Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications

Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications

1st Edition - February 3, 2014

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  • Editor: Hélder A. Santos
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097156

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Porous silicon has a range of properties, making it ideal for drug delivery, cancer therapy, and tissue engineering. Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications provides a comprehensive review of this emerging nanostructured and biodegradable biomaterial. Chapters in part one focus on the fundamentals and properties of porous silicon for biomedical applications, including thermal properties and stabilization, photochemical and nonthermal chemical modification, protein-modified porous silicon films, and biocompatibility of porous silicon. Part two discusses applications in bioimaging and sensing, and explores the optical properties of porous silicon materials; in vivo imaging assessment and radiolabelling of porous silicon; and nanoporous silicon biosensors for DNA sensing and for bacteria detection. Finally, part three highlights drug loading and characterization of porous silicon materials, tumor targeting and imaging, and porous silicon scaffolds for functional tissue engineering, stem cell growth, and osteodifferentiation. With its acclaimed editor and international team of expert contributors, Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications is a technical resource and indispensable guide for all those involved in the research, development, and application of porous silicon and other biomaterials, while providing a comprehensive introduction for students and academics interested in the field.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive review of porous silicon focusing on the fabrication and properties of this emerging material
  • Specifically discusses drug delivery and orthopedic applications of porous silicon
  • Aimed at materials researchers and scientists in the biomaterials industry – particularly those concerned with drug delivery and orthopedics


Those working in life science fields, including scientists in biomedical research, cellular and molecular biologists, and clinicians; Material engineers, biomedical engineers, bioanalytical chemists; Researchers, scientists, and chemists in academia

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials




    Part I: Fundamentals of porous silicon for biomedical applications

    1. Porous silicon for medical use: from conception to clinical use


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Biocompatibility of micromachined silicon

    1.3 From concept to clinic

    1.4 Producing useful physical forms of nanostructured silicon

    1.5 Clinical manufacture

    1.6 Clinical trials

    1.7 Conclusions and future trends

    1.8 Acknowledgements

    1.9 References

    2. Thermal stabilization of porous silicon for biomedical applications


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Thermal oxidation

    2.3 Thermal carbonization

    2.4 Thermal nitridation and annealing

    2.5 Conclusions and future trends

    2.6 References

    3. Thermal properties of nanoporous silicon materials


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Thermal constants of porous silicon (PSi)

    3.3 Thermo-acoustic effect

    3.4 Applications

    3.5 Conclusions and future trends

    3.6 Acknowledgment

    3.7 References

    4. Photochemical and nonthermal chemical modification of porous silicon for biomedical applications


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Hydrosilylation and controlled surface modification of Si

    4.3 Photo-initiated reactions

    4.4 Mechanism of photo-initiated reaction

    4.5 Electrochemical grafting

    4.6 Reactions initiated by other means

    4.7 Conclusions and future trends

    4.8 Acknowledgments

    4.9 References

    5. Modifying porous silicon with self-assembled monolayers for biomedical applications


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Silane-based monolayers

    5.3 Hydrosilylation of alkenes and alkynes

    5.4 Building more complicated interfaces

    5.5 Conclusions and future trends

    5.6 References

    6. Protein-modified porous silicon films for biomedical applications


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Proteins on surfaces

    6.3 Porous silicon monolayers and multilayers

    6.4 Characterization methods

    6.5 Protein-modified PSi

    6.6 Conclusions and future trends

    6.7 References

    7. Biocompatibility of porous silicon for biomedical applications


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Assessment methods for testing the biocompatibility of biomaterials

    7.3 Effects of the PSi-based material interactions at the cellular level

    7.4 In vivo behaviour of PSi-based materials

    7.5 Conclusions and future trends

    7.6 Acknowledgements

    7.7 References

    Part II: Porous silicon for bioimaging and biosensing applications

    8. Optical properties of porous silicon materials for biomedical applications


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Morphology of PSi

    8.3 Effective medium models

    8.4 Optical constants of nano-PSi

    8.5 Stability of the optical properties of nano-PSi

    8.6 Multilayer structures

    8.7 Optical applications of PSi optical filters

    8.8 Conclusions and future trends

    8.9 References

    9. In vivo imaging assessment of porous silicon


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    9.3 Nuclear imaging

    9.4 Optical imaging

    9.5 Compiling PSi-based systems for imaging

    9.6 In vivo imaging studies with PSi particles

    9.7 Conclusions and future trends

    9.8 Acknowledgments

    9.9 References

    10. Radiolabeled porous silicon for bioimaging applications


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Methods for tracing drug delivery

    10.3 Nuclear imaging in drug development

    10.4 Radiolabeled PSi nanomaterials

    10.5 Conclusions and future trends

    10.6 References

    11. Desorption/ionization on porous silicon (DIOS) for metabolite imaging


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Substrate preparation for DIOS

    11.3 Desorption and ionization mechanism of DIOS

    11.4 Improved ionization methods based on DIOS

    11.5 DIOS in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI)

    11.6 Conclusions and future trends

    11.7 References

    12. Porous silicon for bacteria detection


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 ‘Indirect’ bacteria detection

    12.3 ‘Direct’ bacteria detection

    12.4 Conclusions and future trends

    12.5 References

    13. Nanoporous silicon biosensors for DNA sensing


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Porous silicon (PSi) sensor preparation

    13.3 PSi DNA sensor structures, measurement techniques, and sensitivity

    13.4 Optical transduction

    13.5 Electrical and electrochemical transduction

    13.6 Corrosion of PSi DNA sensors

    13.7 Effect of pore size on DNA infiltration and detection

    13.8 Control of DNA surface density in nanoscale pores

    13.9 Kinetics for real-time sensing

    13.10 Conclusions and future trends

    13.11 Acknowledgement

    13.12 References

    Part III: Porous silicon for drug delivery, cancer therapy and tissue engineering applications

    14. Drug loading and characterization of porous silicon materials


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Methods for the loading of the cargo molecules into PSi pores

    14.3 Characterization of drug-loaded PSi materials

    14.4 Conclusions and future trends

    14.5 References

    15. Nanoporous silicon to enhance drug solubility


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Loading poorly soluble drugs into PSi

    15.3 In vitro studies of drug dissolution

    15.4 In vivo studies of drug delivery

    15.5 Conclusions and future trends

    15.6 References

    16. Multistage porous silicon for cancer therapy


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 The biology of cancer

    16.3 Current therapeutics

    16.4 Mesoporous silicon and therapeutic applications

    16.5 Conclusions and future trends

    16.6 References

    17. Porous silicon for tumour targeting and imaging


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Tumour targeting and imaging

    17.3 Preparation of PSi particles

    17.4 PSi particles for in vivo tumour targeting

    17.5 PSi particles for in vivo tumour imaging

    17.6 Conclusions and future trends

    17.7 References

    18. Porous silicon–polymer composites for cell culture and tissue engineering applications


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Fundamentals of porous silicon (PSi) and PSi/polymer composite fabrication and functionalization

    18.3 PSi/polymer composites

    18.4 Polymers for tissue engineering

    18.5 The grafting of biopolymers to PSi

    18.6 PSi and tissue engineering

    18.7 Applications of PSi-polymer composites in tissue culture and bioengineering

    18.8 Conclusions and future trends

    18.9 Sources of further information and advice

    18.10 Acknowledgement

    18.11 References

    19. Porous silicon and related composites as functional tissue engineering scaffolds


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Role of porous silicon (PSi) biodegradability

    19.3 Strategies for PSi/polymer composite formulation

    19.4 Studies related to orthopedic tissue engineering

    19.5 Conclusions and future trends

    19.6 References

    20. Porous silicon scaffolds for stem cells growth and osteodifferentiation


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Stem cells for bone tissue engineering: adult, neonatal and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)

    20.3 Stem cells osteogenic differentiation and bone formation

    20.4 Influence of pore size, nanoroughness and chemical surface treatment

    20.5 Growth factors delivery and Si effects on osteodifferentiation

    20.6 Conclusions and future trends

    20.7 References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 558
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: February 3, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097156

About the Editor

Hélder A. Santos

Hélder A. Santos is a Full Professor in Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Helsinki (Finland), Head of the Nanomedicines and Biomedical Engineering Lab, Director of the Doctoral Program in Drug Research, Director of FinPharmaNet in Finland, Chair of the Controlled Release Society Focus Group in Nanomedicine and Nanoscale Delivery, and Chairman and co-founder of Capsamedix Oy. Prof. Santos’ research is focused on nanobiomaterials, including nanoporous silica/silicon materials and polymeric-based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapy. His research interests include the development of nanoparticles/nanomedicines for biomedical and healthcare applications. His current work builds a bridge between engineering, pharmaceutical, and medical research. He is the author/co-author of more than 330 publications, including reviews, journal editorials, book chapters, 4 edited books, and more than 260 conference proceedings/abstracts. He also holds 4 patents in the field.

Affiliations and Expertise

Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki Institute of Life Science (HiLIFE), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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