Polyphenols in Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123979346, 9780123984913

Polyphenols in Plants

1st Edition

Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123979346
eBook ISBN: 9780123984913
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th February 2014
Page Count: 360
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Polyphenols in Plants assists plant scientists and dietary supplement producers in assessing polyphenol content and factors affecting their composition. It also aids in selecting sources and regulating environmental conditions affecting yield for more consistent and function dietary supplements.

Polyphenols play key roles in the growth, regulation and structure of plants and vary widely within different plants. Stress, growth conditions and plant species modify polyphenol structure and content. This book describes techniques to identify, isolate and characterize polyphenols, taking mammalian toxicology into account as well.

Key Features

  • Defines conditions of growth affecting the polyphenol levels
  • Describes assay and instrumentation techniques critical to identifying and defining polyphenols, critical to researchers and business development
  • Documents how some polyphenols are dangerous to consume, important to dietary supplement industry, government regulators and lay public users

Table of Contents




Part 1 Modification by Plant Growth and Environment

Chapter 1 Cultivar and Production Effects on Bioactive Polyphenols

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Effects of plant species, cultivar and breeding success

1.3 Light effects

1.4 Effects of growing temperature

1.5 Impact of water management

1.6 Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

1.7 Macro- and micronutrients and heavy metals induce changes in polyphenols

1.8 The application of electricity as a new approach in the horticultural sector

Chapter 2 Plant Polyphenol Profiles as a Tool for Traceability and Valuable Support to Biodiversity

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Traceability: definition, importance and state of the art in the area concerned

2.3 Traceability markers

2.4 Polyphenols as traceability markers

2.5 Examples of the use of polyphenols as markers

2.6 Concluding remarks

Section 1A Stress and Polyphenols in Plants

Chapter 3 Phenolic Compounds and Saponins in Plants Grown Under Different Irrigation Regimes

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Secondary metabolites: phenolic compounds and saponins

3.3 Factors that influence plants’ secondary metabolism

3.4 Influence of the irrigation regimes on secondary metabolites

3.5 Concluding remarks

Chapter 4 Lichen Phenolics: Environmental Effects

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Effects of environmental factors on the production of lichen phenolics

4.3 Role of photobionts in phenolics production

4.4 Conclusions

Section 1B Plant systems of polyphenol modification

Chapter 5 Modulation of Plant Endogenous Antioxidant Systems by Polyphenols

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Plant oxidative stress

5.3 Antioxidant defense system

5.4 Polyphenol properties

5.5 Concluding remarks

Chapter 6 Plant Polyphenols: Do They Control Freshwater Planktonic Nuisance Phototrophs?

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Role of ambient pH

6.3 Physiological state of the phototrophs

6.4 Action of allelochemicals other than polyphenols

6.5 Modes of action in Microcystis aeruginosa

6.6 Conclusion from an ecological perspective

Associated content

Part 2 Isolation and Analysis of Polyphenol Structure

Section 2A Analysis Techniques for Polyphenols

Chapter 7 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Polyphenols in Foods

7.1 Polyphenolic compounds

7.2 Polyphenolic compounds in foods

7.3 Methods for determining polyphenols

7.4 Determination of polyphenols by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derivatization reactions

7.5 Sample preparation techniques

7.6 Miniaturized techniques for sample preparation in GC-MS

Chapter 8 Novel Techniques Towards the Identification of Different Classes of Polyphenols

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Sample treatment and extraction

8.3 High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

8.4 Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and direct flow injection mass spectrometry

8.5 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

8.6 Liquid chromatography coupled to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LC-NMR)

8.7 Other methods

Chapter 9 Characterization of Polyphenolic Profile of Citrus Fruit by HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS-MS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Polyphenolic compounds in citrus cultivars

9.3 HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS-MS identification of citrus flavonoids

Section 2B Isolation and Extraction Techniques

Chapter 10 Non-Extractable Polyphenols in Plant Foods: Nature, Isolation, and Analysis

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Nature of NEPP

10.3 Isolation of NEPP

10.4 Analysis of NEPPS

10.5 NEPP content in plant foods

10.6 Potential applications of NEPP

10.7 Concluding remarks

Chapter 11 Resin Adsorption and Ion Exchange to Recover and Fractionate Polyphenols

11.1 Adsorption and ion exchange technology—from past to present and future applications

11.2 Adsorbent and ion exchange materials

11.3 Principles of adsorption and ion exchange

11.4 Application of adsorption and ion exchange technology

11.5 Application of adsorbent resins and ion exchangers for the recovery of bio- and techno-functional phenolic compounds from by-products of food processing

Chapter 12 Polyphenolic Compounds from Flowers of Hibiscus: Characterization and Bioactivity

Chapter 13 Hydrothermal Processing on Phenols and Polyphenols in Vegetables

Part 3 Polyphenols Identification and Occurrence

Chapter 14 Improved Characterization of Polyphenols Using Liquid Chromatography

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Sample preparation

14.3 High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

14.4 Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)

14.5 Conclusions

Chapter 15 Characterization and Quantification of Polyphenols in Fruits

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Sample preparation

15.3 Analytical methods

Chapter 16 Determination of Polyphenols, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Capacity in Dry Seeds

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Extraction of polyphenols from seeds

16.3 Additional extraction techniques for seed polyphenols

16.4 Methods for quantification of total polyphenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in seeds



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About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA