Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference

Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference

1st Edition - June 2, 2012
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors-in-Chief: Martin Moeller, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080878621
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444533494

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF, EPub, Mobi)
Delivery may take up to 10 days
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

The progress in polymer science is revealed in the chapters of Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, Ten Volume Set. In Volume 1, this is reflected in the improved understanding of the properties of polymers in solution, in bulk and in confined situations such as in thin films. Volume 2 addresses new characterization techniques, such as high resolution optical microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and other procedures for surface and interface characterization. Volume 3 presents the great progress achieved in precise synthetic polymerization techniques for vinyl monomers to control macromolecular architecture: the development of metallocene and post-metallocene catalysis for olefin polymerization, new ionic polymerization procedures, and atom transfer radical polymerization, nitroxide mediated polymerization, and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer systems as the most often used controlled/living radical polymerization methods. Volume 4 is devoted to kinetics, mechanisms and applications of ring opening polymerization of heterocyclic monomers and cycloolefins (ROMP), as well as to various less common polymerization techniques. Polycondensation and non-chain polymerizations, including dendrimer synthesis and various "click" procedures, are covered in Volume 5. Volume 6 focuses on several aspects of controlled macromolecular architectures and soft nano-objects including hybrids and bioconjugates. Many of the achievements would have not been possible without new characterization techniques like AFM that allowed direct imaging of single molecules and nano-objects with a precision available only recently. An entirely new aspect in polymer science is based on the combination of bottom-up methods such as polymer synthesis and molecularly programmed self-assembly with top-down structuring such as lithography and surface templating, as presented in Volume 7. It encompasses polymer and nanoparticle assembly in bulk and under confined conditions or influenced by an external field, including thin films, inorganic-organic hybrids, or nanofibers. Volume 8 expands these concepts focusing on applications in advanced technologies, e.g. in electronic industry and centers on combination with top down approach and functional properties like conductivity. Another type of functionality that is of rapidly increasing importance in polymer science is introduced in volume 9. It deals with various aspects of polymers in biology and medicine, including the response of living cells and tissue to the contact with biofunctional particles and surfaces. The last volume is devoted to the scope and potential provided by environmentally benign and green polymers, as well as energy-related polymers. They discuss new technologies needed for a sustainable economy in our world of limited resources.

Key Features

  • Provides broad and in-depth coverage of all aspects of polymer science from synthesis/polymerization, properties, and characterization methods and techniques to nanostructures, sustainability and energy, and biomedical uses of polymers
  • Provides a definitive source for those entering or researching in this area by integrating the multidisciplinary aspects of the science into one unique, up-to-date reference work
  • Electronic version has complete cross-referencing and multi-media components
  • Volume editors are world experts in their field (including a Nobel Prize winner)

Readership

The work will be suitable for graduate students and above studying the subfield of materials science concerned with polymers. It may also be applicable to chemists, chemical engineers, material scientists, polymer scientists, environmental scientists and biologists in academia and government or corporate research labs

