Power Ultrasonics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781782420286, 9781782420361

Power Ultrasonics

1st Edition

Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasound

Editors: Juan A Gallego-Juárez Karl F Graff
eBook ISBN: 9781782420361
Hardcover ISBN: 9781782420286
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 7th November 2014
Page Count: 1166
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Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  • 1. Introduction to power ultrasonics
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 The field of ultrasonics
    • 1.3 Power ultrasonics
    • 1.4 Historical notes
    • 1.5 Coverage of this book
  • Part One: Fundamentals
    • 2. High-intensity ultrasonic waves in fluids: nonlinear propagation and effects
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Nonlinear phenomena
      • 2.3 Nonlinear interactions within the acoustic mode
      • 2.4 Nonlinear interactions between the acoustic and nonacoustic modes
      • 2.5 Conclusion
    • 3. Acoustic cavitation: bubble dynamics in high-power ultrasonic fields
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Cavitation thresholds
      • 3.3 Single-bubble dynamics
      • 3.4 Bubble ensemble dynamics
      • 3.5 Acoustic cavitation noise
      • 3.6 Sonoluminescence
      • 3.7 Conclusions
    • 4. High-intensity ultrasonic waves in solids: nonlinear dynamics and effects
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Fundamental nonlinear equations
      • 4.3 Nonlinear effects in progressive and stationary waves
      • 4.4 Conclusions
    • 5. Piezoelectric ceramic materials for power ultrasonic transducers
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Fundamentals of ferro-piezoelectric ceramics
      • 5.3 Characterization methods of ceramics from piezoelectric resonances
      • 5.4 Applications of the iterative automatic method in the characterization of ceramics
      • 5.5 Lead-free piezoceramics for environmental protection
      • 5.6 Future trends
    • 6. Power ultrasonic transducers: principles and design
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Ultrasonic vibrations: mechanical oscillator
      • 6.3 Ultrasonic vibrations: longitudinal vibrations
      • 6.4 Piezoelectric materials
      • 6.5 The power ultrasonic transducer
      • 6.6 Transducer characterization and control
      • 6.7 Modeling transducer behavior
      • 6.8 Transducer development
      • 6.9 Future trends
      • 6.10 Sources of further information and advice
    • 7. Power ultrasonic transducers with vibrating plate radiators
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Structure of transducers: basic design
      • 7.3 Finite element modeling
      • 7.4 Controlling nonlinear vibration behavior
      • 7.5 Fatigue limitations of transducers
      • 7.6 Characteristics of the different types of plate transducers
      • 7.7 Evaluating transducers in power operation: electrical, vibrational, acoustic, and thermal characteristics
      • 7.8 Conclusions and future trends
    • 8. Measurement techniques in power ultrasonics
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Characterizing the source
      • 8.3 Characterizing the generated ultrasound field
      • 8.4 Characterizing the resultant acoustic cavitation
      • 8.5 Case studies: characterizing two cavitating systems
      • 8.6 Conclusions
    • 9. Modeling of power ultrasonic transducers
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Transduction and elastic wave propagation in solids
      • 9.3 Acoustic waves in fluids and fluid–structure coupling
      • 9.4 The unbounded problem: far-field radiation of acoustic waves
    • 10. Modeling energy losses in power ultrasound transducers
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Modeling linear and nonlinear behavior
      • 10.3 Experimental validation and simulation testing
      • 10.4 Assessing model performance
      • 10.5 Conclusions
  • Part Two: Welding, metal forming, and machining applications
    • 11. Ultrasonic welding of metals
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Principles of ultrasonic metal welding
      • 11.3 Ultrasonic welding equipment
      • 11.4 Mechanics and metallurgy of the ultrasonic weld
      • 11.5 Applications of ultrasonic welding
      • 11.6 Process advantages and disadvantages
      • 11.7 Future trends
      • 11.8 Sources of further information and advice
    • 12. Ultrasonic welding of plastics and polymeric composites
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Theory of the ultrasonic welding process
      • 12.3 Description of plunge and continuous welding processes
      • 12.4 Ultrasonic welding equipment
      • 12.5 Joint and part design
      • 12.6 Material weldability
    • 13. Power ultrasonics for additive manufacturing and consolidating of materials
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Ultrasonic additive manufacturing
      • 13.3 Applications of ultrasonic additive manufacturing
      • 13.4 Future trends
      • 13.5 Conclusion
    • 14. Ultrasonic metal forming: materials
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Microstructure effects
      • 14.3 Macroscopic behavior
      • 14.4 Surface friction
      • 14.5 Future trends
      • 14.6 Sources of further information and advice
    • 15. Ultrasonic metal forming: processing
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Wire and tube drawing
      • 15.3 Deep drawing and bending
