Potter and Perry' Fundamentals of Nursing : A South Asian Edition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9788131234365

Potter and Perry' Fundamentals of Nursing : A South Asian Edition

1st Edition

Editors: Sharma Suresh
Paperback ISBN: 9788131234365
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 10th June 2013
Page Count: 1378
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Key Features

SALIENT FEATURES

  • Fully compliant to the INC curriculum
  • Easy-to-read, interesting and involving disposition, which leads the reader through various facets of nursing foundations/ fundamentals
  • Improved layout, design and presentation
  • A number of photographs replaced with the Indian ones to provide regional feel to the content
  • Long Answer and Short Answer questions added at the end of every chapter

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Foreword v

Student Preface vii

Preface to the Instructor xiii

Contributors to the Previous Editions xvii

Reviewers for the South Asian Edition xix

Reviewers for the 8th Edition xxi

Acknowledgements for South Asian Edition xxv

Acknowledgements for the 8th Edition xxvii

Unit 1 The Patient, Nursing and the Health Care Environment

1. Health and Wellness 1

Patricia A. Stockert, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Definition of Health, 1

Concept of Health, 2

Concept of Wellness and Well-being, 2

Dimensions of Wellness, 2

Models of Health and Illness, 3

Health Belief Model, 3

Health Promotion Model, 4

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, 4

Holistic Health Models, 5

Illness-Wellness Continuum, 6

Variables Influencing Health and Health Beliefs
and Practices, 6

Internal Variables, 7

External Variables, 7

Health Promotion, Wellness, and Levels of
Disease Prevention, 8

Levels of Disease Prevention, 9

Risk Factors Influencing Health, 10

Genetic and Physiological Factors, 10

Age, 10

Environment, 10

Lifestyle, 10

Risk-Factor Modification and Changing
Health Behaviours, 11

Body Defence, Immunity, and Immunization, 12

Types of Immunity, 12

Illness and Illness Behaviour, 13

Acute and Chronic Illnesses, 13

Illness Behaviour, 13

Variables Influencing Illness and Illness
Behaviour, 14

Impact of Illness on the Patient and Family, 14

National Health Policy of India, 15

Objectives, 15

Goals to Be Achieved between 2000 and 2015, 15

Policy Prescriptions, 16

Evaluation, 17

2. Health Care Delivery System 21

Patricia A. Stockert, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Health Care Agencies and Services, 22

Preventive and Primary Health Care, 23

Secondary and Tertiary Care, 23

Restorative Care, 25

Continuing Care, 26

Hospitals: Indian Scenario, 28

Types of Hospitals, 28

Hospitals in India, 28

Types of Nursing Care Delivery System, 30

Functional Nursing, 30

Total Care, 30

Team nursing, 30

Primary Nursing, 30

Case Management, 30

Patient-Focused Care, 30

Health Care Team, 31

Primary Health Care and Its Delivery:
Role of Nurse, 31

Village Level, 32

Subcentre Level, 32

Primary Health Centre Level, 32

Community Health Centre, 32

Issues in Health Care Delivery, 32

Nursing Shortage, 33

Competency, 33

Evidence-Based Practice, 34

Quality and Safety in Health Care, 34

Nursing Informatics and Technological Advancements, 35

Globalization of Health Care, 37

Future of Health Care, 38

3. Nursing Today: Nursing as a Profession 41

Anne Griffin Perry, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Definitions of Nursing, 41

