Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease

1st Edition - October 26, 2013

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  • Editors: Ronald Watson, Victor Preedy, Sherma Zibadi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123984678
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123984562

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Description

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease documents antioxidant actions of polyphenols in protection of cells and cell organelles, critical for understanding their health-promoting actions to help the dietary supplement industry. The book begins by describing the fundamentals of absorption, metabolism and bioavailability of polyphenols, as well as the effect of microbes on polyphenol structure and function and toxicity. It then examines the role of polyphenols in the treatment of chronic disease, including vascular and cardiac health, obesity and diabetes therapy, cancer treatment and prevention, and more.

Key Features

  • Explores neuronal protection by polyphenol metabolites and their application to medical care
  • Defines modulation of enzyme actions to help researchers see and study polyphenols’ mechanisms of action, leading to clinical applications
  • Includes insights on polyphenols in brain and neurological functions to apply them to the wide range of aging diseases

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, and clinical researchers interested in how the mechanisms of polyphenols contribute to the prevention and treatment of disease

Table of Contents

  • About the Editors

    List of Contributors

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Volume 1: Polyphenols in Chronic Diseases and their Mechanisms of Action

     

    Section 1: Overview of Polyphenols and Health

    Chapter 1. Polyphenols in Foods and Dietary Supplements: Role in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health

    1 Animal Models and Potential Medicinal Uses of Polyphenols

    2 Companion Animals

    3 Produce Animals

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 2. Polyphenols and Public Health

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenol Content and Sources: Role in Health and Nutrition

    3 Epidemiology of Polyphenols

    4 Application of Polyphenols in Health Promotion

    5 Governmental Regulations: Dietary Reference Intake

    6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 3. The History of Islamic Medicine at a Glance

    1 Introduction

    2 History of Islamic Medicine in the East Section of the Geographic Extent of the Islamic Civilization

    3 History of Islamic Medicine in the West Section of the Geographic Extent of the Islamic Civilization

    4 History of the Hospitals in the Islamic Civilization

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 4. Polyphenols and Their Formulations: Different Strategies to Overcome the Drawbacks Associated with Their Poor Stability and Bioavailability

    1 Introduction

    2 Stability of Polyphenols: Formulation Approaches

    3 Bioavailability of Polyphenols

    4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    1 Introduction

    2 The Distribution and Occurrence of Different Types of Phenolic Compounds in Grape

    3 Bioactivities of Phenolic Compounds from Grape

    4 Bioavailability

    5 Potential Toxicity

    6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6. The Atomic Level Interaction of Polyphenols with the Aβ Oligomer Aggregate, A Molecular Dynamic Guidance for Rational Drug Design

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenolic Compounds for Treating Alzheimer’s Disease

    3 Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    4 Free Energy Calculation in the Structure-Based Designing of Aβ Aggregation Inhibitors

    5 MD Simulation Studies of the Interaction of Polyphenols with Aβ Aggregates

    6 Prospects and Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 7. Polyphenols as Supplements in Foods and Beverages: Recent Methods, Benefits and Risks

    1 Introduction

    2 Methods for Supplement Preparation

    3 Formulations Using Polyphenols

    4 Benefits of Polyphenol Consumption: Experimental Data

    5 Noxious Activities Induced by Polyphenols: An Intriguing Issue

    6 Concluding Remarks and Future Challenges

    References

    Section 2: Polyphenols in Therapy of Obesity and Diabetes

    Section 2.1: Polyphenols and Diabetes

    Chapter 8. Anthocyanins and Diabetes Regulation

    1 Introduction

    2 Chemical Properties of Anthocyanins

    3 Dietary Anthocyanin Sources

    4 Anthocyanin Bioavailability

    5 Antidiabetic Effects of Anthocyanins and the Underlying Mechanisms

    6 Conclusion and Perspective

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 9. Influence of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols and Glycemic Responses

    3 Polyphenols and Carbohydrate Digestion/Absorption

    4 Polyphenols and Pancreatic β-Cell Function

    5 Polyphenols and Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis

    6 Polyphenols and Peripheral Glucose Uptake

    7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 10. Polyphenols in Ayurvedic Medicine and Type 2 Diabetes

    1 Introduction

    2 Components of Polyphenols

    3 Type 2 Diabetes

    4 Ayurvedic Herbal Remedies for Diabetics that Contain Polyphenols

    5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 11. Antidiabetic and Anticancer Potential of Native Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    1 Introduction

    2 Diabetes Mellitus

    3 Cancer

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Section 2.2: Polyphenols and Obesity

    Chapter 12. Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity by Dietary Polyphenols Derived from Nelumbo nucifera and Black Tea

    1 Introduction

    2 Black Tea Polyphenols

    References

    Chapter 13. Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of the Flavonoids

    1 Introduction

    2 Flavonoids as Antidiabetic Agents

    3 Flavonoids as Antihyperlipidemic Agents

    4 Flavonoids as Antioxidants

    5 Clinical Trials on Flavonoids

    6 Future Perspectives and Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 14. Dietary Quercetin and other Polyphenols: Attenuation of Obesity

    1 Introduction

    2 Dietary Patterns Related to Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    3 Tea

    4 Quercetin

    5 Resveratrol

    6 Other Polyphenols

    7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 15. Role of Protocatechuic Acid in Obesity-Related Pathologies

    1 Introduction

    2 Protocatechuic Acid: Food Content and Bioavailability

    3 Obesity: A Global Challenge

    4 Mechanism of Action of PCA

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 16. Food and Supplement Polyphenol Action in Cancer Recurrence

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols and Food and Supplements

    3 Polyphenols and Cancer

    4 Cancer Recurrences

    5 Diet and Recurrence

    6 Polyphenols and Cancer Recurrence

    7 Conclusion

    References

    Section 3: Oxidation and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols

    Section 3.1: Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Health Promotion

    Chapter 17. Implications of Polyphenols on Endogenous Antioxidant Defense Systems in Human Diseases

    1 Introduction

    2 Overview of Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant Defense System

    3 Oxidative Stress-Mediated Human Diseases and the Beneficial Effects of Polyphenols

    4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 18. Potent Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Flavonoids in the Nutrient-Rich Amazonian Palm Fruit, Açaí (Euterpe spp.)

    1 Introduction

    2 Açaí Fruit Composition

    3 Nutritional Composition

    4 Phytochemical Composition

    5 Other Constituents

    6 Açaí Seed Extract

    7 Açaí Oil

    8 Total Polyphenol and Anthocyanin Content

    9 Bioactive Compounds

    10 Antioxidant Capacity of Açaí and Açaí Constituents

    11 Açaí Anthocyanin Stability

    12 Safety Studies

    13 In Vivo Studies of Açaí Polyphenols

    References

    Chapter 19. Dark Chocolate/Cocoa Polyphenols and Oxidative Stress

    1 Introduction

    2 Antioxidant Properties

    3 Bioavailability

    4 Research on Cocoa and Oxidative Stress

    5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 20. Polyphenol Antioxidants from Natural Sources and Contribution to Health Promotion

    1 Introduction

    2 Plant Material Containing Polyphenols—Our Experience

    3 Antioxidant Capacity of Natural Sources Rich in Polyphenols, and Isolated Phenolic Compounds

    4 Benefits of Polyphenols Antioxidant Properties in Human Diseases—Health Promotion

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 21. Antioxidant Role of Catechin in Health and Disease

    1 Introduction

    2 Antioxidant Action of Green Tea Catechin

    3 Toxicity and Drug Interaction

    4 Summary Points

    References

    Section 3.2: Mechanisms of Polyphenols’ Antioxidant Effects

    Chapter 22. Cytoprotective Effects of Polyphenols against Oxidative Damage

    1 Introduction and General Considerations

    2 Methods of Study in Vitro

    3 Methods of Study in Vivo

    4 Activities of the Different Polyphenols

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 23. The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress

    1 Introduction

    2 Cytoprotective Proteins (Phase 2 Enzymes)

    3 Induction of Cytoprotective Proteins

    4 Direct and Indirect Antioxidants and their Role in Protection Against Oxidative Stress

    5 Polyphenol and Polyphenol-Derived Inducers of Cytoprotective Proteins (Indirect Antioxidant Effect)

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 24. Polyphenols and Low Iron Bioavailability

    1 Introduction

    2 Negative and Positive Health Impacts of Polyphenol Iron Complex Formation

    3 Tools to Measure the Impact of Polyphenols and other Inhibitors and Enhancers on Iron Bioavailability

    4 Iron Isotope Studies Measuring the Impact of Polyphenols on Human Iron Absorption

    5 Recent Caco-2 Cell Studies on the Inhibition Mechanism

    6 The Nature of Iron Polyphenol Complexes

    7 Compounds Influencing the Polyphenol:Iron Complex Formation

    8 Approaches to Counteract the Negative Effect of Polyphenols on Iron Absorption

    References

    Chapter 25. Galloylation and Polymerization: Role of Structure to Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Lipid Systems

    1 Introduction

    2 Role of Polymerization and Galloylation in the Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols: in Vitro Assays to Evaluate their Antioxidant Mechanisms

    3 Role of Polymerization and Galloylation in the Redox Interaction with CO-Antioxidants

    4 Redox Interaction of Polyphenols with Oxidants

    5 Role of Polymerization and Galloylation in the Antioxidant Activity in Lipid Model Systems

    References

    Chapter 26. Chemical Properties, Bioavailability, and Metabolomics of Fruit Proanthocyanidins

    1 Introduction

    2 Chemistry of Proanthocyanidins

    3 Bioavailability of Proanthocyanidins

    4 Metabolomics of Proanthocyanidins

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 4: Polyphenols in Brain and Neurobiology Health

