Position Location Techniques and Applications

Position Location Techniques and Applications

1st Edition - April 15, 2009

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  • Authors: David Munoz, Frantz Bouchereau Lara, Cesar Vargas, Rogerio Enriquez-Caldera
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080921938
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123743534

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Description

This book is the definitive guide to the techniques and applications of position location, covering both terrestrial and satellite systems. It gives all the techniques, theoretical models, and algorithms that engineers need to improve their current location schemes and to develop future location algorithms and systems. Comprehensive coverage is given to system design trade-offs, complexity issues, and the design of efficient positioning algorithms to enable the creation of high-performance location positioning systems. Traditional methods are also reexamined in the context of the challenges posed by reconfigurable and multihop networks. Applications discussed include wireless networks (WiFi, ZigBee, UMTS, and DVB networks), cognitive radio, sensor networks and multihop networks. Features Contains a complete guide to models, techniques, and applications of position location Includes applications to wireless networks, demonstrating the relevance of location positioning to these "hot" areas in research and development Covers system design trade-offs and the design of efficient positioning algorithms, enabling the creation of future location positioning systems Provides a theoretical underpinning for understanding current position location algorithms, giving researchers a foundation to develop future algorithms David Muñoz is Director and César Vargas is a member of the Center for Electronics and Telecommunications, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico. Frantz Bouchereau is a senior communications software developer at The MathWorks Inc. in Natick, MA. Rogerio Enríquez-Caldera is at Instituto Nacional de Atrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Puebla, Mexico.

Key Features

  • Contains a complete guide to models, techniques and applications of position location
  • Includes applications to wireless networks (WiFi, ZigBee, DVB networks), cognitive radio, sensor networks and reconfigurable and multi-hop networks, demonstrating the relevance of location positioning to these ‘hot’ areas in research and development
  • Covers system design trade-offs, and the design of efficient positioning algorithms enables the creation of future location positioning systems
  • Provides a theoretical underpinning for understanding current position location algorithms, giving researchers a foundation to develop future algorithms

Readership

R&D communications and signal processing engineers; applied researchers in universities

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: The Position Location Problem

    1.1 The PL need and Historical Developments
    1.2 PL requirements and Limitation
    1.2.1 Resolution
    1.2.2 Fundamental Scenarios for PL
    1.3 Terrestrial and Satellite Scenarios
    1.3.1 Terrestrial and Satellite Scenarios
    1.4 Current and Potential Applications

    Chapter 2: Signal Parameter Estimation for the Localization Problem

    2.1 AOA measurements
    2.1.1 The uniform linear array model
    2.1.2 Cramer Rao Bound for array observations
    2.2 Nonparametric Methods for Estimation of AOA
    2.2.1 Beamscan AOA estimator
    2.2.2 MVDR AOA estimator
    2.3 Parametric Methods for Estimation of AOA
    2.3.1 Maximum likelihood AOA estimator
    2.3.2 The MUSIC algorithm for AOA estimation
    2.3.3 The ESPRIT Algorithm for AOA Estimation
    2.4 TOA and TDOA measurements
    2.4.1 The TOA Problem
    2.4.2 The TDOA Problem
    2.4.3 Performance Bound for the TOA and TDOA Problems
    2.4.4 Received Signal Model and its Analogy to the Array Processing Problem
    2.4.5 The Generalized Cross-correlation Method For TOA or TDOA Estimation
    2.4.6 Conventional PN-Correlation Method
    2.4.7 A Superresolution PN-Correlation Method: The SPM Algorithm
    2.4.8 TOA Estimation by Successive Cancelation
    2.5 Range Estimation Based on Receive Signal strength (RSS)
    2.6 Signal strength (RSS)
    2.6.1 The log-normal propagation model
    2.6.2 ML estimation of log-normal parameters
    2.6.3 Lognormal Range Estimator

    Chapter 3: Location Information Processing

    3.1 The Multilateration Problem
    3.2 Geometrical multilateration
    3.2.1 Geometrical multilateration based on time of arrival (TOA) measurements
    3.2.2 Geometrical multilateration based on angle of arrival (AOA) measurements
    3.2.3 Geometrical multilateration based on time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements
    3.3 Statistical multilateration
    3.3.1 Least-squares multilateration
    3.3.2 Least-squares multilateration with uncertain reference node positions
    3.3.3 Hybrid location estimation systems
    3.4 Location estimation in multi hop scenarios
    3.4.1 The Centroid algorithm
    3.4.2 Approximate point-in-triangulation (APIT) algorithm
    3.4.3 Ad-Hoc positioning system (APS) algorithms
    3.4.4 Dead reckoning
    3.5 Performance assessment of location estimation systems
    3.5.1 Cramer-Rao bounds
    3.5.2 Circular Error Probability
    3.5.3 Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP)