Philosophy of Nursing, 42

Aim of Nursing, 42

Promoting Health, 43

Preventing Illness, 43

Restoring Health, 43

Facilitating Coping with Disability and Death, 43

Nursing Practice, 43

Characteristics of Nursing, 43

Nature of Nursing, 43

Recipients of Nursing, 43

Functions of a Nurse, 43

Qualities of a Nurse, 44

Categories of Nursing Personnel, 44

Historical Highlights, 44

Florence Nightingale, 45

The Civil War to the Beginning of the
Twentieth Century, 45

Twentieth Century, 45

Twenty-First Century, 45

History of Nursing in India, 46

Influences on Nursing, 47

Health Care Reform, 47

Demographic Changes, 47

Medically Underserved, 47

Threat of Bioterrorism, 47

Rising Health Care Costs, 47

Nursing Shortage, 47

Nursing as a Profession, 48

Basic Characteristics of a Profession, 48

Scope and Standards of Practice, 48

Nursing Education, 49

Professional Registered Nurse Education, 49

Graduate Education, 49

Continuing and In-Service Education, 49

Nursing Education in India, 50

Nursing Practice, 50

Nurse Practice Acts, 50

Licensure and Certification, 50

Science and Art of Nursing Practice, 50

Professional Responsibilities and Roles, 51

Autonomy and Accountability, 51

Caregiver, 51

Advocate, 51

Educator, 51

Communicator, 52

Manager, 52

Career Development, 52

Professional Nursing Organizations, 54

Trends in Nursing, 54

Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, 54

Genomics, 54

Public Perception of Nursing, 55

Impact of Nursing on Politics and Health Policy, 55

4. Caring in Nursing Practice 58

Anne Griffin Perry and Daisy Thomas

Theoretical Views on Caring, 59

Caring Is Primary, 59

Leininger’s Transcultural Caring, 59

Watson’s Transpersonal Caring, 59

Swanson’s Theory of Caring, 60

Roach’s Human Mode of Being, 61

Summary of Theoretical Views, 61

Patients’ Perceptions of Caring, 62

Ethic of Care, 63

Caring in Nursing Practice, 63

Providing Presence, 63

Touch, 63

Listening, 64

Knowing the Patient, 64

Spiritual Caring, 65

Relieving Pain and Suffering, 65

Family Care, 65

The Challenge of Caring, 66

5. Culture and Ethnicity 69

Jerrilee LaMar

Health Disparities, 69

Understanding Cultural Concepts, 70

Culturally Congruent Care, 71

Cultural Conflicts, 71

Cultural Context of Health and Caring, 71

Cultural Healing Modalities and Healers, 72

Culture-Bound Syndrome, 73

Culture and Life Transitions, 73

Pregnancy, 74

Childbirth, 74

Newborn, 74

Postpartum Period, 74

Grief and Loss, 75

Cultural Assessment, 76

Census Data, 76

Asking Questions, 76

Establishing Relationships, 76

Selected Components of Cultural Assessment, 78

Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, 79

Time Orientation, 81

Caring Beliefs and Practices, 81

Experience with Professional Health Care, 81

Culturally Congruent Care, 81

6. Developmental Theories 84

Karen Balakas and Daisy Thomas

Factors Influencing Growth and Development, 84

Developmental Theories, 85

Biophysical Developmental Theories, 85

Psychoanalytical/Psychosocial Theory, 86

Perspectives on Adult Development, 88

Cognitive Developmental Theory, 89

Moral Developmental Theory, 91

7. Evidence-Based Practice 95

Amy M. Hall

A Case for Evidence, 95

Steps of Evidence-Based Practice, 97

Nursing Research, 101

Outcomes Management Research, 102

Scientific Method, 102

Nursing and the Scientific Approach, 103

Research Process, 105

Quality and Performance Improvement, 106

Quality Improvement Programmes, 107

8. Community-Based Nursing Practice 110

Anne Griffin Perry and Daisy Thomas

Community-Based Health Care, 110

Achieving Healthy Populations and Communities, 111

Community Health Nursing, 112

Nursing Practice in Community Health, 112

Community-Based Nursing, 113

Vulnerable Populations, 113

Competency in Community-Based Nursing, 115

Community Assessment, 117

Changing Patient’s Health, 117

Unit 2 Professional Standards in Nursing Practice

9. Ethics and Values 120

Margaret Ecker and Suresh K. Sharma

Basic Terms in Health Ethics, 120

Autonomy, 120

Beneficence, 121

Nonmaleficence, 121

Justice, 121

Fidelity, 121

Professional Nursing Code of Ethics, 121

Advocacy, 121

Responsibility, 121

Accountability, 121

Confidentiality, 121

Code of Ethics for Nurses in India, 122

Values, 123

Value Formation, 123

Values Clarification, 123

Ethics and Philosophy, 124

Deontology, 124

Utilitarianism, 124

Feminist Ethics, 125

Ethics of Care, 125

Consensus in Bioethics, 125

Nursing Point of View, 125

Processing an Ethical Dilemma, 125

Institutional Resources, 127

Issues in Health Care Ethics, 128

Quality of Life, 128

Genetic Screening, 128

Care at the End of Life, 128

Access to Care, 129

10. Legal Implications in Nursing Practice 132

Christine R. Durbin

Legal Limits of Nursing, 132

Sources of Law, 132

Standards of Care, 133

Federal Statutory Issues in Nursing Practice, 134

Americans with Disabilities Act, 134

Emergency Medical Treatment and Active
Labor Act, 134

Mental Health Parity Act, 135

Advance Directives, 135

Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, 136

Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act, 136

Restraints, 136

State Statutory Issues in Nursing Practice, 137

Licensure, 137

Good Samaritan Laws, 137

Public Health Laws, 137

The Uniform Determination of Death Act, 137

Autopsy, 137

Physician-Assisted Suicide, 138

Civil and Common Law Issues in Nursing Practice, 138

Torts, 138

Consent, 139

Abortion Issues, 140

Nursing Students, 141

Malpractice Insurance, 141

Abandonment and Assignment Issues, 141

Risk Management, 142

Professional Involvement, 143

Unit 3 Communication and Nurse-Patient Relationship

11. Communication 146

Jeri Berger and Suresh K. Sharma

Communication and Nursing Practice, 146

Communication and Interpersonal Relationships, 147

Developing Communication Skills, 147

Levels of Communication, 148

Basic Elements of the Communication Process, 149

Referent, 149

Sender and Receiver, 149

Messages, 150

Channels, 150

Feedback, 150

Interpersonal Variables, 150

Environment, 150

Forms of Communication, 150

Verbal Communication, 150

Nonverbal Communication, 151

Symbolic Communication, 152

Metacommunication, 152

Methods of Effective Communication, 152

Attention Skills, 152

Rapport Building, 153

Empathy Skills, 153

Professional Nursing Relationships, 153

Nurse-Patient Helping Relationships, 153

Nurse-Family Relationships, 154

Nurse–Health Care Team Relationships, 154

Nurse-Community Relationships, 155

Elements of Professional Communication, 155

Courtesy, 155

Use of Names, 156

Trustworthiness, 156

Autonomy and Responsibility, 156

Assertiveness, 156

12. Patient Education 168

Amy M. Hall and Suresh K. Sharma

Standards for Patient Education, 168

Purposes of Patient Education, 169

Maintenance and Promotion of Health and Illness
Prevention, 169

Restoration of Health, 169

Coping with Impaired Functions, 169

Teaching and Learning, 169

Role of the Nurse in Teaching and Learning, 170

Teaching as Communication, 170

Domains of Learning, 171

Cognitive Learning, 171

Affective Learning, 172

Psychomotor Learning, 172

Basic Learning Principles, 172

Motivation to Learn, 172

Ability to Learn, 173

Learning Environment, 175

Unit 4 Critical Thinking in Nursing Practice

13. Critical Thinking in Nursing Practice 190

Patricia A. Potter

Clinical Decisions in Nursing Practice, 190

Critical Thinking Defined, 191

Thinking and Learning, 192

Levels of Critical Thinking in Nursing, 192

Basic Critical Thinking, 193

Complex Critical Thinking, 193

Commitment, 193

Critical Thinking Competencies, 193

General Critical Thinking, 193

Specific Critical Thinking, 194

Nursing Process as a Competency, 195

A Critical Thinking Model for Clinical
Decision Making, 196

Specific Knowledge Base, 197

Experience, 197

Nursing Process Competency, 197

Attitudes for Critical Thinking, 197

Standards for Critical Thinking, 200

Developing Critical Thinking Skills, 201

Reflective Journaling, 201

Meeting with Colleagues, 201

Concept Mapping, 201

Critical Thinking Synthesis, 202

14. Nursing Assessment 205

Patricia A. Potter and Daisy Thomas

Critical Thinking Approach to Assessment, 206

Data Collection, 207

Methods of Data Collection, 211

Cultural Considerations in Assessment, 214

Nursing Health History, 215

Physical Examination, 217

Observation of Patient Behaviour, 217

Diagnostic and Laboratory Data, 217

Interpreting and Validating Assessment Data, 217

Data Documentation, 218

Concept Mapping, 219

15. Nursing Diagnosis 222

Patricia A. Potter

History of Nursing Diagnosis, 223

Critical Thinking and the Nursing Diagnostic Process, 226

Data Clustering, 226

Interpretation—Identifying Health Problems, 227

Formulating a Nursing Diagnosis, 228

Types of Nursing Diagnoses, 229

Components of a Nursing Diagnosis, 229

Cultural Relevance of Nursing Diagnoses, 230

Concept Mapping Nursing Diagnoses, 231

Sources of Diagnostic Errors, 232

Errors in Interpretation and Analysis of Data, 232

Errors in Data Clustering, 233

Errors in the Diagnostic Statement, 233

Documentation and Informatics, 234

Nursing Diagnoses: Application to Care Planning, 234

16. Planning Nursing Care 237

Patricia A. Potter and Daisy Thomas

Types of Planning, 238

Establishing Priorities, 238

Priorities in Practice, 239

Critical Thinking in Setting Goals and Expected
Outcomes, 239

Goals of Care, 240

Expected Outcomes, 241

Guidelines for Writing Goals and Expected Outcomes, 242

Critical Thinking in Planning Nursing Care, 243

Types of Interventions, 243

Selection of Interventions, 244

Systems for Planning Nursing Care, 246

Change of Shift, 247

Student Care Plans, 248

Concept Maps, 250

Consulting other Health Care Professionals, 251

When to Consult, 251

How to Consult, 251

17. Implementing Nursing Care 254

Patricia A. Potter and Suresh K. Sharma

Critical Thinking in Implementation, 255

Standard Nursing Interventions, 256

Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols, 257

Standing Orders, 257

NIC Interventions, 257

Standards of Practice, 258

Implementation Process, 258

Reassessing the Patient, 258

Reviewing and Revising the Existing Nursing
Care Plan, 258

Organizing Resources and Care Delivery, 258

Anticipating and Preventing Complications, 260

Implementation Skills, 261

Direct Care, 261

Activities of Daily Living, 261

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, 262

Physical Care Techniques, 262

Lifesaving Measures, 262

Counselling, 262

Teaching, 262

Controlling for Adverse Reactions, 263

Preventive Measures, 264

Indirect Care, 264

Communicating Nursing Interventions, 264

Delegating, Supervising, and Evaluating the
Work of Other Staff Members, 264

Achieving Patient Goals, 265

18. Evaluation 267

Patricia A. Potter and Suresh K. Sharma

Standards for Evaluation, 269

Criterion-Based Evaluation, 270

Collaborate and Evaluate Effectiveness of Interventions, 270

Document Results, 272

Care Plan Revision, 273

19. Managing Patient Care 277

Patricia A. Stockert and Suresh K. Sharma

Nursing Care Delivery Models, 277

Decision Making, 278

Staff Involvement, 280

Leadership Skills for Nursing Students, 281