    Section 4.1: Mechanisms of Polyphenols in Neurobiology

    Chapter 27. Plant Polyphenols as Dietary Modulators of Brain Functions

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols Bioavailability and Bioaccesibility to the Brain

    3 Effects of Polyphenols on the Brain

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Section 5: Inflammation and Polyphenols

    Chapter 28. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polyphenols on Dendritic Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells

    3 Modulation of DC Activation and Function by Polyphenols

    4 Future Perspectives

    Ackowledgments

    References

    Chapter 29. Polyphenols Suppress and Modulate Inflammation: Possible Roles in Health and Disease

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenol Effects on Inflammation-Mediated Diseases

    3 Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyphenols: Evidence from Human Studies

    4 Effects on Cellular Redox System

    5 Effects on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    6 Effects on Nitric Oxide Synthase

    7 Effects on Proinflammatory Molecules

    8 Effects on Inflammatory Gene Expression

    9 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 30. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cinnamon Polyphenols and their Monomeric Precursors

    1 Introduction

    2 Cinnamon, a Medicinal Spice

    3 Polyphenols, their Monomeric Precursors and Inflammation

    4 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cinnamon Extracts

    5 Cinnamon Polyphenols and their Monomeric Precursors

    6 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cinnamon Polyphenols

    7 Anti-inflammatory Activity of Monomeric Precursors

    8 Anti-inflammatory Activity of Other Cinnamon Phenolics

    9 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 31. Polyphenols in the Prevention of Acute Pancreatitis: Preclinical Observations

    1 Introduction

    2 Curcumin

    3 Resveratrol

    4 Quercetin

    5 Genistein

    6 Ellagic Acid

    7 Cinnamtannin B-1

    8 Green Tea Polyphenols

    9 Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 32. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Properties of Dietary Flavonoids

    1 Introduction

    2 In Vitro and Animal Studies

    3 Human Studies

    References

    Chapter 33. Immunomodulatory Ethnobotanicals of the Great Lakes

    1 Introduction

    2 Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    3 The Great Lakes

    4 Bioactive Compounds: Polyphenols

    5 Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity

    6 Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    7 Antimicrobial Activity

    8 Antioxidant Activity

    9 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 34. Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre and Inflammation

    1 Introduction

    2 Pongamia pinnata and Inflammatory Activity

    3 Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 35. Polyphenol-Mediated Beneficial Effects in Healthy Status and Disease with Special Reference to Immune-Based Mechanisms

    1 Introduction

    2 Bioavailability

    3 Receptors for Polyphenols

    4 Red Wine Polyphenol-Mediated Protective Effects

    5 Effects of Natural Products Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria

    6 Effects of Polyphenols on Intestinal Microbiota

    7 Future Trends

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 5.1: Bioavailability and Effects on Metabolism

    Chapter 36. Using Recombinant Microorganisms for the Synthesis and Modification of Flavonoids and Stilbenes

    1 Introduction

    2 Biosynthesis of Flavonoids and Stilbenes

    3 Recombinant Microbes

    4 Significance of Flavonoids and Stilbenes in Human Health and Disease

    5 Current Techniques Using Recombinant Microbes for the Production of Flavonoids and Stilbenes

    6 Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 37. Bioavailability of Flavonoids: The Role of Cell Membrane Transporters

    1 Introduction

    2 Principles of Membrane Transport

    3 Indirect Evidence Supporting the Existence of Flavonoid Membrane Transporters

    4 Anatomical Distribution of Flavonoid-Related Membrane Transporters

    5 Issues Related to the Low Bioavailability of Flavonoids

    6 Transporter-Based Flavonoid-Drug Interactions

    7 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    Author Contributions

    References

    Chapter 38. Microorganism Metabolic Activity Stimulation by Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Metabolic Interactions of Microorganisms With Phenolic Compounds

    3 Polyphenolic Compounds Biosorption on the Cell Surface of Microorganisms

    4 Future Prospects

    References

    Chapter 39. Interaction of Polyphenols with the Intestinal and Placental Absorption of some Nutrients and other Compounds

    1 Introduction

    2 Effect of Polyphenols on the Transport of 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium

    3 Effect of Polyphenols on the Transport of Folates

    4 Effect of Polyphenols on the Transport of Thiamine

    5 Effect of Polyphenols on the Transport of Glucose

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 40. Bioavailability and Metabolism of Citrus Fruit Beverage Flavanones in Humans

    1 Introduction

    2 Flavanone Composition of Citrus Fruits and Juices and Dietary Intake

    3 Antioxidant Potential of Citrus Juices

    4 Human Health Benefits of Citrus Flavanones

    5 Metabolism and Absorption

    6 Citrus Flavanone Bioavailability in Human Intervention Studies

    7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 41. Uptake and Metabolism of Dietary Proanthocyanidins

    1 Introduction

    2 Uptake and Metabolism

    3 Microbial Metabolism

    4 Conclusions and Future Prospectus

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 42. Bioavailability of Dietary Anthocyanins and Hydroxycinnamic Acids

    1 Introduction

    2 In Vivo Bioavailability of Anthocyanins

    3 In Vivo Bioavailability of Hydroxycinnamic Acids

    4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 43. Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols and Health

    1 Introduction

    2 Dietary Intake of Polyphenols

    3 Absorption, Metabolism and Bioavailability of Polyphenols

    4 Metabolism of Polyphenols by the Gut Microbiota

    5 Enzymes in the Metabolism of Polyphenols

    6 Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Polyphenols

    7 Health Benefits of Polyphenols and Their Microbial Metabolites

    8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 44. The Impact of Gastrointestinal Modifications, Blood-Brain Barrier Transport, and Intracellular Metabolism on Polyphenol Bioavailability: An Overview

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenol Bioavailability

    3 Metabolism in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    4 The Colonic Metabolism

    5 Intracellular Metabolism

    6 Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    7 Conclusion

    References

    Section 5.2: Polyphenolic Regulation of Metabolism

    Chapter 45. Polyphenols from Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre in Metabolic Disorder

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols in Pongamia pinnata

    3 Polyphenols from Pongamia pinnata and their Application in Metabolic Disorder

    4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 46. Garlic (Allium sativum): Role in Metabolic Disorder

    1 Introduction

    2 Botanical Description

    3 Role of Garlic in Metabolic Disorders

    References

    Chapter 47. Polyphenols and Flavonoids in Controlling Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    1 Introduction

    2 NASH: Onset, Progression and Pathogenesis

    3 Available Treatment Options

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 48. Modulation of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption by Dietary Tea Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Green Tea Catechins and Black Tea Theaflavins

    3 Green and Black Tea Consumption: Observational and Interventional Studies

    4 Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Green Tea Catechins and Black Tea Theaflavins as Inhibitors of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    5 Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    6 Green Tea Catechins and Black Tea Theaflavins as Inhibitors of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption: Mechanisms of Their Inhibitory Effects on Cholesterol Absorption

    References

    Section 6: Diverse Disease and Physiological States Modified by Polyphenols

    Section 6.1: Polyphenols in Clinical Medicine

    Chapter 49. Polyphenols and Skin Cancers

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols: Types and Dietary Sources

    3 Factors Affecting Availability of Polyphenols in Diet

    4 Dietary Intake and Metabolism of Polyphenols

    5 Overview of Skin Cancers

    6 Polyphenols and Skin Cancer

    7 Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 50. Polyphenols in the Prevention of Ulcerative Colitis: Past, Present and Future

    1 Introduction

    2 Curcumin the Active Component of Turmeric

    3 Resveratrol

    4 Quercetin

    5 Kaempferol

    6 Ellagic Acid

    7 Rutoside or Rutin

    8 Green Tea Polyphenols in Colitis

    9 Grape Seed Polyphenols

    10 Silymarin

    11 Polyphenols in Apples

    12 Cocoa

    13 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 51. Protection and Reversal of Hepatic Fibrosis by Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Liver Fibrosis

    3 Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis in Animal Models

    4 Therapeutic Approaches to Hepatic Fibrosis Using Polyphenols in Animal Models

    5 Impact of Polyphenols in Clinical Trials

    References

    Chapter 52. Green Tea and other Fruit Polyphenols Attenuate Deterioration of Bone Microarchitecture

    1 Introduction

    2 Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling and Modeling

    3 Impact of Ros on Development of Osteoporosis

    4 Green Tea Polyphenols

    5 Dried Plum Polyphenols

    6 Citrus Flavonoids

    7 Berry Fruits

    8 Resveratrol and Piceatannol

    9 Apple Polyphenols

    10 Possible Molecular Mechanisms on Bone Metabolism and Microstructure

    11 Summary and Future Studies

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 53. Polyphenolics Evoke Healing Responses: Clinical Evidence and Role of Predictive Biomarkers

    1 Introduction

    2 Flavonoids and Flavonols

    3 Measurements of Antioxidant Capacity

    4 Quercetins

    5 Synergistic Polyphenols: Quercetin Dihydrate and Soluble Orthoproanthocyanidin (sOPC)

    6 Orthoproanthocyanidins (Soluble OPC)

    7 Ellagic Acid Content: Pomegranate Juice

    8 Clinical Considerations: Whole Fruit and Fruit Juice

    9 Predictive Biomarkers Referenced to Goal Values

    10 Conclusions

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 54. Polyphenols and Reproductive Health

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols and the Male Reproductive Function

    3 Polyphenols and Female Reproductive Function

    References

    Chapter 55. Hepatoprotective Effects of Green Tea and its Polyphenols: Preclinical Observations

    1 Introduction

    2 Green Tea and Its Polyphenols as Hepatoprotective Agents

    3 Phytochemistry of Tea

    4 Validated Uses

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 56. Polyphenols and Tuberculosis

    1 Introduction

    2 Dietary Sources

    3 Tuberculosis

    4 Role of Polyphenols on Tuberculosis

    References

    Chapter 57. Protection by Polyphenols Against Mitochondrial Damage and Cytotoxicity

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols Modulate Cell Signaling as a Mechanism of Cell and Mitochondrial Protection

    3 Mitochondrial and Cell Protection by Polyphenols in Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R)

    4 Mitochondrial and Cell Protection Induced by Polyphenols in the Brain

    5 Mitochondrial and Cytoprotection Induced by Polyphenols in Radiation Damage

    6 Polyphenols Repair the Dna-Ho Adduct: a Novel Mechanism of Cytoprotection

    7 Mitochondrial and Cell Protection Induced by Other Polyphenols or Extracts Containing Polyphenols in Different Oxidant-Induced Injuries

    8 Mitochondrial and Cytoprotection Induced by Polyphenols in Heavy Metal- and Drug-Induced Damage

    9 Ambivalent Character of Polyphenols

    References

    Chapter 58. Safety of High and Long-term Intake of Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Apple Polyphenols, and the History of Eating

    3 Safety of Apple Polyphenols

    4 Hop Bract Polyphenols and their History

    5 Safety of Hop Bract Polyphenols

    6 Safety of Polyphenols

    7 Discussion

    References

    Chapter 59. Polyphenols in Health and Disease: Practice and Mechanisms of Benefits

    1 Introduction

    2 Scientific and Mechanistic Basis of Polyphenol Biological Action

    3 Nutritional Value of Polyphenols in Foods

    4 Mechanisms of Polyphenol Conjugation, Transport and Action

    5 Evidence-Based Value of Polyphenols in Human Disease Prevention

    6 Guide to Physicians, Nurses and Social Workers

    7 Future Directions

    8 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 60. Curcumin/Turmeric as an Environment-friendly Stain for Proteins on Acrylamide Gels

    1 Introduction

    2 Materials and Methods

    3 Results and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 61. Turmeric and its Principle Compound Curcumin are Effective in the Prevention and Treatment of Arthritis

    1 Introduction

    2 Plants in Arthritis

    3 Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn) in Arthritis

    4 Turmeric/Curcumin as an Effective Anti-Arthritic Agent

    5 Mechanism of Action

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Section 6.2: Polyphenols and Skin

    Chapter 62. Polyphenols and Polyphenol-Derived Compounds and Contact Dermatitis

    1 Introduction

    2 Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    3 Photocontact Dermatitis

    4 Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    5 Inhibition of Skin Inflammation and Contact Dermatitis by Polyphenols

    References

    Chapter 63. Polyphenols against Skin Aging

    1 Introduction

    2 Polyphenols Benefits on Skin Aging: An Overview

    3 Polyphenols with Potential Benefits in Anti-Aging Process

    4 Other Polyphenols with Potential Anti-Aging Capacity: Emerging Studies

    5 Polyphenols Extracts: May the Rings Make the Difference to Fight Aging?

    6 Other Polyphenol Extracts with Potential Anti-Aging Capacity: Emerging Studies

    7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 64. Skin Photoprotection by Polyphenols in Animal Models and Humans

    1 Introduction

    2 Skin PhotoProtective Effects of Polyphenols: An Overview

    3 Animal Studies Demonstrating Skin Photoprotective Effects of Polyphenols

    4 Human Studies Demonstrating Skin PhotoProtective Effects of Polyphenols

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 65. Polyphenols Nano-Formulations for Topical Delivery and Skin Tissue Engineering

    1 Introduction

    2 Skin Applications of Polyphenols in their Bulk Form

    3 Skin Applications of Polyphenol Nano-Formulations: Enhancing Benefits?

    4 (Nano-)Polyphenols: Potential for Tissue Inflammation and Repair?

    5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 66. Studying Tea Polyphenols and Their Protective Effects on Skin

    1 Introduction

    2 Tea Chemistry

    3 Tea and Human Health

    4 Skin Damage by Ultraviolet Radiation

    5 Oral Consumption and Topical Application of Tea Polyphenols

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 67. Polyphenols: A Remedy for Skin Wrinkles

    1 Introduction

    2 Causes of Skin Wrinkling

    3 Mechanism of Skin Wrinkling

    4 Evaluation of Wrinkles

    5 Mechanism of Action of Polyphenols

    6 Herbal Polyphenols

    References

    Volume 2: Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Vascular and Cardiac Disease, and Cancer

     

    Section 7: Polyphenols and Vascular Health

    Section 7.1: Vascular Endothelial Protection of Polyphenols

    Chapter 68. Vascular Protective Effects of Fruit Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Fruit Phenolic Compounds: Generalities

    3 Vascular Action of Fruit Phenolic Compounds

    4 Potential Mechanisms Involved in the Vascular Health Benefits of Polyphenols

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 69. Atherosclerosis and Mediterranean Diet Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and the Oxidative Stress Hypothesis

    3 Atherosclerosis as an Inflammatory Disease: Role of the Endothelium

    4 Dietary Components of Mediterranean Diets and CHD: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    5 Mediterranean Diet Phytochemicals: Chemical Properties

    6 Endothelial Adhesion Molecules and Olive Oil Phytochemicals

    7 Olive Oil Phytochemicals and Metalloproteinases

    8 Mediterranean Diet Phytochemicals and their Mechanisms of Action: Intracellular Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species and Cellular Activation

    9 Human Evidence of Antiatherosclerotic Properties by Olive Oil Phytochemicals

    10 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 70. Polyphenol Modulation of Blood Flow and Oxygenation

    1 Introduction

    2 Mechanisms of Polyphenol-Induced Modulation of Blood Flow

    3 Outcomes of Polyphenol-Induced Modulation of Blood Flow

    4 Mechanisms and Outcomes of Polyphenol-Induced Modulation of Oxygenation

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 71. Flax Lignan in the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases

    1 Introduction

    2 Flaxseed Lignans

    3 Phenolic and Other Acids

    4 Reported Extraction and Isolation Methods of SDG Lignan from Flaxseed

    5 Antioxidant Activity

    6 Anti-ATherosclerotic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity

    7 Clinical Studies

    8 Toxicity

    9 Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 72. Anthocyanins in Vascular Diseases

    1 Introduction

    2 Chemistry and Sources of Anthocyanins

    3 Anthocyanin Effects on Endothelium

    4 Conclusions

    References

    Section 8: Cardiac Health and Polyphenols

    Section 8.1: Polyphenolic Cardiac Modification

    Chapter 73. Pharmacology of Polyphenols in Cardiac Remodeling: Potential Biological Mechanisms

    1 Introduction

    2 Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure

    3 Beneficial Effects of Polyphenols in Cardiac Remodeling

    4 Potential Mechanisms of the Protective Effects of Polyphenols on Cardiac Remodeling

    5 Regulation of the Endogenous Protective Factors by Polyphenols

    6 Polyphenols and Autophagy in Cardiac Myocytes

    7 Polyphenols and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cardiac Remodeling

    8 Synthetic Polyphenols as Potential Therapeutic Agents in Cardiac Remodeling

    9 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 74. Cacao Polyphenols Influence the Regulation of Apolipoproteins

    1 Introduction

    2 Risk reduction of Cacao Polyphenols on the Metabolic Syndrome

    3 Importance of Apolipoprotein Measurements

    4 Influence of Chocolate Consumption on APOB/APO A1 Ratio in Clinical Trials

    5 Regulation of Plasma Apolipoprotein Levels by Cacao Polyphenols

    References

    Chapter 75. Polyphenol Consumption and Blood Pressure

    1 Introduction

    2 General Chemistry and Classification of Polyphenols

    3 Absorption, Metabolism and Bioavailability of Polyphenols

    4 Epidemiological Studies on Polyphenol Intake and Blood Pressure

    5 Biomarkers of Total Polyphenol Intake

    6 Plausible Mechanisms of Action

    7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 76. Cardiovascular Effects of Hesperidin: A Flavanone Glycoside

    1 Introduction

    2 Cardiovascular Effects of Hesperidin

    3 Toxicity Study

    4 Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 77. Wine Polyphenols in the Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    1 Introduction

    2 Wine Polyphenols: Cardioprotective Effect

    3 Clinical Evidence of Beneficial Effects of Wine Polyphenols on the Cardiovascular System

    4 Drinking Pattern According to Gender and Cultural Differences

    5 Toxic Effects of Alcoholic Fraction of Wine

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Section 8.2: Polyphenol in Treatment and Prevention of Cardiac Disease

    Chapter 78. Cocoa, Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Protection

    1 Introduction

    2 Cocoa and Flavonoids

    3 Cocoa, Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Protection: The Epidemiology

    4 Cocoa and Flavonoids

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 79. Emerging Applications of Metabolomics to Polyphenols and CVD Biomarker Discovery

    1 Introduction

    2 Metabolomics and Biomarkers Discovery

    3 Nutrimetabolomics and Biomarkers of Polyphenol Exposure

    4 Recent Applications of Metabolomics in CVD Risk Assessment

    5 Intermediate Biomarkers of CVD Risk Related to Diet Exposure

    6 Conclusions and Future Challenges

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 80. Role of Gallic Acid in Cardiovascular Disorders

    1 Introduction

    2 Cardiovascular Effects of Gallic Acid

    3 Toxicity Study

    4 Summary Points

    References

    Chapter 81. Cranberry Polyphenols: Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    1 Introduction

    2 Cranberry Polyphenols

    3 Total Phenolic Content of Cranberry Products

    4 In Vitro Antioxidant Capacity and Cranberry Composition

    5 Bioavailability in Plasma and Urine

    6 Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Health

    7 Cranberry Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Health

    8 Summary

    References

    Chapter 82. Polyphenols and Cardiometabolic Syndrome

    1 Introduction

    2 Dietary Sources of Polyphenols

    3 Consumption of Polyphenols

    4 Effect of Polyphenols on Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 83. Cocoa Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Health

    1 Introduction

    2 Cocoa Chemistry

    3 Cocoa and Health

    4 Cocoa Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Health

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 84. The Use of Bergamot-Derived Polyphenol Fraction in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention and its Possible Mechanisms of Action

    1 Introduction

    2 Chemical and Functional Characterizations of Bergamot Flavonoids

    3 Pharmacological Effects of Bergamot Polyphenol Fraction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    4 Statin Therapy and BPF

    5 Possible Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Bergamot Polyphenols

    6 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 85. Fruit Polyphenols and Postprandial Inflammatory Stress

    1 Introduction

    2 Classification and Source of Fruit Polyphenols

    3 Metabolic Fate of Fruit Polyphenols

    4 Postprandial State

    5 Effect of Fruit PP on the Modulation of Postprandial Inflammatory Stress

    6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 86. Modulation of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters by Polyphenols as an Anticarcinogenic Effect

    1 Introduction

    2 Involvement of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Carcinogenicity

    3 Modulation of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes by Polyphenols

    4 Modulation of Transporters by Polyphenols

    5 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 9: Cancer Prevention and Treatment of Polyphenols

    Section 9.1: Mechanisms of Polyphenol Modulation of Cancer

    Chapter 87. Polyphenol-Mediated In Vivo Cellular Responses during Carcinogenesis

    1 Introduction

    2 Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention

    3 Polyphenols: Classes, SubClasses and Bioavailability

    4 Mechanism(S) of Chemopreventive Actions of Polyphenols

    5 Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 88. Preventive Effects of Plant Polyphenols in the Promotion of Mammary Cancer and Testicular Damage Induced by Alcohol Drinking

    1 Introduction

    2 Alcohol Drinking, Mammary Cancer, Testicular Damage, Acetaldehyde Production and Promotion of Oxidative Stress

    3 Plant Polyphenols and Alcohol Drinking-Promoted Mammary Cancer

    4 Alcohol Drinking and Harmful Effects on the Testes

    5 Polyphenols and Alcohol Drinking Deleterious Effects in Testes

    6 Concluding Remarks and Future Needs

    References

    Chapter 89. Antioxidant and Pro-Oxidant Activities of Green Tea Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention

    1 Introduction

    2 Direct Antioxidant Effects of Tea Polyphenols

    3 Direct Pro-Oxidant Effects of Tea Polyphenols

    4 Indirect Antioxidant Effects of Tea Polyphenols

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 90. Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Polyphenols: Role for Epigenetics and Inflammation

    1 Introduction

    2 General Principles of Epigenetic Mechanisms

    3 The Important Role of Diet and Environment on Epigenetics

    4 Inflammation, a Central Player in Diverse Chronic Diseases Including Cancer

    5 The Crucial Role of Nf-κb in Inflammatory Responses

    6 Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Epigenetics

    7 The Role of Dietary Polyphenols in Chemoprevention by Reversing Epigenetic Alterations and Inflammation

    8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 91. Polyphenols in Prostate Cancer

    1 Introduction

    2 Resveratrol

    3 Green Tea

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 92. Modifying Effects of Polyphenols on Acute Colitis and Inflammation-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis

    1 Introduction

    2 Experimental IBD Models

    3 Pro-Inflammatory Mediators in IBD

    4 Colorectal Cancer

    5 Rutin, but not Quercetin, Ameliorated DSS-Induced Colitis

    6 Modifying Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols on DSS-Induced Colitis

    7 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 93. Bioavailability of Soy-Derived Isoflavones and Human Breast Cancer

    1 Introduction

    2 Endogenous Estrogens

    3 Soy-Derived Isoflavones

    4 Soy-Breast Cancer Hypothesis

    5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 94. Biological Activity of Resveratrol on an Ovarian Cancer Cell

    1 Introduction

    2 Ovarian Cancer Treatment and Resveratrol Therapeutic Potential

    3 Ovarian Cancer Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Resveratrol

    4 Regulatory Function of Resveratrol on Ovarian Cancer Cell Cycle and Transcriptional Factors

    5 Glucose Metabolism in Ovarian Cancer Cell and Resveratrol

    6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 95. Resveratrol Inhibitory Effects against a Malignant Tumor: A Molecular Introductory Review

    1 Introduction

    2 Cancer Cell Characterization Through Resveratrol Activity

    3 Malignant Tumor Structure, Microenvironment and Resveratrol

    4 Genomics: A Practical Approach Associated With Resveratrol

    5 Regulation of the Cell Cycle and Transcription Factors by Resveratrol

    6 Cell Cytoskeleton and Migration Implemented by Resveratrol

    7 Apoptosis Induced by Resveratrol

    8 Anticancer Sensitization Effects of Resveratrol

    9 Resveratrol as Phytoestrogen

    10 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 96. Inhibition of Iron Absorption by Polyphenols as an Anticancer Mechanism

