# Prediction of Transport and Other Physical Properties of Fluids

## 1st Edition

### International Series of Monographs in Chemical Engineering

**Authors:**S. Bretsznajder

**Editors:**P. V. Danckwerts

**eBook ISBN:**9781483160719

**Imprint:**Pergamon

**Published Date:**1st January 1971

**Page Count:**422

## Description

Prediction of Transport and Other Physical Properties of Fluids reviews general methods for predicting the transport and other physical properties of fluids such as gases and liquids. Topics covered range from the theory of corresponding states and methods for estimating the surface tension of liquids to some basic concepts of the kinetic theory of gases. Methods of estimating liquid viscosity based on the principle of additivity are also described. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and opens by presenting basic information on gases and liquids as well as intermolecular forces and constitutive and additive properties of chemical compounds. The reader is then introduced to practical methods for computing the values of physico-chemical quantities necessary for designing technological processe. Subsequent chapters focus on the surface tension of liquids and its dependence on molecular properties; the phenomenon of internal friction (viscosity) in fluids; graphical interpolation and extrapolation of liquid viscosity data; and the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids. The final two chapters examine diffusion in gases and liquids, with emphasis on the methods used for estimating the coefficients of diffusion. This book will be of interest to chemists and students and research workers in chemistry.

## Table of Contents

Notation

Chapter 1. General Methods for Estimating Physico-Chemical Properties of Gases and Liquids

1. Introduction

2. Basic Information on Gases and Liquids

a. States of Matter

b. Properties of Molecules

c. Shape and Size of Molecules

d. Dipole Moments

e. Polarizability of Molecules

3. Intermolecular Forces

a. Energy of a System of Two Molecules

b. Calculation of the Intermolecular Force Constants

c. Application of the Lennard-Jones and Stockmayer Equations to the Estimation of some Physico-Chemical Properties of Fluids

4. Constitutive and Additive Properties of Chemical Compounds

a. Molal Volume

b. Molar Refraction

c. Parachor

d. Rheochor

e. Orthochor

f. Molar Velocity of Sound

5. Methods for Estimating the Critical Constants as Constitutive Quantities

a. Relationship between the Structure and the Molecular Properties of a Compound and the Values of its Critical Parameters

b. Constants a and b in van der Waals' Equation

c. Calculation of the Critical Parameters from the Molar Refraction and the Parachor

d. Additive Estimation of the Critical Pressure

e. Additive Estimation of the Molal Critical Volume, Vc

f. Additive Estimation of the Critical Temperature, Tc

g. Additive Estimation of the Critical Parameters from Experimentally Determined Quantities such as Liquid Density, Boiling Temperature, etc

6. General Method for Calculating Additive Quantities

7. Similarity of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Substances

a. Conditions of Similarity

b. Application of the Principles of Similarity to the Determination of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Substances

c. Physico-Chemical Similarity of Compounds. Graphical Presentation of Relationships in the Form of a Straight Line

d. Comparison of Different Physico-Chemical Properties of Different Compounds

8. Theory of Corresponding States

a. Scale Constants and Invariants

b. Corresponding States

c. Theory of Corresponding States. Theoretical Foundation

d. The "Third Parameter" in the Modified Theory of Corresponding States

e. Choice of the Best Method for Estimating the Critical Constants

Chapter 2. Surface Tension of Liquids

1. Basic Relationships

2. Dependence of Surface Tension on Molecular Properties

3. Methods of Estimating the Surface Tension of Liquids

a. Estimation of the Surface Tension of a Liquid from the Parachor

b. Surface Tensions of Liquid Mixtures

c. Variation of Surface Tension with Temperature and Pressure

d. Prediction of Surface Tensions Using the Theory of Similarity

4. Relationship between the Surface Tension and Various Other Physical Constants

Chapter 3. Viscosities of Gases

1. Some Basic Concepts of the Kinetic Theory of Gases

2. Phenomenon of Internal Friction (Viscosity) in Fluids

3. Methods of Estimating the Viscosity of Gases which Allow for Intermolecular Forces

4. Experimental Studies of the Viscosities of Gases

5. Semi-Empirical Equations for Estimating Gas Viscosities and Their Temperature Dependence

a. Viscosities of the Saturated Vapor and Liquid Phases

b. Extension of Viscosity Data Using Graphical Methods Based on Reference Compounds

6. Variation of the Viscosity of a Gas with Pressure

a. Calculations Based on the Equation of State of a Real Gas

b. Use of the Theory of Corresponding States to Predict Gas Viscosities at Elevated Pressures

7. Comparison of the Accuracy of the Various Methods for Estimating the Viscosity of Gases and the Choice of the Most Suitable Method

8. Viscosity of Gas Mixtures

a. Experimental Data

b. Estimation of the Viscosity of Gas Mixtures

c. Semi-Empirical Equations for Estimating the Viscosities of Gas Mixtures at Moderate Pressures

d. Calculation of the Viscosities of Gas Mixtures at High Pressures

e. Recommended Methods for Estimating the Viscosities of Gas Mixtures

Chapter 4. Viscosities of Liquids

1. Experimental Data

2. Graphical Interpolation and Extrapolation of Liquid Viscosity Data

a. Dühring-Type Plots Giving Liquid Viscosity as a Function of Temperature or Pressure

b. Othmer-Type Plot Giving the Variation of Liquid Viscosity with Temperature

c. Bachinskii's Equation

3. Dependence of Liquid Viscosity on Molecular Properties

4. Liquid Viscosity: A Tentative Theoretical Approach

5. Methods of Estimating the Liquid Viscosity which are Based on the Principle of Additivity

a. Souders' Method

b. Thomas' Method

c. Calculation of Liquid Viscosities at the normal Boiling Point from Rheochor Values