Clinical Care Coordination, 281

Team Communication, 283

Delegation, 284

Knowledge Building, 285

Unit 5 Documentation and Informatics

20. Documentation and Reporting 289

Frank Lyerla and Suresh K. Sharma

Confidentiality, 290

Standards, 290

Interdisciplinary Communication within the Health Care Team, 290

Purposes of Records, 291

Communication, 291

Legal Documentation, 291

Reimbursement, 291

Education, 291

Research, 291

Auditing and Monitoring, 292

Medical and Nursing Records, 293

Guidelines for Quality Documentation and Reporting, 293

Factual, 293

Accurate, 294

Complete, 294

Current, 295

Organized, 295

Methods of Documentation, 295

Paper and Electronic Health Records, 295

Narrative Documentation, 296

Problem-Oriented Medical Record, 296

Source Records, 297

Charting by Exception, 297

Case Management Plan and Critical Pathways, 298

Common Record-Keeping Forms, 298

Admission Nursing History Forms, 298

Flow Sheets and Graphic Records, 299

Patient Care Summary or Kardex, 299

Standardized Care Plans, 299

Discharge Summary Forms, 299

Acuity Records, 299

Home Care Documentation, 300

Long-Term Health Care Documentation, 300

Reporting, 300

Hand-Off Report, 300

Telephone Reports and Orders, 301

Incident or Occurrence Reports, 302

Health Informatics, 303

Nursing Informatics, 303

Nursing Information Systems, 304

Clinical Information Systems, 306

Unit 6 Foundations for Nursing Practice

21. Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice 309

Anne Griffin Perry and Daisy Thomas

Domain of Nursing, 309

Theory, 310

Purposes of a Theory, 310

Components of a Theory, 311

Types of a Theory, 311

Theory-Based Nursing Practice, 312

Interdisciplinary Theories, 312

Systems Theory, 312

Basic Human Needs, 313

Developmental Theories, 314

Psychosocial Theories, 314

Selected Nursing Theories, 314

Nightingale’s Theory, 314

Peplau’s Theory, 315

Henderson’s Theory, 315

Orem’s Theory, 315

Leininger’s Theory, 315

Betty Neuman’s Theory, 316

Roy’s Theory, 316

Watson’s Theory, 316

Benner and Wrubel’s Theory, 317

Link between Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing, 317

Relationship between Nursing Theory and
Nursing Research, 317

22. Hospitalization: Admission and Discharge 320

Suresh K. Sharma and Daisy Thomas

Admission to the Hospital, 320

Definition, 320

Indications, 320

Purposes of Admission Procedure, 320

Types of Admission, 320

Method of Admission, 321

Preparation of the Unit for Admission, 321

Helping the Patient to Occupy the Bed, 321

Orientation of the Patient to the Ward, 321

Steps of Admission Procedure, 321

Emotional Responses to Hospitalization, 322

Special Considerations During Admission, 322

Medicolegal Issues Related to Admission, 322

Discharge from the Hospital, 322

Definition, 322

Types of Discharge, 322

Discharge Planning, 323

Discharge Procedure, 323

Medicolegal Issues Related to Discharge, 324

Medicolegal Issues Related to Discharge of
Mentally-Ill Patient, 324

23. Patient Safety 327

Marinetta DeMoss and Suresh K. Sharma

Scientific Knowledge Base, 328

Nursing Knowledge Base, 330

Environmental Safety: Noise, Ventilation,
Light, 335

Noise Control, 335

Ventilation, 335

Lighting, 335

Critical Thinking, 335

24. Infection Prevention and Control 362

Ruth M. Curchoe and Suresh K. Sharma

Scientific Knowledge Base, 363

Chain of Infection, 363

The Infectious Process, 366

Defences Against Infection, 366

Health Care–Associated Infections, 368

Nursing Knowledge Base, 369

Factors Influencing Infection Prevention and Control, 369

25. Vital Signs 407

Susan Jane Fetzer, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Guidelines for Measuring Vital Signs, 408