    1 Introduction

    2 Iron Metabolism and Cancerogenesis

    3 Interaction Between Dietary Iron and Polyphenols

    4 Iron Reduction and Cancer Mortality in Randomized Trials

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Section 9.2: Cancer Prevention by Polyphenols

    Chapter 97. Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents

    1 Introduction

    2 Carcinogenesis and Mechanisms of Chemopreventive Activity

    3 Chemoprevention Research: Methods

    4 Sources Of Polyphenols in Human Diet

    5 Selected Polyphenols with Chemopreventive Potential

    6 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 98. Cancer Preventive Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Impact of Green Tea on Various Cancers

    3 GTP Bioavailability

    4 Intake Recommendations and Interactions with Drug Therapies

    5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 99. Cancer Chemoprevention by Resveratrol Treatment

    1 Introduction

    2 Challenges and Perspectives of Chemoprevention as Part of Prevention

    3 Dietary Compounds and Resveratrol Can Offer Chemopreventive Effects

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 100. Polyphenols and Breast Cancer Prevention: A Summary of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    1 Introduction

    2 Human Consumption of Plant Food Phenols

    3 Breast Cancer Risk Related to Different Categories of Polyphenols

    4 Breast Cancer Risk Related to Polyphenol-Containing Beverages

    5 Biomarker Studies

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 101. Most Relevant Polyphenols Present in the Mediterranean Diet and Their Incidence in Cancer Diseases

    1 Introduction

    2 Regulating Cell Cycle Progression

    3 Induction of Apoptosis

    4 Inhibition of Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis

    References

    Chapter 102. BRAF Mutation in Melanoma and Dietary Polyphenols as Adjunctive Treatment Strategy

    1 Introduction

    2 Molecular Features of Melanoma Progression

    3 Types of Melanoma

    4 Typical Treatments for Melanoma

    5 BRAF Mutations and Occurrence of Melanoma

    6 BRAF V600E is a Powerful Driver of Advanced Melanomagenesis

    7 BRAF V600E Mutation is a Reasonable Therapeutic Target in Advanced Melanoma

    8 Resistance to BRAF V600E Mutation Inhibitors

    9 Dietary Polyphenols Offer Adjunctive, Complementary Treatment Potential to Overcome Resistance to BRAF V600E Mutation in Melanoma

    10 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 103. Radioprotective Effects of the Ocimum Flavonoids Orientin and Vicenin: Observations from Preclinical Studies

    1 Introduction

    2 History of Chemical Radioprotection

    3 Plants as Radioprotective Agents with Emphasis on Ocimum Sanctum (Holy Basil)

    4 Tulsi as a Radioprotective Agent

    5 Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 104. Apple Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention

    1 Introduction

    2 Apoptosis Activity of Apple Polyphenols In Vitro

    3 AntiTumor Activity of Proanthocyanidins

    4 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 105. DNA Methylation as a Target of Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Polyphenols

    1 Introduction

    2 Green Tea Polyphenols

    3 Soy Isoflavones

    4 Curcuminoids

    5 Isothiocyanates

    6 Stilbene Derivatives

    7 Phenolic Acids

    8 Other Dietary Polyphenols

    9 Possible Mechanisms of Polyphenols Action on DNA Methylation

    10 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 106. Punica granatum (Pomegranate Fruit): In Cancer Treatment

    1 Introduction

    2 Uses for the Pomegranate

    3 Phytoconstituents

    4 Traditional Uses

    5 Cancer

    6 Pomegranate, Polyphenols and Cancer

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1488
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: October 26, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123984678
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123984562

About the Editors

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, at King’s College London and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry (Hon) at King’s College Hospital. He was the long-term Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London from 2006 to 2020. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof. Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in dietary and plant-based components. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, King’s College London; Professor, King’s College Hospital, London, UK

Sherma Zibadi

Dr. Sherma Zibadi received her Ph.D. in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Arizona. Her medical degree and training were done at the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. She then completed her post-doctoral research fellowship awarded by the American Heart Association where her research involved cardiology and complementary medicine studies. Her research has involved maladaptive cardiac remodeling process, which helps to identify new targets for treatment of heart failure. Dr. Zibadi’s research interest also extends into foods as medicines, exploring the preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary supplements on heart failure and its major risk factors in both basic animal and clinical studies, translating lab research findings into clinical practice. Dr. Zibadi is an author of more than 35 research papers in peer reviewed journals. She has been an editor on 8 scientific books like this one being proposed. She has edited on a variety of clinical topics: breast milk, bottle feeding, wheat and rice in health, polyphenols and health, omega 3 fatty acids, dietary supplements in immune modulation, and dietary fat and health. She and Dr. Watson have collaborated extensively on both laboratory research and editing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Research Associate of Public Health, Department of Pathology, University of South Florida Medical School, Tampa, USA

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