Prebiotics and Probiotics in Human Milk - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128027257, 9780128027462

Prebiotics and Probiotics in Human Milk

1st Edition

Origins and Functions of Milk-Borne Oligosaccharides and Bacteria

Editors: Michelle McGuire Mark A McGuire Lars Bode
eBook ISBN: 9780128027462
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128027257
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st November 2016
Page Count: 506
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Prebiotics and Probiotics in Human Milk: Origins and Functions of Milk-Borne Oligosaccharides and Bacteria provides a comprehensive, yet approachable, treatise on what is currently known about the origins and functions of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), the complex sugars in milk that are not digested by the infant.

The book examines how HMOs and bacteria in human milk may function independently and coordinately to influence both maternal and infant health. Human milk is the only food “designed” specifically to nourish humans, indeed representing the essence of a perfect “functional food.” And although researchers have been studying its composition for decades, surprisingly little is really understood about the origins and functions of its myriad components, an area that is especially true for HMOs and bacteria.

This book provides a thorough review of the newest research on these inter-related milk constituents as written by a team of experts from both academia and industry who actively conduct HMO and human milk microbiome research as they endeavor to apply this new knowledge to infant nutrition. Each chapter provides objective rationale for what research is still needed in this rapidly evolving area, also discussing the challenges and opportunities faced by the industry in adding HMO and microbes to infant food products.

This book is a valuable resource for nutrition researchers focused on infant nutrition, food scientists and product developers working on infant formula, and clinicians interested in broadening their understanding of the benefits of human milk for infants.

Key Features

  • Presents a reader-friendly, highly-curated text that includes a review of the literature related to origins, variability, metabolism, and functions of HMO and human milk bacteria
  • Discusses the potential implications of HMO and milk microbiota to industry – for instance, utilization in the dairy industry and infant formula
  • Consists of learning aids, such as pull quotes, critical summary statements, and an extensive list of published literature throughout


Academic researchers, graduate students, industry researchers, public health experts interested in human milk and maternal/infant nutrition/health; clinicians with targeted interests in infant health; food developers working on infant formula and on dairy/other products containing prebiotics and probiotics

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Section A. Background, Structures, Synthesis, and Analysis
    • Chapter 1. From Bifidus Factor to Human Milk Oligosaccharides: A Historical Perspective on Complex Sugars in Milk
      • 1. Background
      • 2. Physiological Observations as Background to HMO Research
      • 3. Close Collaboration Between Richard Kuhn and Paul György
      • 4. Elucidation of the ABO and Secretor/Nonsecretor Pathway of HMOs
      • 5. Development of New Methods for the Analysis of Complex HMOs
      • 6. Final Remarks
    • Chapter 2. Structures, Classification, and Biosynthesis of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 1. Finding of the Missing Phenomena of Fucosylated Oligosaccharides in Relation to the Blood Types of Milk Donors
      • 2. Enzymes Responsible for the Formation of A and B Blood Group Determinants
      • 3. Occurrence of Two Oligosaccharides Containing the Blood Group A Determinant in Human Milk
      • 4. Biosynthetic Pathway of the ABO and Lewis Blood Group Determinants
      • 5. Structural Characterization of Novel Minor Oligosaccharides Isolated From the Milk of Nonsecretor or Lewis-Negative Individuals
      • 6. Additional Core Units of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 7. Future Prospects
    • Chapter 3. Oligosaccharides in the Milk of Other Mammals
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Structures of Milk Oligosaccharides of Nonhuman Mammals
      • 3. Dairy Farm Animals as Potential Sources for Human Milk Oligosaccharides Replacer
      • 4. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 4. Analytical Methods to Characterize Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Functional Glycomics of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 3. Complexity of Glycan Structures
      • 4. Glycans of Human Milk
      • 5. Rules of Human Milk Glycan Structure
      • 6. Methods for Determining Human Milk Oligosaccharide Structures
      • 7. Alternative Methods for Determining Human Milk Oligosaccharide Structure
      • 8. Advent of Glycan Microarrays
      • 9. The “Virtual” Human Milk Glycome
      • 10. Size and Composition of the Human Milk Free Glycan Glycome
  • Section B. Potential Functions and Benefits
    • Chapter 5. Oligosaccharide Metabolism in the Breastfed Infant
      • 1. Background
      • 2. Fecal Excretion of Milk Oligosaccharides in Term and Preterm Infants
      • 3. Urinary and Fecal Excretion of 13C-Labeled Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Infants
      • 4. Particular Metabolic Aspects of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Novel Oligosaccharides
      • 5. Oligosaccharides in Infants’ Blood
      • 6. Intake of Human Milk Oligosaccharides Through Suckling and Urinary Excretion
      • 7. Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 6. The Role of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Host–Microbial Interactions
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Milk Oligosaccharides Promote Beneficial Microbial Populations
      • 3. Dietary Oligosaccharides Mimic Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Host–Microbial Interactions
      • 4. Antiadhesive and Antimicrobial Properties of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 5. Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Passive Antiviral Immunity
      • 6. Evidence for Fungal Antiadhesive Properties of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 7. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Prevent the Attachment of a Eukaryotic Parasite
      • 8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 7. Potential Public Health Impact of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 1. Overview
      • 2. From Ancient to Novel
      • 3. Health Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 4. Promising Public Health Target Populations and Diseases
      • 5. Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 8. Human Milk Oligosaccharides as Modulators of Intestinal and Systemic Immunity
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Overview of the Immune System
      • 3. Immune Development of Breastfed Versus Formula-Fed Infants
      • 4. Importance of Glycans in Immune Responses
      • 5. Human Milk Oligosaccharides as Modulators of Systemic and Mucosal Immunity
      • 6. Summary and Conclusions
  • Section C. Challenges and Opportunities
    • Chapter 9. Making Human Milk Oligosaccharides Available for Research and Application – Approaches, Challenges, and Future Opportunities
      • 1. Chemical Synthesis Approaches to Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 2. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 3. Biotechnological Production of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 4. Conclusion
  • Section D. Background, Methods, Origin, and Interpretation
    • Chapter 10. Isn’t Milk Sterile? A Historical Perspective on Microbes in Milk
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Brief History of Microbes in Bovine Milk: The Good, the Bad, and the Useful
      • 3. Spontaneous Generation, Germ Theory, and Food-Borne Illness: Oh My!
      • 4. Human Milk Sterility—Guilty Unless Proven Otherwise
      • 5. Summary: Believing Doesn’t Necessarily Require Seeing
    • Chapter 11. From the Human Milk Microbiota to the Human Milk Metagenome: Evolution of Methods to Study Human Milk Microbial Communities
      • 1. Culture Techniques
      • 2. Culture-Independent Molecular Techniques
    • Chapter 12. Maternal Factors Related to Variability in the Human Milk Microbiome
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Human Milk Microbiome
      • 3. Potential Factors Influencing the Human Milk Microbiome
      • 4. Strategies for Modulating the Maternal Microbiota
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 13. The Origin of Human Milk Bacteria
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Potential Sources of Bacteria to Mammary Structures and Milk
      • 3. Oral and Gastrointestinal Bacterial Translocation During Late Pregnancy and Lactation
      • 4. Other Sources of Bacteria to Human Milk: Pumps and Other Breastfeeding Accessories
  • Section E. Human Milk Microbes and Health
    • Chapter 14. An Evolutionary, Biosocial Perspective on Variation in Human Milk Microbes and Oligosaccharides: An Example of Eco-Homeorhesis?
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Milk Composition: One-Size-Fits-All?
      • 3. Variability in Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Microbes: Eco-homeorhesis?
      • 4. Sociocultural Factors and Maternal–Infant Microbial Exposures
      • 5. Using Population Genetics to Examine Eco-homeorhesis of Milk Composition
      • 6. Summary
    • Chapter 15. Infectious Mastitis During Lactation: A Mammary Dysbiosis Model
      • 1. Introduction: Lactational Mastitis Is a Relevant Public Health Issue
      • 2. Mastitis: Definition and Classification
      • 3. Lactational Mastitis as a Dysbiosis Process
      • 4. Etiopathogenesis of Lactational Mastitis
      • 5. Mastitis Protecting or Predisposing factors
      • 6. Human Mastitis: A Target for Probiotics?
      • 7. CNS and Viridans Streptococci: Potential Probiotics for Mastitis?
      • 8. Bacteriocins and Mastitis
      • 9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16. Probiotics During the Perinatal Period: Impact on the Health of Mothers and Infants
      • 1. Definition of “Probiotic”
      • 2. Probiotics During the Perinatal Period—Safety Aspects
      • 3. Impact of Probiotics in Animal Models
      • 4. Microbiota During the Perinatal Period
      • 5. Probiotic Studies During the Perinatal Period
      • 6. Impact of Probiotics on the Health of Mothers and Infants
  • Section F. Challenges and Opportunities
    • Chapter 17. Human Milk Microbes – Summary and Research Gaps
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Are There Characteristics of Mammary Tissue and/or Milk That Promote the Presence or Abundance of Certain Bacteria?
      • 3. Does the Enteromammary Pathway of Microbial Transfer to Human Milk Occur for All Bacterial Taxa?
      • 4. Should the Mammary Gland be Viewed as an Exterior Organ (Much Like the Gastrointestinal Tract) Exposed to the Environment?
      • 5. Conclusions
  • Index


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About the Editor

Michelle McGuire

Dr. McGuire is an Associate Professor in the School of Biological Sciences at Washington State University specializing in lactation physiology and nutrition. A member of the faculty at WSU since 1995, she has focused on understanding how maternal diet influences milk composition and infant nutrition, mostly in the area of biologically-active lipids such as various trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Her research group has provided evidence that maternal consumption of industrially-produced trans fatty acids can cause milk fat depression and that CLA can be synthesized from trans-vaccenic acid in the mammary gland. Dr. Michelle McGuire collaborates with colleague Dr. Mark McGuire to study the human and bovine milk microbiomes. Shelley has been an active member of the American Society for Nutrition (ASN), having served as chair of the Human Milk and Lactation Research Interest Section (RIS), member of the Executive Board, National Spokesperson, and RIS director. She is also a long-standing, active member of the International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML), having received its Ehrlich-Koldovsky Award and currently serving as its secretary-treasurer. She is also author of two nutrition textbooks: Nutritional Sciences: From Fundamentals to Foods (in its 3rd edition) and NUTR. Dr. McGuire received her M.S. in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Illinois where she studied the effect of maternal selenium consumption on milk selenium content and her Ph.D. in Human Nutrition from Cornell University where she used animal models to study the interactions among maternal nutritional status, suckling behaviors, and duration of postpartum anovulation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, USA

Mark A McGuire

Dr. McGuire is Professor and head of the University of Idaho’s Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, where he not only oversees an active research program but also works closely with the state’s dairy and other commodity industries to promote education and research that will benefit the state, region, and nation in this regard. His research is focused around milk. For instance his studies have described nutritional and metabolic means to enrich milk with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acids in both cows and women. He has also conducted research related to how particularly fatty acids might be involved in protection against pathogens that cause mastitis – for instance Staphylococcus aureus. Other work has addressed the effect of exotoxins produced by S. aureus on the response by the mammary gland in its battle against infection. Along with his colleague, Dr. Shelley McGuire, Mark has also become interested in the possibility that milk may be an important source of healthy bacteria for the nursing neonate/infant. Their interdependent, interdisciplinary work shows that milk produced by healthy women contains many types of bacteria, and that this community structure seems to be personalized within a woman. The importance of the milk microbiome to development of the infant gastrointestinal tract and health of the breast are areas under current study. Dr. McGuire is a Council Member on the Executive Committee for the International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML), and an active member of many professional societies including the American Dairy Science Association (ADSA), American Society of Animal Science (ASAS), American Society of Microbiology (ASM), and the American Society for Nutrition (ASN). His research has been recognized by ADSA with the Richard M. Hoyt Dairy Research Award and the Agway Inc. Young Scientist award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, USA

Lars Bode

Originally from Hameln, Germany, Dr. Bode earned his M.S. and Ph.D. in Nutritional Sciences from the Justus-Liebig University Giessen in Germany where he studied the effects of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on selectin-mediated cell-cell interactions in the immune system. Dr. Bode completed his post-doctoral fellowship at the Burnham Institute for Medical Research in La Jolla, California, where he made major contributions in elucidating the central role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin in pathogenesis and therapy of protein-losing enteropathy. Currently an Associate Professor of Pediatrics in-residence in the Division of Neonatology and the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, at the University of California, San Diego, Dr. Bode leads a research program focused on elucidating functions and biosynthesis of human milk oligosaccharides. Dr. Bode has served as chair of the Lactation Research Interest Section (RIS) for the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) and as Council Member on the Executive Committee for the International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML); he is currently the president-elect of ISRHML. Dr. Bode has received numerous awards including ISRHML’s Ehrlich-Koldovsky Award and ASN’s Bio Serv Award in Experimental Animal Nutrition and Normal Kretchmer Memorial Award in Nutrition and Development.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lars Bode, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Director of the Mother-Milk-Infant Center of Research Excellence (MoMI CoRE), University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA