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Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128054642, 9780128054604

Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis

1st Edition

Geophysical and Geological Perspectives

Author: Enwenode Onajite
eBook ISBN: 9780128054604
Paperback ISBN: 9780128054642
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th May 2017
Page Count: 452

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Description

Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis: Geophysical and Geological Perspectives is a well-timed source of information addressing the growing integration of geophysical, geological, reservoir engineering, production, and petrophysical data in predicting and determining reservoir properties. These include reservoir extent and sand development away from the well bore, characterizations of undrilled prospects, and optimization planning for field development. As such, geoscientists must now learn the technology, processes, and challenges involved within their specific functions in order to complete day-to-day activities.

A broad collection of real-life problems and challenging questions encountered by geoscientists in the exploration and development of oil and gas fields, the book treats subjects ranging from Basin Analysis, to identifying and mapping structures, stratigraphy, the distribution of fracture, and the identification of pore fluids. Looking at the well-to-seismic tie, time-to-depth conversion, AVO analysis, seismic inversion, rock physics, and pore pressure analysis/prediction, the text examines challenges encountered in these technical areas, and also includes solutions and techniques used to overcome those challenges.

Key Features

  • Presents a thorough understanding of the contributions and issues faced by the various disciplines that contribute towards characterizing a wide spectrum of reservoirs (Conventional, Shale Oil and Gas, as well as Carbonate reservoirs)
  • Provides a much needed and integrated approach amongst disciplines including geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir and drilling engineering
  • Includes case studies on different reservoir settings from around the world including Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, Gulf of Guinea, Gulf of Mexico, Milne point field in Alaska, North-Sea, San Jorge Basin, and Bossier and Haynesville Shales, and others to help illustrate key points

Readership

Reservoir geophysicist interpreters/QI specialists, Qualitative seismic interpreters, Exploration geologists, Petrophysicists, Seismic processors, Oil and Gas Industry executives, Drilling and Reservoir Engineers

Table of Contents

SECTION 1 BASIN ANALYSIS AND QUALITATIVE SEISMIC INTERPRETATION

Chapter 1 Basin Analysis: Overview and Uses 3
Uses of Basin Analysis 3
What is a Sedimentary Basin? 4
Basin Analysis Workflow: From Large-Scale to Mini-Scale 7
Large-Scale Analysis 7
Medium-Scale Analysis 8
Small-Scale Analysis 9
Unconventional Reservoirs 23
Unconventional and Tight Gas Sands: What We Know Now 23
Early Shale Play Production Projections and Subsequent Adjustments 37

Chapter 2 Overview of Qualitative Seismic Interpretation 49
Data Set Needed for Seismic Interpretation 51
Seismic Section 51
Advantages of Seismic Data 62
Disadvantages of Seismic Data 62
Structural Analysis 63
Fault Interpretation 63
Fault Picking 65
Guide to Fault Picking 65
Fault Interpretation in Carbonate Reservoir 69
Seismic Horizon Mapping 72
Seismic Horizon Interpretation Steps 73
Gridding 76
Fault Shadow on Seismic Section 77
Seismic Attribute Analysis 80
Why Are Seismic Attributes Important? 80
Seismic Attribute Reflection Strength 81
The Use of Interval Attributes on an Interface Property 83
Poststack Attributes 87
Filter Applied on Coherence Cube to Reduce Noise 88
Prestack Attributes 89
Zero Crossing Attribute 92
Attribute Analysis in Carbonate Reservoir 95
Seismic Attribute Analysis in Seismic Stratigraphy 100
Seismic Attribute for Unconventional Reservoir 101
Spectral Decomposition 103
Starting Point of Spectral Decomposition 109
Spectral Whitening/Blueing 111
Attribute for Fault Detection in Thin Bedded Structure 121
How to Determine Reservoir Thickness Using Seismic Attribute 122
Seismic Attribute as DHI 124
Seismic Attribute as DHI: Carbonate Reservoir 129
Attribute Map 135
Colored Seismic Inversion 136

Chapter 3 Subsurface Seismic Velocity Measurement 139
Check-Shot Data 139
Vertical Seismic Profile Data 142
Types of VSP Measurements 144
Difference Between Check-Shot and VSP Data 145
How to Import VSP Section to Match Your Seismic 149
How to QC VSP Data 149
How to Determine the Static Correction for VSP Data 153
VSPs Replacement Velocity 154
Difference Between Check-Shot and VSP and Depth-Time Model 157
Seismic Time-to-Depth Conversion 158
Time-to-Depth Conversion 158

SECTION 2 RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Chapter 4 Quantitative Seismic Interpretation 171
Petrophysical Workflow for Quantitative Seismic Interpretation Studies 171
Synthetic Seismogram 173
Reasons Why We Do Synthetic Seismogram 173
Well-to-Seismic Tie 177
Objectives of Well-to-Seismic Tie 177
Uncertainties in Well-to-Seismic Tie 178
Stretch/Squeeze to Improve Well Synthetics to Seismic Match 183
More Technical Analysis of Question 57 by Industry Experts 184
Knee Picking in Sonic Calibration 186
Depth-Depth Curve Synthetic Seismogram 187
Seismic Attributes From Synthetic Seismic Data 189
Wavelet Extraction/Derivation 191

Chapter 5 Zero-Phasing of Seismic Data 199
Phase of Seismic Data 202
How to Determine the Phase of Seismic Data 203
How to Determine the Phase of Thin Reservoir Bed 213

Chapter 6 AVO Analysis and Interpretation 217
Understanding AVO 217
AVO Attributes 221
How to Compute AVO Attributes (Intercept and Gradient) From Seismic Gather and the Data Needed 222
AVO Crossplot and Reflection Characteristics of Sand and Shale 227
Factors That Affect AVO Analysis 228
AVO Classification 229
Four Classes of Gas Sands 229
Anisotropy AVO Modeling and Prestack Gathers 236
Offset Balancing 258
Shallow Gas 263

Chapter 7 Gassmann's Fluid Substitution 265
Fluid Substitution 265
Fluid Substitution in Unconventional (Shale Oil/Gas) Reservoirs 273
Forward Stratigraphy Modeling 275
Porosity Concepts in Fluid Substitution 280

Chapter 8 Seismic Inversion 283
Data Needed to do Seismic Inversion 283
Low-Frequency Model Use for Seismic Inversion 285
How to Determine the Low Frequency Model 286
How to Estimate S-Impedance from P-Wave Data 290
Simultaneous Elastic Inversion and Extended Elastic Inversion 291
Performing Seismic Inversion on High-Resolution 2D Seismic Data 297
Difference Between AVO Analysis and Seismic Inversion 300
Colored Seismic Inversion 300
Advantages of Colored Inversion Over Trace Integration Method 301
Reduce Uncertainties in Reservoir Predictions Using Sequence Stratigraphy and Seismic Inversion 302

SECTION 3 PORE PRESSURE PREDICTION
Chapter 9 Pore Pressure and Pore Pressure Gradient 307
Major Cause of Overpressure 311
Relationship Between Shale Anistropy and Pore Pressure 325
Fracture Pressure and Fracture Gradient 327
Minimum Stress for Lower Bound of Fracture Gradient 327
Formation Breakdown Pressure for Upper Bound of Fracture Gradient 328
Pore Pressure in a Hydraulically Connected Formation 329
Some Methods of Pore Pressure Prediction 332
Pore Pressure Prediction From Resistivity 332
Pore Pressure Prediction From Interval Velocity and Transit Time (Sonic Log) 335
Pore Pressure Prediction Using Seismic Data and Well Data 360
Pore Pressure Prediction in Deviated Well 365
Overpressure and Wellbore Instability 367
RT Pore Pressure Analysis 369
Density Extrapolation in Pore Pressure Prediction 372
Compaction Trend 374
Eaton's Resistivity Method With Depth-Dependent Normal Compaction Trendline 375
Case Application 377
Eaton's Velocity Method With Depth-Dependent Normal Compaction Trendline 378
Normal Compaction Trend in Carbonate Reservoir 392
New Theoretical Models of Pore Pressure Prediction 395
Pore Pressure Prediction From Porosity 395
Pore Pressure Prediction From Transit Time or Velocity 397
Case Applications—Gulf of Mexico 398
Pore Pressure From Porosity Model 398
Pore Pressure From Sonic Transit Time Model 399
Pore Pressure From Sonic Transit Time Model in Subsalt Formations 400
Pore Pressure Prediction in Carbonate Reservoir 403
Pore Pressure Prediction in an Unconventional Reservoir—Case Study Bossier and Haynesville Shales 408
Geology and Lithology in the Bossier and Haynesville Shales 409
Rock Properties Associated With Pore Pressure Prediction 410
Formation Temperature 410
Porosity and Depth Relationship 410
Gas Effect on Compressional Velocity 411
Overburden Stress Gradient 414
Fluid Kicks and Influx While Drilling in the Studied Area 414
Pore Pressure Prediction From Kicks 415
Pore Pressure Prediction From Well-Log Data 416
Pore Pressure From Sonic Velocity 417
Pore Pressure From Formation Porosity 418
Pore Pressure and Formation Unloading 419
Conclusions on the Bossier and Haynesville Shale Formation 421

Details

No. of pages:
452
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2017
Published:
19th May 2017
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128054604
Paperback ISBN:
9780128054642

About the Author

Enwenode Onajite

Enwenode Onajite, M.Sc, is a former research reservoir geophysicist with Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC). He is now an independent research reservoir geophysicist, as well as an associate member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and a member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). He is the author of Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration, published with Elsevier in 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE), Nigeria, and Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Nigeria