Powdered Crude Drug Microscopy of Leaves and Barks

Powdered Crude Drug Microscopy of Leaves and Barks

1st Edition - November 20, 2019

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  • Authors: Vidhu Aeri, D.B. Anantha Narayana, Dharya Singh
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128182253
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128180921

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Powdered Crude Drug Microscopy of Leaves and Barks investigates various microscopic techniques used in the examination of structural and cellular features in order to determine their botanical origin. These methods are useful in identifying species with similar morphological characters. Today, there is a variety of methods available to authenticate herbal drugs, ranging from simple morphological examination to physical and chemical analysis, and DNA molecular biology. Due to cost, powder microscopy is the most practical method for primary authentication. Botanical microscopy is a unique, valuable, rapid and cost-effective assessment tool, and plays an important role in the authentication and assessment of medicinal plants. This book is an essential resource for students and researchers involved in the study of plants and natural products, as well as professionals in industries manufacturing plant-based products for use during quality control and assurance steps.

Key Features

  • Provides a fundamental understanding of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of crude drugs, including photographs of herbs in their raw and powder forms.
  • Presents specific characteristics and sub-features for identifying barks and leaves, including stone cells, calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains, medullary rays, fibres, sclereids, cork, isolated oil cells, tubular lactiferous canals, phloem parenchyma, masses, rhytidoma, parenchyma and secretory canals.
  • Includes specific characteristics for identifying leaves, such as epidermis, stomata, trichomes, calcium oxalate crystals, fibres, cell contents, cystoliths, lamina, starch grains, tracheids, lactiferous canals and xylem vessels.
  • Demonstrates how the specificity of characteristics for a particular bark or leaf in powder form can lead to its authentication.
  • Features standard operating protocols for preparation of slides and lab samples using industrially operated grinders to observe general as well as distinguishing microscopical characters of barks and leaves.


Undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD research students involved in the study of plants and natural products; pharmaceutical scientists and researchers working in academia and industry

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 – Introduction to powder microscopy
    Chapter 2-- Grinding of Plant materials
    Chapter 3 – Microscopic identifying features of barks and leaves
    Chapter 4 – Processing and optimised method of preparation of slides
    Chapter 5 – Microscopy / Monograph of powdered bark drugs
    1. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa
    2. Ailanthus excelsaRoxb.
    3. Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.
    4. Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall. ex Guillem. &Perr.
    5. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
    6. Bombax ceiba L.
    7. Buchanania lanzan Spreng.
    8. Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.
    9. Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.
    10. Carissa carandas L.
    11. Cedrelatoona Roxb. Ex Rottler
    12. Crataeva nurvala Buch. -Ham.
    13. Litsea chinensia Lam.
    14. Mangifera indica L.
    15. Moringa oleifera Lam.
    16. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
    17. Spondia spinnata (L. f.) Kurz
    18. Stereospermum chelonoides (L. f.) DC.
    19. Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels
    20. Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.

    Chapter 6 - Microscopy / Monograph of powdered leaf drugs
    1. Acacia pennata L. Willd.
    2. Aloe barbadensis Mill.
    3. Aristolochia bracteata Retz.
    4. Cannabis sativa L.
    5. Chrysanthemum indicum L.
    6. Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) T.Nees&Eberm.
    7. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.
    8. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt
    9. Nerium indicum Mill.
    10. Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm.
    11. Jasminum officinale L.
    12. Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.
    13. Piper betle L.
    14. Plantago lanceolata L.
    15. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
    16. Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce
    17. Punica granatum L.
    18. Ricinus communis L.
    19. Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.
    20. Sphaeranthus indicus L.

    Chapter 7 - Microscopy / Monograph of adulterants and substitutes of powdered bark and leaf drugs
    Selected bark drugs along with their substitutes/adulterants:
    1. Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. ,Albizzia marginata (Lam.) Merr. , Albizzia odoratissima (L.f.) Benth.
    2. Bauhinia variegata L., Bauhinia malabaricaRoxb., Bauhinia racemosaVahl
    3. Dalbergia sissoo DC., Dalbergia latifoliaRoxb.
    4. Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) Wall. Ex A. DC., Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.
    5. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd., Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites
    6. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight &Arn., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Terminalia calamansi Rolfe, Terminalia chebula Retz.

    Selected leaf drugs along with their substitutes/adulterants:
    1. Adhotoda vasicaNees, Adenanthera pavonina L., Ailanthus excels Roxb.
    2. Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Melia azadirach L.
    3. Cassia angustifolia M. Vahl, Cassia auriculata L., Ailanthus glandulosaDesf.
    4. Indigo feratinctoria L., Indigo feraarrectaA.Rich.  
    5. Phyllanthus fraternusG.L.Webster, Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. &Thonn. 
    6. Vitex negundo L.Vitex trifolia L. 

    Index to Latin binomials of bark and leaf drugs
    Index to synonyms
    Index to names in different languages
    Appendix (Mountants, clearing and histochemical reagents)

Product details

  • No. of pages: 332
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: November 20, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128182253
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128180921

About the Authors

Vidhu Aeri

Vidhu Aeri
Dr. Vidhu Aeri obtained Master’s degree from Delhi University and PhD from Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. Presently working as Professor, since 2009, in the Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. She has been involved in teaching and research since 1989 and has advised 14 doctoral and 60 postgraduate students. She has completed projects from UGC, DST, NMPB, Govt. of India and has worked as Production Manager, Bakson Homeo Pharmacy Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India

D.B. Anantha Narayana

Dr. Narayana, a recipient of the Eminent Pharmacist Award 2007 of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association, is an M Pharm from Saugar University (MP), PhD from Delhi University. He taught pharmacy for 10 years, and worked at Ranbaxy Laboratories for over 10 years. He later joined Dabur Research Foundation (DRF) and became its Director. He led a team of researchers to develop and launch anti-cancer drugs, ayurvedic drugs, cosmetics, food products, honey and many other herbal products. At Dabur and later at HUL, he helped the demonstration of the application of "Reverse Pharmacology" approach to develop herbal products with contemporary scientific validations. He served the HUL/Unilever Research, for the last 8 years and was responsible for building the naturals research programme, and creating a strong regulatory affairs group for South Asia. Dr Narayana has been very active in the professional aspects of Pharmacy, as a Managing Trustee of Delhi Pharmaceutical Trust (DPT), a Trust built with several Pharmacy Professionals to work in the area of Community Pharmacy in India. He has founded AYURVIDYE Research & Training Trust to promote Ayurveda, in 2010.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Scientific Officer, Ayurvidye Trust, Bangalore, India

Dharya Singh

Dharya Singh is a post graduate and has submitted PhD thesis entitled “Computer Aided Drug Microscopy of Some Leafy and Bark Drugs” in the Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. The research work was focussed at developing a software/databank TIPHAM for identification of powdered samples of leaves and barks mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India along with their substitutes and adulterants. She has qualified GPAT 2010 conducted by M.S. University Baroda with 99.18 percentile (AIR-266) and worked as part time lecturer in Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), Pushp Vihar, New Delhi for 3 years. (2013-2016). She has 5 research papers in reputed journals and participated in many national and international conferences and delivered oral presentations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India

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