Practical Methods for Analysis and Design of HV Installation Grounding Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128144602, 9780128144619

Practical Methods for Analysis and Design of HV Installation Grounding Systems

1st Edition

Authors: Ljubivoje M. Popovic
eBook ISBN: 9780128144619
Paperback ISBN: 9780128144602
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd February 2018
Page Count: 308
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Practical Methods for Analysis and Design of HV Installation Grounding Systems gives readers a basic understanding of the modeling characteristics of the major components of a complex grounding system. One by one, the author develops and analyzes each component as a standalone element, but then puts them together, considering their mutual disposition, or so-called proximity effect. This is the first book to enable the making and analysis of the most complex grounding systems that are typical for HV substations located in urban areas that uses relatively simple mathematical operations instead of modern computers.

Since the presented methods enable problem-solving for more complex issues than the ones solved using National, IEC and/or IEEE standards, this book can be considered as an appendix to these standards.

Key Features

  • Develops general equations of lumped parameter ladder circuits
  • Includes the analytical expression for determination of ground fault current distribution for a fault anywhere along a cable line
  • Presents measurement and analytical methods for the determination of actual ground fault current distribution for high-voltage substations located in urban areas
  • Provides the analytical procedure for the determination of the critical ground fault position for faults appearing in outgoing transmission lines
  • Defines testing procedure for the correct evaluation of grounding systems of substations located in urban areas


Electrical power engineers working on designing HV substations, transmission lines and cable lines, as well as engineers working as designer of different metal installations typical for urban areas

Table of Contents

1. Introductory Considerations

1.1 Grounding in General

1.2 Grounding Systems in General

1.3 Fault Currents Passing through Grounding Systems in Urban Areas

1.4 The Corresponding Standards and the Methods Presented Here

1.4.1 A Short Overview of the Existing International Standards

1.4.2 The Methods Presented Here in Comparison with the Existing International Standards

2. Theoretical Foundations

2.1 General Equation of Discrete Parameter Ladder Circuits

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Lumped Parameter Circuit of an Electrical Line

2.1.3 Model of an Infinitely Long Line Input Impedance of an Infinite Line Model Currents along the Lumped Parameter Model of an Infinite Line Transfer Impedance of the Lumped Parameter Ladder Circuit

2.1.4 Short Circuit at the End of a Line Model

2.1.5 Arbitrarily Loaded Line Model

2.1.6 General Equations of the Lumped Parameter Ladder Circuits

2.1.7 General Equations of the Line represented by Discrete Parameters

2.1.8 Transient Voltages

2.2 Long Grounding Conductors

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Uncovered Metal Sheath of Cable Lines

2.2.3 Overhead Line Ground Wire(s)

2.2.4 Simplified Equivalent Circuits

2.2.5 Active Length of a Ground Wire as Grounding Conductor

2.2.6 Active Length of the Cable Line as Grounding Conductor

2.2.7 Influence of Non-Equipotentiality of the Metal Sheath

2.3 Specific Qualities of Long Grounding Conductors

2.3.1 The Influence of Soil Resistivity

2.3.2 Quantitative Analysis


3. Ground Fault Current Distribution

3.1 Reduction Factor of Feeding Lines

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Feeding Cable Line with only one Metal Sheath

3.1.3 Constructive Characteristics of Lines Consisting of Single-Core Cables

3.1.4 Reduction Factor of a Line Consisting of Single-Core Cables

3.2 Reduction Factor for Lines Passing Through Urban Areas

3.2.1 Basic Problem Description

3.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of a Power Line Passing through Urban Areas

3.2.3 Additional Neutral Conductor of an HV Cable Line

3.2.4 Additional Neutral Conductor of an Overhead Line

3.2.5 Conductor Substituting All Surrounding Neutral Conductors

3.2.6 Application of the Presented Method

3.3 Ground Fault Current Distribution for a Fault at any Place of along Cable Line

3.3.1 Feeding Cable Line with only one Metal Sheath

3.3.2 Feeding Cable Line Having Three Single-Core Cables

3.4 Quantitative Analysis

3.4.1 Calculated Reduction Factor

3.4.2. Actual Reduction Factor

3.4.3 Critical Currents through the Sheaths of a Cable Line

3.4.4. General Observations


4. Different Cases of Non-Homogeneous Feeding Line

4.1 Line Consisting of Constructively Different Sections

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Problem Description

4.2 Substation Supplied by a Feeding Line Cable Section

4.2.1 Cable Having Uncovered Metal Sheath

4.2.2 Special Cases

4.2.3 Cable Having Covered Metal Sheaths

4.2.4 Quantitative Analysis Feeding Line Consisting of Cable and Overhead Section Feeding Line Consisting of Different Overhead Sections