      • 15.4 Forging and extrusion
      • 15.5 Ultrasonic rolling
      • 15.6 Other forming processes
      • 15.7 Future trends
      • 15.8 Sources of further information and advice
    • 16. Using power ultrasonics in machine tools
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Historical and technical review
      • 16.3 Ultrasonic machine tool processes: ultrasonic turning
      • 16.4 Ultrasonic drilling and milling
      • 16.5 Ultrasonic grinding
      • 16.6 Allied ultrasonic machining processes
      • 16.7 Ultrasonic machine tools for production
      • 16.8 Future trends
      • 16.9 Sources of further information and advice
  • Part Three: Engineering and medical applications
    • 17. Ultrasonic motors
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Traveling-wave ultrasonic motors
      • 17.3 Hybrid transducer ultrasonic motors
      • 17.4 Performance of ultrasonic motors and driver circuits
      • 17.5 Conclusion and future trends
    • 18. Power ultrasound for the production of nanomaterials
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Ultrasound synthesis of metallic nanoparticles
      • 18.3 Ultrasound synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles
      • 18.4 Ultrasound synthesis of chalcogenide nanoparticles
      • 18.5 Ultrasound synthesis of metal halide nanoparticles
      • 18.6 Using ultrasonic waves in the synthesis of graphene, graphene oxide, and other nanomaterials
      • 18.7 The use of ultrasound for the deposition of nanoparticles on substrates
      • 18.8 Ultrasound synthesis of micro- and nanospheres
      • 18.9 Conclusions and future trends
    • 19. Ultrasonic cleaning and washing of surfaces
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 The use of ultrasound in cleaning
      • 19.3 Ultrasonic cleaning technology
      • 19.4 Mechanism of ultrasonic cleaning
      • 19.5 Ultrasonic cleaning process variables
      • 19.6 The role of chemical additives and temperature
      • 19.7 Achieving optimum ultrasonic cleaning performance
      • 19.8 Evaluating ultrasonic cleaning performance
      • 19.9 Advances in technology
      • 19.10 Damage mechanisms
      • 19.11 Megasonics
      • 19.12 Future trends
      • 19.13 Sources of further information and advice
      • Appendix ultrasonic washing of textiles (contributed by Juan A. Gallego-Juárez)
    • 20. Ultrasonic degassing of liquids
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Fundamentals of ultrasonic degassing
      • 20.3 Mechanism of ultrasonic degassing in melts
      • 20.4 Main process parameters in ultrasonic degassing
      • 20.5 Industrial implementation of ultrasonic degassing
    • 21. Ultrasonic surgical devices and procedures
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Surgical device requirements and goals
      • 21.3 General device design
      • 21.4 Mechanisms of action
      • 21.5 Device types
      • 21.6 Medical device regulations
      • 21.7 Future trends
      • 21.8 Sources of further information and advice
    • 22. High-intensity focused ultrasound for medical therapy
      • Abstract
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Ultrasound interaction with tissue
      • 22.3 Therapy devices
      • 22.4 Imaging guidance
      • 22.5 Clinical experience
      • 22.6 Future trends
    • 23. Ultrasonic cutting for surgical applications
      • Abstract
      • 23.1 Introduction: the origins of ultrasonic cutting for surgical devices
      • 23.2 Developments in ultrasound for soft-tissue dissection
      • 23.3 Developments in ultrasound for bone cutting and other surgical applications
      • 23.4 Cutting mechanisms in soft tissue
      • 23.5 Ultrasonic dissection of mineralized tissue
      • 23.6 Factors affecting device performance
      • 23.7 Device characterization
      • 23.8 Orthopedic, orthodontic, and maxillofacial procedures
      • 23.9 Current and future trends
  • Part Four: Food technology and pharmaceutical applications
    • 24. Design and scale-up of sonochemical reactors for food processing and other applications
      • Abstract
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Modeling of cavitational reactors
      • 24.3 Understanding cavitational activity
      • 24.4 Types of reactors
      • 24.5 Developments in reactor design
      • 24.6 Selecting operating parameters
      • 24.7 Reactor choice, scale-up, and optimization
      • 24.8 Future trends
      • 24.9 Conclusions
    • 25. Ultrasonic mixing, homogenization, and emulsification in food processing and other applications
      • Abstract
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Cavitation and acoustic streaming
      • 25.3 Mixing
      • 25.4 Particle and aggregate dispersion and disruption
      • 25.5 Solid and liquid dissolution
      • 25.6 Homogenization
      • 25.7 Emulsification
      • 25.8 Conclusions and future trends
    • 26. Ultrasonic defoaming and debubbling in food processing and other applications
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Foams
      • 26.3 Conventional methods for foam control
      • 26.4 Ultrasonic defoaming
      • 26.5 Mechanisms of ultrasonic defoaming
      • 26.6 Ultrasonic defoamers
      • 26.7 Using ultrasound to remove bubbles in coating layers
      • 26.8 Conclusions and future trends
    • 27. Power ultrasonics for food processing
      • Abstract
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Ultrasonically assisted extraction (UAE)
      • 27.3 Emulsification