6. Methods of Calculating the Liquid Viscosity which are Based on the Theorem of Corresponding States

7. Some Simple Rules which Provide Approximate Estimates of Liquid Viscosity

8. The Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Liquid Viscosities

a. The Effects of Temperature on Liquid Viscosities

b. The Effects of Pressure on Liquid Viscosities

c. Viscosities of Saturated Liquids at Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

9. Selection of the Best Method for Estimating the Viscosity of a Pure Liquid

a. Estimation of the Viscosity of a Liquid for which no Viscosity Data are Available

b. Calculation of the Liquid Viscosity at Normal Pressure and a Temperature which Differs from that at which the Viscosity has been Determined Experimentally

c. Estimation of Liquid Viscosity under High Pressures

10. Viscosities of Solutions and Liquid Mixtures

a. Viscosities of Liquid Mixtures: Results of Experiments

b. Influence of the Molecular Properties of the Components of a Mixture upon its Viscosity

c. Estimation of the Viscosities of Solutions of Solid Compounds in Liquids

d. Viscosities of Mixtures Made up from Two Liquids

e. Estimation of the Viscosities of Heterogeneous Mixtures (Suspensions, Colloidal Solutions, Emulsions)

f. Selection of the Best Methods for Estimating the Viscosities of Liquid Mixtures, Solutions and Suspensions

Chapter 5. Thermal Conductivities' of Gases

1. Introduction and some Simple Conclusions from the Kinetic Theory

Variation of Thermal Conductivity of Gases with Pressure and Temperature

2. Experimental Data for the Thermal Conductivity of Gases

3. Prandtl Number for Gases

4. Application of the Theorem of Corresponding States to the Estimation of the Thermal Conductivities of Gases

a. Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Gases

b. Relationship between the Ratio (λp/λ°) and the Reduced Parameters Tr and pr

5. Selection of the Best Method for Estimating the Thermal Conductivity of a Gas

a. Conductivities at Moderate Pressures

b. Effect of Temperature on the Thermal Conductivities of Gases

c. Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Thermal Conductivity of a Gas

6. Thermal Conductivities of Gas Mixtures

a. Experimental Data

b. Estimation of the Thermal Conductivities of Gas Mixtures from the Kinetic Theory of Gases

c. Empirical Equations for Estimating the Thermal Conductivities of Gas Mixtures

d. Estimation of the Variations of Thermal Conductivities of Gaseous Mixtures with Temperature and Pressure

7. Choice of Method for the Estimation of the Thermal Conductivities of Gas Mixtures

Chapter 6. Thermal Conductivities of Liquids

1. Basic Concepts: Experimental Data

2. Theoretical Considerations

3. Semi-Empirical and Empirical Equations for Estimating the Thermal Conductivities of Liquids

a. Empirical Relationships

b. Estimation of Liquid Thermal Conductivities Using the Principle of Group Contributions

c. Estimation of the Thermal Conductivities of Liquids Using Group Contributions and the Law of Corresponding States

d. Estimation of Liquid Thermal Conductivities by Bondi's Method

4. Choice of Best Prediction Method and Examples of the Prediction of the Thermal Conductivities of Pure Liquids by Various Methods

5. The Thermal Conductivities of Liquid Mixtures

a. Experimental Results

b. Methods for Estimating Thermal Conductivities of Mixtures

c. Selection of the Best Method for Estimating Mixture Thermal Conductivities

Chapter 7. Diffusion in Gases

1. Basic Concepts and Nomenclature

2. Some Relationships Based on the Kinetic Theory of Gases

3. Experimental Data for Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients

4. Methods for Estimating the Coefficients of Diffusion of Gases

a. Methods Based on the Kinetic Theory of Gases Extended to Allow for the Intermolecular Forces

b. Semi-Empirical Equations for Estimating the Diffusion Coefficient

c. Diffusion in Multi-Component Gaseous Systems

d. Examples of the Prediction of Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients

5. Choice of the Best Method for Estimating Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients

6. Schmidt Number

Chapter 8. Diffusion in Liquids

1. Experimental Data

2. Theoretical Estimation of Liquid Diffusion Coefficients

3. Semi-Empirical Methods for Estimating Liquid Diffusion Coefficients

a. Arnold's Method

b. Wilke's Method

c. Scheibel's Equations

d. Ibrahim and Kuloor's Equations

e. Othmer and Thakar's Method

4. Effect of Temperature on Liquid Diffusion Coefficients

5. Effect of Solute Concentration on Liquid Diffusivities

Examples of Calculating the Diffusivity in Liquid Solutions of Non-Ionized Compounds

6. Selection of the Best Method for Estimating the Diffusivities of Non-Ionized Compounds in Liquids

7. Estimation of Diffusion Coefficients in Electrolyte Solutions

8. Diffusion in Solutions Containing Several Dissolved Electrolytes

References

Index

Other Titles in the Series

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 422

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Pergamon 1971

- Published:
- 1st January 1971

- Imprint:
- Pergamon

- eBook ISBN:
- 9781483160719

## About the Author

### S. Bretsznajder

## About the Editor

### P. V. Danckwerts

### Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK