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Carbon materials form pores ranging in size and morphology, from micropores of less than 1nm, to macropores of more than 50nm, and from channel-like spaces with homogenous diameters in carbon nanotubes, to round spaces in various fullerene cages, including irregularly-shaped pores in polycrystalline carbon materials. The large quantity and rapid rate of absorption of various molecules made possible by these attributes of carbon materials are now used in the storage of foreign atoms and ions for energy storage, conversion and adsorption, and for environmental remediation. Porous Carbons focuses on the fabrication and application of porous carbons. It considers fabrication at three scales: micropores, mesopores, and macropores. Carbon foams, sponges, and 3D-structured carbons are detailed. The title presents applications in four key areas: energy storage, energy conversion, energy adsorption, including batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells and environmental remediation, emphasizing the importance of pore structures at the three scales, and the diffusion and storage of various ions and molecules. The book presents a short history of each technique and material, and assesses advantages and disadvantages. This focused book provides researchers with a comprehensive understanding of both pioneering and current synthesis techniques for porous carbons, and their modern applications.
- Presents modern porous carbon synthesis techniques and modern applications of porous carbons
- Presents current research on porous carbons in energy storage, conversion and adsorption, and in environmental remediation
- Provides a history and assessment of both pioneering and current cutting-edge synthesis techniques and materials
- Covers a significant range of precursor materials, preparation techniques, and characteristics
- Considers the future development of porous carbons and their various potential applications
Researchers and graduate students working on carbon materials; materials scientists; chemical engineers; mechanical engineers. Those with an interest in the history of scientific techniques
1.1 Importance of pore structure control in carbon materials
1.2 Techniques for pore structure control
1.3 Techniques for pore characterization
1.4 Construction of the present book
2 Syntheses of porous carbons
2.1 Microporous carbon
2.1.1 Activation a) Physical activation b) Chemical activation c) Activated carbon fibers
2.1.2 Template-assisted carbonization a) Zeolites b) Metal carbides c) Other hard templates
2.1.3 Precursor design a) Polyimides b) Polymer blends c) Defluorination
2.2 Mesoporous carbons
2.2.2 Template-assisted carbonization a) Silicas b) MgO c) Other hard templates
2.2.3 Precursor design a) Polymer blends b) Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) c) Carbon aerogels
2.3 Macroporous carbons (Carbon foams or Carbon sponges)
2.3.1 Carbonization with blowing a) Pyrolysis under pressure b) Addition of blowing agents
2.3.2 Template-assisted carbonization
2.3.3 Precursor design a) Polymer blends b) Exfoliation of graphite oxide
2.3.4 Assemblage of graphene nanoflakes a) Assemblage of reduced graphene oxides b) Assemblage of graphene flakes
3 Porous carbons for energy storage and conversion
3.1 Rechargeable batteries
3.1.1 Intercalation-types lithium-ion batteries a) Graphites b) Non-graphitized carbons c) MXenes
3.1.2 Redox-type lithium-ion batteries a) Lithium compounds b) Metallic silicon c) Metallic germanium d) Tin oxide and metallic tin e) Titanium oxides f) Transition metal oxides
3.1.3 Lithium-sulfur batteries
3.1.4 Sodium-ion batteries
3.2.1 Electric double-layer capacitors
3.2.2 Bi-functional electrodes
3.3 Hybrid cells
3.4 Fuel cells
3.5 Adsorption and storage of hydrogen
3.6 Adsorption and storage of methane and methane hydrate
4 Porous carbons for environment remediation
4.1.1 Organic molecules
4.1.2 CO2 capture
4.1.3 Oil adsorption
4.1.4 Water adsorption
4.2 Gas separation
4.3 Capacitive deionization
4.4 Microwave shielding
4.5.1 Chemical sensors
4.5.2 Biomedical sensors
4.5.3 Mechanical sensors
4.6 Catalyst supports
4.7 Reaction spaces
5. Concluding remarks
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier 2022
- 1st September 2021
- Paperback ISBN:
Michio Inagaki, Ph.D. is a famous carbon material scientist, who obtained his PhD degree from Nagoya University in 1963. He has worked on carbon materials for more than 50 years. In 2011, he won the Peter A. Thrower Award for Exceptional Contribution to the International Carbon Community.
Professor Emeritus, Hokkaido University, Japan
Professor in the Department of Applied Chemistry at Aichi Institute of Technology in Japan. He received his PhD from Tohoku University. He has received numerous professional awards, including the Tokai Chemical Industry Award, and has published widely in the field, with over 20 papers in international research journals.
Professor, Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, Aichi, Japan
Dean and Professor in the Graduate School at Shenzhen, at Tsinghua University. He received his PhD from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He is involved in several professional organizations, and has received numerous professional awards, including most recently the Tokai Chemical Industry Association Award. He has published over 200 papers, two books, and holds over 40 Chinese and two US patents.
Dean and Professor, Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China
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