      • 27.4 Viscosity modification
      • 27.5 Processing dairy proteins
      • 27.6 Sonocrystallization
      • 27.7 Fat separation
      • 27.8 Other applications: sterilization, pasteurization, drying, brining, and marinating
      • 27.9 Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) for ultrasound in food-processing operations
      • 27.10 Conclusions and future trends
    • 28. Crystallization and freezing processes assisted by power ultrasound
      • Abstract
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Fundamentals of crystallization
      • 28.3 Impact of ultrasound on solute crystallization
      • 28.4 Effect of ultrasound on ice crystallization (freezing)
      • 28.5 Solute nucleation mechanisms induced by ultrasound
      • 28.6 Crystal growth and breakage mechanisms induced by ultrasound
      • 28.7 Ice nucleation mechanisms induced by ultrasound
      • 28.8 Future trends
    • 29. Ultrasonic drying for food preservation
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 Ultrasonic mechanisms involved in transport phenomena
      • 29.3 Ultrasonic devices for drying
      • 29.4 Testing the effectiveness of ultrasonic drying
      • 29.5 Product properties affecting the effectiveness of ultrasonic drying
      • 29.6 Structural changes caused by ultrasonic drying
      • 29.7 Conclusions and future trends
    • 30. The use of ultrasonic atomization for encapsulation and other processes in food and pharmaceutical manufacturing
      • Abstract
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 Fundamentals of ultrasonic atomization
      • 30.3 Ultrasonic atomizer design
      • 30.4 Measuring droplet size and distribution
      • 30.5 The effect of different operating parameters on droplet size
      • 30.6 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the food industry: encapsulation
      • 30.7 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the food industry: food hygiene
      • 30.8 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the pharmaceutical industry: aerosols for drug delivery
      • 30.9 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the pharmaceutical industry: encapsulation for drug delivery
      • 30.10 Future trends
      • 30.11 Conclusion
  • Part Five: Environmental and other applications
    • 31. The use of power ultrasound for water treatment
      • Abstract
      • 31.1 Introduction
      • 31.2 Ultrasonic cavitation and advanced oxidative processes (AOPs)
      • 31.3 Sonochemical devices and experimentation
      • 31.4 Characteristics of sonochemical elimination
      • 31.5 Kinetic and sonochemical yields
      • 31.6 Sonochemical treatment parameters
      • 31.7 Ultrasound in hybrid processes
      • 31.8 Conclusion
    • 32. The use of power ultrasound for wastewater and biomass treatment
      • Abstract
      • 32.1 Introduction
      • 32.2 Impact of ultrasound on biological suspensions
      • 32.3 Anaerobic digestion processes: full-scale application
      • 32.4 Aerobic biological processes: full-scale application
      • 32.5 Development and design of a full-scale ultrasound reactor
      • 32.6 Future trends
    • 33. The use of power ultrasound for organic synthesis in green chemistry
      • Abstract
      • 33.1 Introduction
      • 33.2 The green sonochemical approach for organic synthesis
      • 33.3 Solvent-free sonochemical protocols
      • 33.4 Heterogeneous catalysis in organic solvents and ionic liquids
      • 33.5 Heterocycle synthesis
      • 33.6 Heterocycle functionalization
      • 33.7 Cycloaddition reactions
      • 33.8 Organometallic reactions
      • 33.9 Multicomponent reactions
      • 33.10 Conclusions and future trends
    • 34. Ultrasonic agglomeration and preconditioning of aerosol particles for environmental and other applications
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 The development of practical applications of aerosol agglomeration
      • 34.3 Linear acoustic effects that determine the agglomeration process
      • 34.4 Nonlinear acoustic effects
      • 34.5 Motion of aerosol particles in an acoustic field: vibration
      • 34.6 Translational motion of aerosol particles
      • 34.7 Interactions between aerosol particles: orthokinetic effect (OE)
      • 34.8 Hydrodynamic mechanisms of particle interaction
      • 34.9 Mutual radiation pressure effect (MRPE)
      • 34.10 Acoustic wake effect (AWE)
      • 34.11 Modeling of acoustic agglomeration of aerosol particles
      • 34.12 Laboratory and pilot scale plants for industrial and environmental applications
      • 34.13 Conclusions and future trends
    • 35. The use of power ultrasound in mining
      • Abstract
      • 35.1 Introduction
      • 35.2 The mining process
      • 35.3 Measuring the stress state in a rock mass
      • 35.4 Application of power ultrasound in mineral grinding
      • 35.5 Development of an ultrasonic-assisted flotation process for increasing the concentration of mined minerals
      • 35.6 Conclusions and future trends
    • 36. The use of power ultrasound in biofuel production, bioremediation, and other applications
      • Abstract
      • 36.1 Introduction
      • 36.2 The chemical effects of ultrasound
      • 36.3 The molecular effects of ultrasound
      • 36.4 Sonochemical reactors
      • 36.5 Biofuel production
      • 36.6 Ultrasound-assisted bioremediation
      • 36.7 Biosensors
      • 36.8 Biosludge processing
      • 36.9 Conclusions and future trends
  • Index

