Polyphenols in Plants

Polyphenols in Plants

Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation

1st Edition - January 17, 2014

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  • Editor: Ronald Watson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123984913
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123979346

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Description

Polyphenols in Plants assists plant scientists and dietary supplement producers in assessing polyphenol content and factors affecting their composition. It also aids in selecting sources and regulating environmental conditions affecting yield for more consistent and function dietary supplements. Polyphenols play key roles in the growth, regulation and structure of plants and vary widely within different plants. Stress, growth conditions and plant species modify polyphenol structure and content. This book describes techniques to identify, isolate and characterize polyphenols, taking mammalian toxicology into account as well.

Key Features

  • Defines conditions of growth affecting the polyphenol levels
  • Describes assay and instrumentation techniques critical to identifying and defining polyphenols, critical to researchers and business development
  • Documents how some polyphenols are dangerous to consume, important to dietary supplement industry, government regulators and lay public users

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Acknowledgement

    Contributors

    Part 1 Modification by Plant Growth and Environment

    Chapter 1 Cultivar and Production Effects on Bioactive Polyphenols

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Effects of plant species, cultivar and breeding success

    1.3 Light effects

    1.4 Effects of growing temperature

    1.5 Impact of water management

    1.6 Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

    1.7 Macro- and micronutrients and heavy metals induce changes in polyphenols

    1.8 The application of electricity as a new approach in the horticultural sector

    Chapter 2 Plant Polyphenol Profiles as a Tool for Traceability and Valuable Support to Biodiversity

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Traceability: definition, importance and state of the art in the area concerned

    2.3 Traceability markers

    2.4 Polyphenols as traceability markers

    2.5 Examples of the use of polyphenols as markers

    2.6 Concluding remarks

    Section 1A Stress and Polyphenols in Plants

    Chapter 3 Phenolic Compounds and Saponins in Plants Grown Under Different Irrigation Regimes

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Secondary metabolites: phenolic compounds and saponins

    3.3 Factors that influence plants’ secondary metabolism

    3.4 Influence of the irrigation regimes on secondary metabolites

    3.5 Concluding remarks

    Chapter 4 Lichen Phenolics: Environmental Effects

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Effects of environmental factors on the production of lichen phenolics

    4.3 Role of photobionts in phenolics production

    4.4 Conclusions

    Section 1B Plant systems of polyphenol modification

    Chapter 5 Modulation of Plant Endogenous Antioxidant Systems by Polyphenols

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Plant oxidative stress

    5.3 Antioxidant defense system

    5.4 Polyphenol properties

    5.5 Concluding remarks

    Chapter 6 Plant Polyphenols: Do They Control Freshwater Planktonic Nuisance Phototrophs?

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Role of ambient pH

    6.3 Physiological state of the phototrophs

    6.4 Action of allelochemicals other than polyphenols

    6.5 Modes of action in Microcystis aeruginosa

    6.6 Conclusion from an ecological perspective

    Associated content

    Part 2 Isolation and Analysis of Polyphenol Structure

    Section 2A Analysis Techniques for Polyphenols

    Chapter 7 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Polyphenols in Foods

    7.1 Polyphenolic compounds

    7.2 Polyphenolic compounds in foods

    7.3 Methods for determining polyphenols

    7.4 Determination of polyphenols by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derivatization reactions

    7.5 Sample preparation techniques

    7.6 Miniaturized techniques for sample preparation in GC-MS

    Chapter 8 Novel Techniques Towards the Identification of Different Classes of Polyphenols

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Sample treatment and extraction

    8.3 High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    8.4 Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and direct flow injection mass spectrometry

    8.5 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

    8.6 Liquid chromatography coupled to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LC-NMR)

    8.7 Other methods

    Chapter 9 Characterization of Polyphenolic Profile of Citrus Fruit by HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS-MS

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Polyphenolic compounds in citrus cultivars

    9.3 HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS-MS identification of citrus flavonoids

    Section 2B Isolation and Extraction Techniques

    Chapter 10 Non-Extractable Polyphenols in Plant Foods: Nature, Isolation, and Analysis

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Nature of NEPP

    10.3 Isolation of NEPP

    10.4 Analysis of NEPPS

    10.5 NEPP content in plant foods

    10.6 Potential applications of NEPP

    10.7 Concluding remarks

    Chapter 11 Resin Adsorption and Ion Exchange to Recover and Fractionate Polyphenols

    11.1 Adsorption and ion exchange technology—from past to present and future applications

    11.2 Adsorbent and ion exchange materials

    11.3 Principles of adsorption and ion exchange

    11.4 Application of adsorption and ion exchange technology

    11.5 Application of adsorbent resins and ion exchangers for the recovery of bio- and techno-functional phenolic compounds from by-products of food processing

    Chapter 12 Polyphenolic Compounds from Flowers of Hibiscus: Characterization and Bioactivity

    Chapter 13 Hydrothermal Processing on Phenols and Polyphenols in Vegetables

    Part 3 Polyphenols Identification and Occurrence

    Chapter 14 Improved Characterization of Polyphenols Using Liquid Chromatography

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Sample preparation

    14.3 High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    14.4 Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)

    14.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 15 Characterization and Quantification of Polyphenols in Fruits

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Sample preparation

    15.3 Analytical methods

    Chapter 16 Determination of Polyphenols, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Capacity in Dry Seeds

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Extraction of polyphenols from seeds

    16.3 Additional extraction techniques for seed polyphenols

    16.4 Methods for quantification of total polyphenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in seeds

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 360
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: January 17, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123984913
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123979346

About the Editor

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

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