Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128054642, 9780128054604

Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis

1st Edition

Geophysical and Geological Perspectives

Authors: Enwenode Onajite
eBook ISBN: 9780128054604
Paperback ISBN: 9780128054642
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 26th May 2017
Page Count: 452
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Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis: Geophysical and Geological Perspectives is a well-timed source of information addressing the growing integration of geophysical, geological, reservoir engineering, production, and petrophysical data in predicting and determining reservoir properties. These include reservoir extent and sand development away from the well bore, characterizations of undrilled prospects, and optimization planning for field development. As such, geoscientists must now learn the technology, processes, and challenges involved within their specific functions in order to complete day-to-day activities.

A broad collection of real-life problems and challenging questions encountered by geoscientists in the exploration and development of oil and gas fields, the book treats subjects ranging from Basin Analysis, to identifying and mapping structures, stratigraphy, the distribution of fracture, and the identification of pore fluids. Looking at the well-to-seismic tie, time-to-depth conversion, AVO analysis, seismic inversion, rock physics, and pore pressure analysis/prediction, the text examines challenges encountered in these technical areas, and also includes solutions and techniques used to overcome those challenges.

Key Features

  • Presents a thorough understanding of the contributions and issues faced by the various disciplines that contribute towards characterizing a wide spectrum of reservoirs (Conventional, Shale Oil and Gas, as well as Carbonate reservoirs)
  • Provides a much needed and integrated approach amongst disciplines including geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir and drilling engineering
  • Includes case studies on different reservoir settings from around the world including Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, Gulf of Guinea, Gulf of Mexico, Milne point field in Alaska, North-Sea, San Jorge Basin, and Bossier and Haynesville Shales, and others to help illustrate key points


Reservoir geophysicist interpreters/QI specialists, Qualitative seismic interpreters, Exploration geologists, Petrophysicists, Seismic processors, Oil and Gas Industry executives, Drilling and Reservoir Engineers

Table of Contents

Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii


Chapter 1 Basin Analysis: Overview and Uses 3
  Uses of Basin Analysis 3
  What is a Sedimentary Basin? 4
  Basin Analysis Workflow: From Large-Scale to Mini-Scale 7
  Large-Scale Analysis 7
  Medium-Scale Analysis 8
  Small-Scale Analysis 9
  Unconventional Reservoirs 23
  Unconventional and Tight Gas Sands: What We Know Now 23
  Early Shale Play Production Projections and Subsequent Adjustments 37

Chapter 2 Overview of Qualitative Seismic Interpretation 49
  Data Set Needed for Seismic Interpretation 51
  Seismic Section 51
  Advantages of Seismic Data 62
  Disadvantages of Seismic Data 62
  Structural Analysis 63
  Fault Interpretation 63
  Fault Picking 65
  Guide to Fault Picking 65
  Fault Interpretation in Carbonate Reservoir 69
  Seismic Horizon Mapping 72
  Seismic Horizon Interpretation Steps 73
  Gridding 76
  Fault Shadow on Seismic Section 77
  Seismic Attribute Analysis 80
  Why Are Seismic Attributes Important? 80
  Seismic Attribute Reflection Strength 81
  The Use of Interval Attributes on an Interface Property 83
  Poststack Attributes 87
  Filter Applied on Coherence Cube to Reduce Noise 88
  Prestack Attributes 89
  Zero Crossing Attribute 92
  Attribute Analysis in Carbonate Reservoir 95
  Seismic Attribute Analysis in Seismic Stratigraphy 100
  Seismic Attribute for Unconventional Reservoir 101
  Spectral Decomposition 103
  Starting Point of Spectral Decomposition 109
  Spectral Whitening/Blueing 111
  Attribute for Fault Detection in Thin Bedded Structure 121
  How to Determine Reservoir Thickness Using Seismic Attribute 122
  Seismic Attribute as DHI 124
  Seismic Attribute as DHI: Carbonate Reservoir 129
  Attribute Map 135
  Colored Seismic Inversion 136

Chapter 3 Subsurface Seismic Velocity Measurement 139
  Check-Shot Data 139
  Vertical Seismic Profile Data 142
  Types of VSP Measurements 144
  Difference Between Check-Shot and VSP Data 145
  How to Import VSP Section to Match Your Seismic 149
  How to QC VSP Data 149
  How to Determine the Static Correction for VSP Data 153
  VSPs Replacement Velocity 154
  Difference Between Check-Shot and VSP and Depth-Time Model 157
  Seismic Time-to-Depth Conversion 158
  Time-to-Depth Conversion 158


Chapter 4 Quantitative Seismic Interpretation 171
  Petrophysical Workflow for Quantitative Seismic Interpretation Studies 171
  Synthetic Seismogram 173
  Reasons Why We Do Synthetic Seismogram 173
  Well-to-Seismic Tie 177
  Objectives of Well-to-Seismic Tie 177
  Uncertainties in Well-to-Seismic Tie 178
  Stretch/Squeeze to Improve Well Synthetics to Seismic Match 183
  More Technical Analysis of Question 57 by Industry Experts 184
  Knee Picking in Sonic Calibration 186
  Depth-Depth Curve Synthetic Seismogram 187
  Seismic Attributes From Synthetic Seismic Data 189
  Wavelet Extraction/Derivation 191

Chapter 5 Zero-Phasing of Seismic Data 199
  Phase of Seismic Data 202
  How to Determine the Phase of Seismic Data 203
  How to Determine the Phase of Thin Reservoir Bed 213

Chapter 6 AVO Analysis and Interpretation 217
  Understanding AVO 217
  AVO Attributes 221
  How to Compute AVO Attributes (Intercept and Gradient) From Seismic Gather and the Data Needed 222
  AVO Crossplot and Reflection Characteristics of Sand and Shale 227
  Factors That Affect AVO Analysis 228
  AVO Classification 229
  Four Classes of Gas Sands 229
  Anisotropy AVO Modeling and Prestack Gathers 236
  Offset Balancing 258
  Shallow Gas 263

Chapter 7 Gassmann's Fluid Substitution 265
  Fluid Substitution 265
  Fluid Substitution in Unconventional (Shale Oil/Gas) Reservoirs 273
  Forward Stratigraphy Modeling 275
  Porosity Concepts in Fluid Substitution 280

Chapter 8 Seismic Inversion 283
  Data Needed to do Seismic Inversion 283
  Low-Frequency Model Use for Seismic Inversion 285
  How to Determine the Low Frequency Model 286
  How to Estimate S-Impedance from P-Wave Data 290
  Simultaneous Elastic Inversion and Extended Elastic Inversion 291
  Performing Seismic Inversion on High-Resolution 2D Seismic Data 297
  Difference Between AVO Analysis and Seismic Inversion 300
  Colored Seismic Inversion 300
  Advantages of Colored Inversion Over Trace Integration Method 301
  Reduce Uncertainties in Reservoir Predictions Using Sequence Stratigraphy and Seismic Inversion 302


Chapter 9 Pore Pressure and Pore Pressure Gradient 307
  Major Cause of Overpressure 311
  Relationship Between Shale Anistropy and Pore Pressure 325
  Fracture Pressure and Fracture Gradient 327
  Minimum Stress for Lower Bound of Fracture Gradient 327
  Formation Breakdown Pressure for Upper Bound of Fracture Gradient 328
  Pore Pressure in a Hydraulically Connected Formation 329
  Some Methods of Pore Pressure Prediction 332
  Pore Pressure Prediction From Resistivity 332
  Pore Pressure Prediction From Interval Velocity and Transit Time (Sonic Log) 335
  Pore Pressure Prediction Using Seismic Data and Well Data 360
  Pore Pressure Prediction in Deviated Well 365
  Overpressure and Wellbore Instability 367
  RT Pore Pressure Analysis 369
  Density Extrapolation in Pore Pressure Prediction 372
  Compaction Trend 374
  Eaton's Resistivity Method With Depth-Dependent Normal Compaction Trendline 375
  Case Application 377
  Eaton's Velocity Method With Depth-Dependent Normal Compaction Trendline 378
  Normal Compaction Trend in Carbonate Reservoir 392
  New Theoretical Models of Pore Pressure Prediction 395
  Pore Pressure Prediction From Porosity 395
  Pore Pressure Prediction From Transit Time or Velocity 397
  Case Applications—Gulf of Mexico 398
  Pore Pressure From Porosity Model 398
  Pore Pressure From Sonic Transit Time Model 399
  Pore Pressure From Sonic Transit Time Model in Subsalt Formations 400
  Pore Pressure Prediction in Carbonate Reservoir 403
  Pore Pressure Prediction in an Unconventional Reservoir—Case Study Bossier and Haynesville Shales 408
  Geology and Lithology in the Bossier and Haynesville Shales 409
  Rock Properties Associated With Pore Pressure Prediction 410
  Formation Temperature 410
  Porosity and Depth Relationship 410
  Gas Effect on Compressional Velocity 411
  Overburden Stress Gradient 414
  Fluid Kicks and Influx While Drilling in the Studied Area 414
  Pore Pressure Prediction From Kicks 415
  Pore Pressure Prediction From Well-Log Data 416
  Pore Pressure From Sonic Velocity 417
  Pore Pressure From Formation Porosity 418
  Pore Pressure and Formation Unloading 419
  Conclusions on the Bossier and Haynesville Shale Formation 421

Appendix A 423
Appendix B 425
References 427
Index 433


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About the Author

Enwenode Onajite

Enwenode Onajite, author of ‘Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration’. Formerly a research reservoir geophysicist with Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria limited (SPDC). He is now an independent research reservoir geophysicist and is available for opportunities in the oil and gas industry. He is an Associate member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG).

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Research Reservoir Geophysicist, Associate Member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and Member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Nigeria