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Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781630670504, 9781630670511

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing

2nd Edition

Author: Monoj Gupta
Paperback ISBN: 9781630670504
eBook ISBN: 9781630670511
Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
Published Date: 1st February 2017
Page Count: 508
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Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing, Second Edition, includes an up-to-date summary of the basic principles of edible oil refining, processing, and deodorizing, serving as a hands-on training manual for chemists, engineers, and managers new to the industry.

The 15-chapter book includes current information on the bleaching of green oils and coconut oil, quality requirements for frying oil applications, and more. Written for the non-chemist new to the industry, the book makes it simple to apply these important concepts for the edible oil industry.

Key Features

  • Provides insights to the challenges of bleaching very green oils
  • Includes new deodorizer designs and performance measures
  • Offers insights on frying oil quality management
  • Simple and easy-to-read language


Edible oil processing managers and supervisors, Chemical engineers, QA/QC technicians, Lab technicians, Vegetable oil processing and maintenance personnel, as well as equipment manufacturers

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Requirement for Successful Production and Delivery of the Refined Vegetable Oils


1.1. Crude oil

1.2. Oilseeds

1.3. Additional comments on oilseeds

1.4. Fruit palm

1.5. Groundnuts (peanuts) and tree nuts

1.6. Crude oil handling, storage, and transport

1.7. Concluding remarks

Chapter 2: Basic Oil Chemistry


2.1. Composition of oil

2.2. Distinctions between oils and fats

2.3. Fatty acids in common vegetable oils

2.4. Typical behavior of fatty acids

2.5. Objectives of proper oil processing

2.6. Nontriglyceride components of oils

2.7. Oil analysis used in vegetable oil industry and their significance

2.8. Significance of the analytical methods and results

Chapter 3: Crude Oil Receiving, Storage, and Handling


3.1. Crude oil receiving

3.2. FOSFA international (headquarter—London, UK)

3.3. Membership

3.4. Crude oil unloading (truck or rail car)

3.5. Crude oil storage

Chapter 4: Degumming


4.1. Introduction

4.2. Purpose of degumming

4.3. Hydratable phospholipids and nonhydratable phospholipids

4.4. Methods for degumming

Chapter 5: Refining


5.1. Purpose of refining vegetable oil

5.2. Methods of oil refining

5.3. Physical refining process

5.4. Chemical refining process

5.5. Continuous chemical refining process

5.6. Water washing refined oil

5.7. Refining loss

5.8. Short Mix Process

5.9. Vacuum drying

5.10. Soap splitting for recovering the fatty acids (acidulation of soap stock)

5.11. Batch acidulation process

5.12. Continuous acidulation process

5.13. Troubleshooting acidulation process

5.14. Cold chemical refining process for sunflower oil

5.15. Modified physical refining process

5.16. Modified caustic refining process

5.17. Semiphysical refining process

Chapter 6: Bleaching


6.1. Introduction

6.2. General operating steps in bleaching

6.3. Dry bleaching versus wet bleaching

6.4. Critical control points in dry bleaching

6.5. Sampling frequency in bleaching process

6.6. Troubleshooting dry bleaching process

6.7. Wet bleaching process

6.8. Critical control points in the wet bleaching process

6.9. Two-step bleaching process (use of silica hydrogel)

6.10. Critical control points in two-step bleaching process

6.11. Packed bed filtration in bleaching process

6.12. Critical control points in packed bed bleaching

6.13. Filters for filtering bleached oil

6.14. Bleaching agents

6.15. Bleaching very green canola oil

Chapter 7: Hydrogenation


7.1. Introduction

7.2. Historical background of hydrogenation

7.3. Understanding the process of hydrogenation

7.4. Hydrogenation process

7.5. Critical control points in the hydrogenation process

7.6. Catalyst filtration

7.7. Critical quality parameters in batch hydrogenation

7.8. Trans fatty acids

7.9. Sources of hydrogenation catalysts

7.10. Selection of hydrogenation catalyst

7.11. Commercially available nickel catalysts

7.12. Troubleshooting the hydrogenation process

7.13. Heat recovery in hydrogenation

Chapter 8: Deodorization


8.1. Introduction

8.2. Purpose of deodorization

8.3. Description of the deodorization process

8.4. Operating principles of deodorization

8.5. Critical control points for the deodorizing process

8.6. Deodorized oil quality

8.7. Types of deodorizers

8.8. Vacuum system for deodorizer

8.9. Periodic cleaning of the deodorizer

Chapter 9: Finished Product Storage and Handling


9.1. Introduction

9.2. Transfer and storage of deodorized products in tanks

9.3. Deodorized oil storage tank

9.4. Loading finished oils in trucks

9.5. Unloading finished oil from tank trucks

9.6. Packaged products stored in the warehouse

9.7. Maintaining product quality in the warehouse

9.8. Shipping of packaged products

Chapter 10: Fundamentals of Fat Crystallization Related to Making Plastic and Pourable Shortenings


10.1. Introduction

10.2. Fat polymorphism

10.3. Triglyceride structure

10.4. Fat crystallization

10.5. Characterization of fat crystals

10.6. Palm oil in solid shortening

10.7. Issues with the interesterified products

10.8. Very high–hard stock content

10.9. Pourable liquid shortening

Chapter 11: Winterization and Fractionation of Selected Vegetable Oils


11.1. Introduction

11.2. Winterization of sunflower seed oil

11.3. Critical process variables for winterization of sunflower oil

11.4. Troubleshooting

11.5. Winterization of soybean oil

11.6. Fractionation of palm oil

11.7. Dry fractionation

11.8. Troubleshooting dry fractionation

11.9. Multiple dry fractionation

11.10. Wet fractionation with detergent (lanza process)

11.11. Solvent fractionation process

Chapter 12: Insight to Oil Quality Management


12.1. Introduction

12.2. Managing oil quality

12.3. Modes of oil decomposition

12.4. Areas in oil quality management

12.5. Summary of oil quality standards

Chapter 13: Trans Fat Alternatives and Challenges


13.1. Introduction

13.2. Nutritional labeling regulation

13.3. Source of trans fatty acids

13.4. Technical alternatives available today

13.5. Challenges

13.6. Interesterification process

13.7. Chemical interesterification process

13.8. Enzymatic interesterification process

13.9. Comparison between the chemical and the enzymatic interesterification processes

Chapter 14: Familiarization With Process Equipment


14.1. Introduction

14.2. Processing equipment and accessories

Chapter 15: Loss Management


15.1. Introduction

15.2. Definition of losses

15.3. Factors contributing to high plant losses in degrading and variations

15.4. Elements of good loss management

15.5. Guidelines for managing D&V

15.6. Managing plant losses

15.7. Final comments on loss management

15.8. Samples of forms helpful for tracking variations

Chapter 16: Plant Safety Procedures


16.1. Introduction

16.2. Plant safety

16.3. Safety agencies

16.4. Areas of safety training required at the plant

16.5. Special notes

Chapter 17: Regulatory Agencies and Their Roles in a Vegetable Oil Plant


17.1. Introduction

17.2. Agencies overseeing food industry

17.3. Environmental protection agency

17.4. National fire protection association

17.5. US department of agriculture

17.6. Role of usda at an edible oil plant

17.7. US food and drug administration

17.8. Rabbinical assembly

17.9. Role of rabbinical assembly in an oil plant

17.10. National institute of oilseed products

17.11. National oilseed processors association

17.12. Federation of oils, seeds and fats associations

17.13. FEDIOL

17.14. European food safety authority

17.15. Food safety authority

17.16. Rapid alert system for food and feed


No. of pages:
© Academic Press and AOCS Press 2017
1st February 2017
Academic Press and AOCS Press
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Monoj Gupta

M. K. Gupta is the president and founder of MG Edible Oil Consulting International, Inc. He founded the company in 1998 utilizing his 45 years experience in the field of oil technology and food processing. He holds a Master's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida and was named Fellow at the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) in 2008.

Affiliations and Expertise

MG Edible Oil Consulting International, Inc., Lynwood, WA, USA

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