    Chapter 4: Heuristic Approaches to the Position Location Problem

    4.1 Single hop and relational scenarios
    4.1.1 Range-free location estimation systems
    4.1.2 Signal signature
    4.2 Multi Hop Scenarios
    4.2.1 Triangle concatenation
    4.2.2 Random flight
    4.2.2.1 Pyramidal approach
    4.2.2.1.1 Estimation accuracy
    4.2.3 Manhattanized algorithms
    4.2.3.1 Manhattan trilateration
    4.2.3.2 Vector projection algorithm
    4.2.3.3 A linear programming approach
    4.2.3.4 Three dimensional Manhattanized case
    4.2.4 Relational and fuzzy approach
    4.2.4.1 Fuzzy proportional method
    4.2.4.2 Fuzzy hyperbolic algorithm
    4.2.4.3 Minimization on rough evidence
    4.2.4.4 Neighborhood method
    4.2.4.5 Relative distance location
    4.2.4.5.1 Location algorithm description
    4.2.4.5.2 First estimation
    4.2.4.5.3 Relational location adjustments

    Chapter 5: Terrestrial Based Location Systems

    5.1 From Cellular to Reconfigurable Networks
    5.1.1 The Cellular Network Scenario
    5.1.2 2G and 3G Technology Review
    5.1.3 4G and Beyond
    5.1.4 The Ad-Hoc and Sensor Network Scenarios
    5.2 Mobility in Wireless Networks
    5.2.1 Capacity and Coverage Issues
    5.2.2 Modeling Mobility
    5.2.3 Dealing with Mobility
    5.2.4 Mobility and Location Based Services
    5.3 Towards the Cognitive Radio Paradigm for Position Location
    5.3.1 The Concept of Cognitive Radio
    5.3.2 Multiple Antenna Systems
    5.3.3 Basics of Cross-layering for Reconfigurable Networks
    5.3.4 Cooperative and Collaborative Wireless Networks
    5.3.5 Fundamentals of Space-Time Processing

    Chapter 6: Applications of Terrestrial Based Location Systems

    6.1 Cellular Systems
    6.1.1 2G and 3G systems
    6.1.2 Multihop Cellular
    6.1.3 Cell ID
    6.1.4 E911
    6.2 Local / Indoor Network Scenario
    6.2.1 Technologies and Standards review
    6.2.2 Localization with WiFi, Bluetooth and Zigbee
    6.2.3 RFID, INS
    6.2.4 System Comparison
    6.2.5 Discussion on Systems Tradeoffs
    6.3 Mesh Systems
    6.3.1 Sensor Networks
    6.3.2 Ad-Hoc Networks
    6.3.3 Natural and Man-made Disasters

    Chapter 7: Satellite Based Location Systems (6)

    7.1 Satellite Positioning
    7.1.1 Absolute and Relative Positioning
    7.1.2 Kinematics and Static
    7.2 Structure of a System for Satellite Positioning
    7.2.1 Constellation Segment
    7.2.2 Control Segment
    7.2.3 User Segment
    7.3 Fundamental Concepts Involved
    7.3.1 Ranging and timing
    7.3.2 Precision and Accuracy
    7.3.3 Civil and Security Considerations
    7.3.4 Coordinate Systems
    7.4 Applications
    7.4.1 Transport
    7.4.2 Safety
    7.4.3 Energy
    7.4.4 Agriculture
    7.4.5 Marine
    7.4.6 Environment
    7.4.7 Science
    7.4.8 Surveying
    7.4.9 Recreation
    7.4.10 Mapping
    7.4.11 Geosciences (Seismic & Volcanic predictions)
    7.4.12 Commercial Uses, Services and Novel Business
    7.5 Sources of Errors
    7.5.1 Stochastic
    7.5.2 Systematic
    7.6 Trends and Comparison
    7.6.1 GPS, Glonass and Galileo
    7.6.2 Developments in perspective
    7.6.3 Integrations of Satellite and ground-based location systems

    References

    Appendix 1: Signal Propagation

    A1. Large scale fading
    A1.1 Path Loss
    A1.2 Shadowing models

    A2. Small scale fading
    A2.2 Time dispersion effects
    A2.3 Frequency dispersion effects
    A2.4 Multipath channel impulse response
    A2.5 The channel scattering function
    A2.6 Clark’s flat fading model
    A2.7 Multipath channel simulation

    A3. Compound fading models

Product details

  • No. of pages: 296
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2009
  • Published: April 15, 2009
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080921938
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123743534

About the Authors

David Munoz

Frantz Bouchereau Lara

Cesar Vargas

Rogerio Enriquez-Caldera

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