design of Large Openings in Flat Heads [1]

Procedure 2-11: Calculate MAP, MAWP, and Test Pressures

Procedure 2-12: Nozzle Reinforcement

Procedure 2-13 Find or Revise the Center of Gravity of a Vessel

Procedure 2-14: Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)

Procedure 2-15: Buckling of Thin Wall Cylindrical Shells [21]

Procedure 2-16: Optimum Vessel Proportions [16-20][16-20]

Procedure 2-17: Estimating Weights of Vessels and Vessel Components

Procedure 2-18: Design of Jacketed Vessels

Procedure 2-19: Forming Strains/Fiber Elongation


3. Flange Design


Procedure 3-1: Design of Flanges [1–4]

Procedure 3-2: Design of Spherically Dished Covers

Procedure 3-3: Design of Blind Flanges with Openings [1,4]

Procedure 3-4: Bolt Torque Required for Sealing Flanges [5–7]

Procedure 3-5: Design of Studding Outlets

Procedure 3-6: Reinforcement for Studding Outlets

Procedure 3-7: Studding Flanges

Procedure 3-8: Design of Elliptical, Internal Manways

Procedure 3-9: Through Nozzles


4. Design of Vessel Supports

Introduction: Support Structures

Procedure 4-1: Wind Design Per ASCE [1]

Procedure 4-2: Seismic Design – General

Procedure 4-3: Seismic Design for Vessels [2]

Procedure 4-4: Seismic Design – Vessel on Unbraced Legs [4–7]

Procedure 4-5: Seismic Design – Vessel on Braced Legs

Procedure 4-6: Seismic Design – Vessel on Rings [4,5,8]

Procedure 4-7: Seismic Design – Vessel on Lugs [5,8–13]

Procedure 4-8: Seismic Design – Vessel on Skirt [1,2,3]

Procedure 4-9: Seismic Design – Vessel on Conical Skirt

Procedure 4-10: Design of Horizontal Vessel on Saddles [1,3,14,15]

Procedure 4-11: Design of Saddle Supports for Large Vessels [4, 15–17,20]

Procedure 4-12: Design of Base Plates for Legs [20,21]

Procedure 4-13: Design of Lug Supports

Procedure 4-14: Design of Base Details for Vertical Vessels – Shifted Neutral Axis Method [4,9,13,17,18]

Procedure 4-15: Design of Base Details for Vertical Vessels – Centered Neutral Axis Method

Procedure 4-16: Design of Anchor Bolts for Vertical Vessels

Procedure 4-17: Properties of Concrete


5. Vessel Internals

Procedure 5-1: Design of Internal Support Beds

Procedure 5-2: Design of Lattice Beams

Procedure 5-3: Shell Stresses due to Loadings at Support Beam Locations

Procedure 5-4: Design of Support Blocks

Procedure 5-5: Hub Rings used for Bed Supports

Procedure 5-6: Design of Pipe Coils for Heat Transfer [1-9][1-9]

Procedure 5-7: Agitators/Mixers for Vessels and Tanks

Procedure 5-8: Design of Internal Pipe Distributors

Procedure 5-9: Design of Trays

Procedure 5-10: Flow Over Weirs

Procedure 5-11: Design of Demisters

Procedure 5-12: Design of Baffles [10]

Procedure 5-13: Design of Impingement Plates


6. Special Designs

Procedure 6-1: Design of Large-Diameter Nozzle Openings [1]

Large Openings—Membrane and Bending Analysis

Procedure 6-2: Tower Deflection [3]

Procedure 6-3: Design of Ring Girders [4–8]

Procedure 6-4: Design of Vessels with Refractory Linings [9–12]

Procedure 6-5: Vibration of Tall Towers and Stacks [13–23]

Procedure 6-6: Underground Tanks & Vessels

Procedure 6-7: Local Thin Area (LTA) [2]


7. Local Loads

Procedure 7-1: Stresses in Circular Rings [1–6]

Procedure 7-2: Design of Partial Ring Stiffeners [7]

Procedure 7-3: Attachment Parameters

Procedure 7-4: Stresses in Cylindrical Shells from External Local Loads [7,9,10,11]

Procedure 7-5: Stresses in Spherical Shells from External Local Loads [11–13]


8. High Pressure Vessels

1.0 General

2.0 Shell Design

3.0 Design of Closures

4.0 Nozzles

5.0. References

9. Related Equipment

Procedure 9-1: Design of Davits [1,2]

Procedure 9-2: Design of Circular Platforms

Procedure 9-3: Design of Square and Rectangular Platforms

Procedure 9-4: Design of Pipe Supports

Procedure 9-5: Shear Loads in Bolted Connections

Procedure 9-6: Design of Bins and Elevated Tanks [3–9]

Procedure 9-7: Field-Fabricated Spheres


10. Transportation and Erection of Pressure Vessels

Procedure 10-1: Transportation of Pressure Vessels

Procedure 10-2: Erection of Pressure Vessels

Procedure 10-3: Lifting Attachments and Terminology

Procedure 10-4: Lifting Loads and Forces

Procedure 10-5: Design of Tail Beams, Lugs, and Base Ring Details

Procedure 10-6: Design of Top Head and Cone Lifting Lugs

Procedure 10-7: Design of Flange Lugs

Procedure 10-8: Design of Trunnions

Procedure 10-9: Local Loads in Shell Due to Erection Forces

Procedure 10-10: Miscellaneous

11. Materials

11.1 Types of Materials

11.2 Properties of Materials

11.3 Bolting

11.4 Testing & Examination

11.5 Heat Treatment


Appendix A Guide to ASME Section VIII, Division 1

Appendix B Design Data Sheet for Vessels

Appendix C Joint Efficiencies (ASME Code) [3]

Appendix D Properties of Heads

Appendix E Volumes and Surface Areas of Vessel Sections

Appendix F Vessel Nomenclature and Definitions

Appendix G Useful Formulas for Vessels [1,2]

Appendix H Metric Guidelines and Conversions

Appendix I Allowable Compressive Stress for Columns, FA

Appendix J Design of Flat Plates

Appendix K Time Required to Drain Vessels

Appendix L Vessel Surge Capacities and Hold-Up Times

Appendix M Minor Defect Evaluation Procedure

Appendix N Tolerances

Appendix O Guideline for Application of Pressure Relief Values (PRVs)



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About the Author

Dennis R. Moss

Dennis Moss has more than 40 years' experience in the design, manufacture and inspection of pressure vessels. He is currently a Technical Director and Fellow for Fluor's Southern California office where he is the Section Supervisor of the Vessel Group.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Director and Section Supervisor of the Vessel Group, Fluor, California, USA

Michael Basic

Michael Basic has nearly a decade of experience in the design of pressure vessels, storage tanks, and other related equipment. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in the state of California and currently works for Fluor in southern California.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professional Engineer, Fluor, California, USA