Body Temperature, 409

Factors Affecting Body Temperature, 411

Pulse, 419

Physiology and Regulation, 420

Assessment of Pulse, 420

Character of the Pulse, 421

Nursing Process and Pulse Determination, 423

Respiration, 423

Physiological Control, 423

Mechanics of Breathing, 423

Assessment of Ventilation, 424

Assessment of Diffusion and Perfusion, 425

Nursing Process and Respiratory Vital Signs, 426

Blood Pressure, 426

Physiology of Arterial Blood Pressure, 426

Factors Influencing Blood Pressure, 427

Hypertension, 428

Hypotension, 429

Measurement of Blood Pressure, 429

Nursing Process and Blood Pressure
Determination, 434

Health Promotion and Vital Signs, 434

Recording Vital Signs, 434

26. Health Assessment and Physical Examination 455

Rhonda W. Comrie, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Purposes of the Physical Examination, 456

Cultural Sensitivity, 456

Preparation for Examination, 456

Infection Control, 456

Environment, 456

Equipment, 457

Physical Preparation of the Patient, 457

Psychological Preparation of a Patient, 457

Assessment of Age Groups, 459

Organization of the Examination, 459

Techniques of Physical Assessment, 461

Inspection, 461

Palpation, 461

Percussion, 463

Auscultation, 463

Olfaction, 463

General Survey, 463

General Appearance and Behaviour, 463

Vital Signs, 464

Height and Weight, 464

Skin, Hair, and Nails, 468

Skin, 468

Hair and Scalp, 472

Nails, 473

Head and Neck, 476

Head, 477

Eyes, 477

Ears, 482

Nose and Sinuses, 485

Mouth and Pharynx, 486

Neck, 490

Thorax and Lungs, 492

Posterior Thorax, 493

Lateral Thorax, 496

Anterior Thorax, 496

Heart, 497

Inspection and Palpation, 499

Auscultation, 500

Vascular System, 502

Blood Pressure, 502

Carotid Arteries, 502

Jugular Veins, 503

Peripheral Arteries and Veins, 504

Lymphatic System, 508

Breasts, 508

Female Breasts, 509

Male Breasts, 514

Abdomen, 514

Inspection, 515

Auscultation, 516

Palpation, 516

Female Genitalia and Reproductive Tract, 517

Preparation of the Patient, 518

External Genitalia, 518

Speculum Examination of Internal Genitalia, 519

Male Genitalia, 519

Sexual Maturity, 520

Penis, 521

Scrotum, 521

Inguinal Ring and Canal, 522

Rectum and Anus, 522

Inspection, 523

Digital Palpation, 523

Musculoskeletal System, 523

General Inspection, 524

Palpation, 525

Range of Joint Motion, 525

Muscle Tone and Strength, 526

Neurological System, 528

Mental and Emotional Status, 528

Intellectual Function, 530

Cranial Nerve Function, 530

Sensory Function, 530

Motor Function, 531

Reflexes, 532

After the Examination, 534

27. Machinery, Equipment and Linen 538

Suresh K. Sharma and Daisy Thomas

Introduction, 538

Health Technology, 538

Medical Devices, 538

Medical Equipment, 539

Maintenance of Equipment, 539

Purposes of Equipment Maintenance, 539

Equipment Maintenance Process, 539

Hospital Housekeeping, 540

Care of Rubber Goods, 541

Care of Linen, 541

Care of Stainless Steel Instruments, 542

Care of Glassware, 542

Care of Enamelware, 542

Care of Hospital Furniture, 542

28. Medication Administration 544

Amy M. Hall, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 545

Medication Legislation and Standards, 545

Pharmacological Concepts, 545

Pharmacokinetics as the Basis of Medication
Actions, 547

Types of Medication Action, 548

Medication Interactions, 549

Timing of Medication Dose Responses, 549

Routes of Administration, 550

Systems of Medication Measurement, 553

Nursing Knowledge Base, 554

Clinical Calculations, 554

Prescriber’s Role, 557

Types of Orders in Acute Care Agencies, 561

Pharmacist’s Role, 562

Distribution Systems, 563

Nurse’s Role, 563

Medication Errors, 563

Critical Thinking, 565

Knowledge, 565

Experience, 565

Attitudes, 565

Standards, 565

Medication Administration, 575

Oral Administration, 575

Topical Medication Applications, 577

Administering Medications by Inhalation, 581

Administering Medications by Irrigations, 584

Parenteral Administration of Medications, 584

Administering Injections, 588

29. Complementary and Alternative Therapies 627

Mary S. Koithan and Daisy Thomas

Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health, 628

Nursing-Accessible Therapies, 630

Relaxation Therapy, 631

Meditation and Breathing, 632

Imagery, 632

Training-Specific Therapies, 633

Biofeedback, 633

Acupuncture, 634

Therapeutic Touch, 634

Chiropractic Therapy, 635

Traditional Chinese Medicine, 636

Natural Products and Herbal Therapies, 637

Nursing Role in Complementary and Alternative
Therapies, 638

Unit 7 Psychological Basis for Nursing Practice

30. Self-Concept 643

Victoria N. Folse, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Self-Awareness, 643

Scientific Knowledge Base, 643

Nursing Knowledge Base, 644

Development of Self-Concept, 645

Components and Interrelated Terms of
Self-Concept, 645

Factors Influencing Self-Concept, 647

Family Effect on Self-Concept Development, 649

Nurse’s Effect on Patient’s Self-Concept, 649

Critical Thinking, 651

31. Sexuality 661

Kathy Lever and Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 662

Sexual Development, 662

Sexual Orientation, 663

Contraception, 664

Sexually Transmitted Infections, 664

Nursing Knowledge Base, 665

Factors Influencing Sexuality, 665

Critical Thinking, 668

32. The Experience of Loss, Death, and Grief 680

Valerie Yancey, Suresh K. Sharma and
Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 681

Loss, 681

Grief, 682

Theories of Grief and Mourning, 682

Nursing Knowledge Base, 684

Factors Influencing Loss and Grief, 684

Sander’s Phases of Bereavement, 685

Critical Thinking, 686

33. Stress and Coping 705

Marjorie Baier and Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 706

Medulla Oblongata, 706

Reticular Formation, 706

Pituitary Gland, 706

General Adaptation Syndrome, 706

Types of Stress, 708

Nursing Knowledge Base, 708

Nursing Theory and the Role of Stress, 708

Indicators of Stress, 709

Factors Influencing Stress and Coping, 709

Critical Thinking, 711

Unit 8 Physiological Basis for Nursing Practice

34. Activity and Exercise 722

Rita Wunderlich

Scientific Knowledge Base, 722

Overview of Exercise and Activity, 722

Regulation of Movement, 723

Principles of Transfer and Positioning Techniques, 725

Nursing Knowledge Base, 726

Factors Influencing Activity and Exercise, 726

Critical Thinking, 727

35. Hygiene 746

Deborah Marshall and Suresh K. Sharma

Scientific Knowledge Base, 746

The Skin, 747

The Feet, Hands, and Nails, 747

The Oral Cavity, 748

The Hair, 748

The Eyes, Ears, and Nose, 748

Nursing Knowledge Base, 748

Factors Influencing Hygiene, 748

Critical Thinking, 751

36. Oxygenation 800

Paulette M. Archer and Suresh K. Sharma

Scientific Knowledge Base, 800

Respiratory Physiology, 801

Cardiovascular Physiology, 802

Factors Affecting Oxygenation, 805

Alterations in Respiratory Functioning, 806

Alterations in Cardiac Functioning, 807

Nursing Knowledge Base, 808

Factors Influencing Oxygenation, 808

Critical Thinking, 810

37. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 864

Linda Felver

Scientific Knowledge Base, 865

Location and Movement of Water and Electrolytes, 865

Fluid Balance, 867

Fluid Imbalances, 869

Electrolyte Balance, 871

Electrolyte Imbalances, 872

Acid-Base Balance, 874

Acid-Base Imbalances, 875

Nursing Knowledge Base, 877

Critical Thinking, 877

Nursing History, 878

Medical History, 880

Physical Assessment, 881

Laboratory Values, 883

38. Sleep 922

Patricia A. Stockert and Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 922

Physiology of Sleep, 922

Functions of Sleep, 924

Physical Illness, 925

Sleep Disorders, 925

Nursing Knowledge Base, 928

Sleep and Rest, 928

Normal Sleep Requirements and Patterns, 928

Factors Influencing Sleep, 929

Critical Thinking, 930

Factors Affecting Human Comfort, 943

Environmental factors, 943

Psychological factors, 944

Personal factors, 944

Comfort Devices, 944

39. Pain Management 947

Linda Cason

Scientific Knowledge Base, 948

Nature of Pain, 948

Physiology of Pain, 948

Types of Pain, 950

Nursing Knowledge Base, 951

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs, 951

Factors Influencing Pain, 952

Critical Thinking, 954

40. Nutrition 983

Patricia A. Stockert and Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 984

Nutrients: The Biochemical Units of Nutrition, 984

Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System, 986

Dietary Guidelines, 988

Nursing Knowledge Base, 989

Factors Influencing Nutrition, 989

Alternative Food Patterns, 992

Critical Thinking, 992

41. Urinary Elimination 1030

Terry L. Wood

Scientific Knowledge Base, 1030

Kidneys, 1030

Ureters, 1032

Bladder, 1032

Urethra, 1032

Act of Urination, 1032

Nursing Knowledge Base, 1037

Infection Control and Hygiene, 1037

Factors Influencing Urination, 1037

Critical Thinking, 1038

42. Bowel Elimination 1077

Lori Klingman

Scientific Knowledge Base, 1077

Mouth, 1077

Oesophagus, 1077

Stomach, 1078

Small Intestine, 1078

Large Intestine, 1078

Anus, 1079

Defecation, 1079

Nursing Knowledge Base, 1079

Factors Influencing Bowel Elimination, 1079

Common Bowel Elimination Problems, 1082

Bowel Diversions, 1083

Critical Thinking, 1086

43. Mobility and Immobility 1119

Ann B. Tritak

Scientific Knowledge Base, 1119

Nature of Movement, 1119

Physiology and Regulation of Movement, 1120

Pathological Influences on Mobility, 1123

Nursing Knowledge Base, 1124

Safe Patient Handling, 1124

Factors Influencing Mobility-Immobility, 1124

Developmental Changes, 1128

Critical Thinking, 1129

44. Skin Integrity and Wound Care 1172

Janice Colwell and Daisy Thomas

Scientific Knowledge Base, 1172

Skin, 1172

Pressure Ulcers, 1173

Classification of Pressure Ulcers, 1175

Wound Classifications, 1177

Nursing Knowledge Base, 1180

Prediction and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers, 1180

Factors Influencing Pressure Ulcer Formation and Wound Healing, 1182

Critical Thinking, 1183

45. Sensory Alterations 1234

Jill Parsons

Scientific Knowledge Base, 1234

Normal Sensation, 1234

Sensory Alterations, 1235

Nursing Knowledge Base, 1237

Factors Influencing Sensory Function, 1237

Critical Thinking, 1238

46. Care of Surgical Patients 1256

Carrie Sona

History of Surgical Nursing, 1256

Ambulatory Surgery, 1257

Scientific Knowledge Base, 1257

Classification of Surgery, 1257

Nursing Knowledge Base, 1257

Critical Thinking, 1257

Preoperative Surgical Phase, 1259

Transport to the Operating Room, 1274

Intraoperative Surgical Phase, 1275

Preoperative (Holding) Area, 1275

Admission to the Operating Room, 1275

Preoperative Surgical Phase, 1278

Immediate Postoperative Recovery (Phase I), 1278

Recovery in Ambulatory Surgery (Phase II), 1280

Postoperative Convalescence, 1281

Appendix 1301

Glossary 1303

Index 1319

Details

No. of pages:
1378
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier India 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
Paperback ISBN:
9788131234365

About the Editor

Sharma Suresh