Description

The industrial interest in ultrasonic processing has revived during recent years because ultrasonic technology may represent a flexible “green” alternative for more energy efficient processes. A challenge in the application of high-intensity ultrasound to industrial processing is the design and development of specific power ultrasonic systems for large scale operation. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid and multiphase media the development of a new family of power generators with extensive radiating surfaces has significantly contributed to the implementation at industrial scale of several applications in sectors such as the food industry, environment, and manufacturing. Part one covers fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids. It also discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices. Part two looks at applications of high power ultrasound in materials engineering and mechanical engineering, food processing technology, environmental monitoring and remediation and industrial and chemical processing (including pharmaceuticals), medicine and biotechnology.

Key Features

  • Covers the fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids.
  • Discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices.
  • Considers state-of-the-art power sonic applications across a wide range of industries.

Readership

This book will be an invaluable reference for graduate students and researchers working on the physics of acoustics, sound and ultrasound, sonochemistry, acoustic engineering and industrial process technology, and for R&D managers, production and biomedical engineers.


Details

No. of pages:
1166
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781782420361
Hardcover ISBN:
9781782420286

Ratings and Reviews


About the Editors

Juan A Gallego-Juárez Editor

Juan A. Gallego-Juárez, Research Professor at the Higher Council for Scientific Research of Spain (CSIC).

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Professor, Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Spain

Karl F Graff Editor

Karl Graff, Senior Engineer at EWI and Professor Emeritus, The Ohio State University, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Engineer at EWI and Professor Emeritus, The Ohio State University, USA