4.3 Measurements of Reduction of the Ground Grid Potential Rise

4.3.1 A Substation Supplied by an Overhead Line Introduction Description of the Problem The Equivalent Circuit of the Ground Fault Current Distribution

4.3.2 A Substation Supplied by a Cable Line Introduction The Equivalent Circuit

4.3.3 Quantitative Analysis Overhead Feeding Line Cable Feeding Line


5. Critical Ground Fault Position

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ground Fault in Outgoing Transmission Lines

5.2.1 Ground Fault at an Arbitrary Place

5.2.2 Critical Fault Position at Certain Distance along the Line

5.2.3 Critical Fault Position at the End of the Line

5.2.4 Quantitative Analysis

5.2.5 Validation of the Method

5.3 Ground Fault in a Double Circuit Parallel Line

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Ground Fault at an Arbitrary Place

5.3.3 Critical Fault Position

5.3.4 Quantitative Analysis


6. Grounding Systems Consisting of Long External Electrodes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Grounding System of HV Substations Located in Urban Areas

6.2.1 Description of the Spontaneously Formed Grounding Systems

6.2.2 Urban Area Covered by a Grounding System

6.3 Ground Grid and an External Electrode

6.3.1 Proximity Effect between a Grid and an External Electrode

6.3.2 Method Verification

6.4 Grounding System consisting of more Cable Lines

6.4.1 Grounding Contribution of Cable Lines Laid in Secondary Directions

6.4.2 Impedance of the Whole Grounding System

6.5 Grounding Systems Having Cable Lines with Covered Metal Sheaths

6.5.1 The Calculation Procedure

6.6 Transferred Potentials

6.6.1 Cable Line Having Uncovered Metal Sheath

6.6.2 Cable Line Having Covered Metal Sheaths

6.7 Quantitative Analysis

      1. Relevant Data

6.7.2 Cables Having Uncovered Metal Sheath

        1. Grounding System Impedance Transferred Potentials

6.7.3 Cables Having Covered Metal Sheath/Screen

6.8 General Conditions for Solving the Grounding Problem of MV/LV Substations

6.9 Grounding System Depending on the Type of Applied MV Cable Lines


7. Voltages Induced by HV Lines Laid through Urban Areas

7.1 Inductive Influence of HV Line during a Ground Fault

7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2. Description of the Basic problem

7.2 Inductive Influence along the Whole Length of an HV Line

7.3 Inductive Influence along any Section of an HV Line

7.4 Determination of Equivalent Screening Conductor

7.5 Quantitative Analysis

7.5.1 Method Verification

7.5.2 Screening Effects of the Surrounding Metal Installations

6. General Observations


8. Testing and Evaluating Grounding Systems in Urban Areas

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Description of the Basic Problem

8.3 Grounding System Impedance Determination

8.3.1 Test Circuit Formed through the Cable Line

8.3.2 Test Circuit Formed through the Overhead Line

8.3.3 Preliminary Estimation of the Safety Conditions

8.4 Practical Example



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About the Author

Ljubivoje M. Popovic

Born in Serbia in 1944, graduated (1969) and received Master (1983) and Doctor (1991) degrees, all at the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia. In 1969 joined the Electric Power Distribution Company of Belgrade, where he stayed until retirement in 2007. In 1999 he was elected an associated professor at the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade and in 2010 he was elected an IEEE R8 Industry Lecturer (Industry Continuing Education Program). In addition to realization of the numerous studies and projects, he also developed a number of technical standards and guides in the area of power delivery. He published over 100 papers in home and international journals and proceedings of international conferences, two chapters in two international scientific books and one scientific book under the title: Actual Parameters of Power Lines Passing through Urban Areas (LAMBERT, Academic Publishing, 2015). His work had an impact on some of the IEC publications (Technical Report IEC 60909-2, Ed 1(1992-09) and IEC standard 60909-3, Ed 2 (2003-09)) and was highlighted by Vertical News, High-beam Research, High-beam Business, GOLIATH Business News, News-edge and is presented through scientific network Research Gate. He was elected a member of the IEC Technical Committee – IEC/TC73- Short Circuit Currents. A member of IEEE since 1987, he became Senior Member in 1991 and was the Chair of IEEE PES Serbia and Montenegro Chapter from 2002 until 2009. He received National Nikola Tesla Award in 2006, IEEE PES Chapter Outstanding Engineer Award, and Certificate of Appreciation for Notable Services and Contributions towards advancement if IEEE and Engineering Professions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior member of IEEE Power and Energy Society

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