Table of Contents

  • Editors-in-Chief

    Volume Editors

    Editors-in-Chief: Biographies

    Editors: Biographies

    Preface

    Foreword

    Permission Acknowledgments

    VOLUME 1. Basic Concepts and Polymer Properties

    1.01. Basic Concepts and Polymer Properties

    1.02. Statistical Description of Chain Molecules

    1.02.1 The Main Characteristics of Polymer Chain Structures

    1.02.2 Linear Homopolymers: Ideal Chain Models

    1.02.3 Living Polymers

    1.02.4 Systems of Ideal Polymer Chains in Confined Conditions

    1.02.5 Real Polymer Chains with Excluded-Volume Interactions

    1.02.6 Long-Range Correlation Effects in Polymer Melts

    1.02.7 Concluding Remark

    REFERENCES

    1.03. Polymer Synthesis

    1.03.1 Introduction

    1.03.2 Anionic Chain Polymerization of Styrene

    1.03.3 Radical Chain Polymerization

    1.03.4 Cationic and Metal-Catalyzed Chain Polymerizations

    1.03.5 Polymerization Thermodynamics

    1.03.6 Chain Copolymerizations

    1.03.7 Polymer Stereochemistry

    1.03.8 Ring-Opening Polymerization

    1.03.9 Step Polymerizations

    1.03.10 Nonlinear Polymers

    1.03.11 Postpolymerization Functionalization

    1.03.12 Summary

    REFERENCES

    1.04. Static and Dynamic Properties

    1.04.1 Introduction

    1.04.2 Diversity of Macromolecular Architectures

    1.04.3 Dilute Solutions of Linear-Chain Macromolecules

    1.04.4 Semidilute Solutions of Chain Macromolecules

    1.04.5 Polymer Globules and Phase Separation

    1.04.6 Solutions of Star-Branched Macromolecules

    1.04.7 Solutions of Comblike Polymers

    1.04.8 Dendritic Polymers in Solutions

    1.04.9 Randomly Branched Polymers in Solutions

    1.04.10 Solutions of Block Copolymers

    1.04.11 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    1.05. Solutions of Charged Polymers

    1.05.1 What Are Charged Polymers and Why Are They Important?

    1.05.2 A Model of Charged Chains

    1.05.3 Dilute Salt-Free Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    1.05.4 Effect of Added Salt on Chain Conformations in Dilute Solutions

    1.05.5 Semidilute Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    1.05.6 Phase Separation in Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    1.05.7 Polyampholyte Solutions

    1.05.8 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    1.06. Viscoelasticity and Molecular Rheology

    1.06.1 Introduction

    1.06.2 Experimental Techniques and Physical Observables

    1.06.3 Unentangled Polymer Models

    1.06.4 Entangled Polymer Models

    1.06.5 Summary and Outlook

    Appendix: Continuous Rouse Model

    REFERENCES

    1.07. Rubberlike Elasticity

    1.07.1 Introduction

    1.07.2 Structure of Networks

    1.07.3 Molecular Theories of Rubber Elasticity

    1.07.4 Phenomenological Theories

    1.07.5 Computer Simulations

    1.07.6 Swelling of Networks and Responsive Gels

    1.07.7 The Enthalpic Component of Rubber Elasticity

    1.07.8 Multimodal Elastomers

    1.07.9 Liquid-Crystalline Elastomers

    1.07.10 Reinforced Elastomers

    1.07.11 Characterization Techniques

    REFERENCES

    1.08. Amorphous Polymers

    1.08.1 Introduction

    1.08.2 Structure of Amorphous Polymers

    1.08.3 Dynamics of Amorphous Polymers

    1.08.4 Amorphous Polymers in Nanometer Thin Layers

    1.08.5 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    1.09. Semicrystalline Polymers

    1.09.1 Introduction

    1.09.2 Flexible-Chain Polymers

    1.09.3 Semirigid Chain Polymers

    1.09.4 Large-Scale Supramolecular Structure of Semicrystalline Polymers

    REFERENCES

    1.10. Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    1.10.1 Introduction

    1.10.2 Constitution and Structure of Low-Molecular-Mass Liquid Crystals

    1.10.3 LC Polymers: General Consideration

    1.10.4 Main-Chain LC Polymers

    1.10.5 Side-Chain LC Polymers

    1.10.6 Properties and Application of Side-Chain LC Polymers

    1.10.7 LC Dendrimers with Mesogenic Groups

    1.10.8 Liquid Crystals Dispersed in Polymers and LC Composites

    1.10.9 Miscellaneous LC Polymers

    1.10.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    1.11. Phase Segregation/Polymer Blends/Microphase Separation

    1.11.1 Phase Segregation

    1.11.2 Polymer Blends

    1.11.3 Block Copolymers

    1.11.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    1.12. Polymer/Colloid Interactions and Soft Polymer Colloids

    1.12.1 General Introduction

    1.12.2 Depletion Interaction

    1.12.3 Star Polymers as Model Soft Sphere Colloids

    1.12.4 Responsive Microgels as Model Colloids

    REFERENCES

    1.13. Polymer Gels

    1.13.1 Introduction

    1.13.2 Synthesis of Polymer Gels

    1.13.3 Subchains and Their Conformations

    1.13.4 Elasticity of Polymer Gels

    1.13.5 Peculiarities of Ion-Containing Gels

    1.13.6 Polyelectrolyte Gels

    1.13.7 Manifestation of Ionomer Behavior

    1.13.8 Responsive Gels

    1.13.9 Some Applications of Superabsorbent Gels

    1.13.10 Some Applications of Responsive Gels

    REFERENCES

    1.14. Chain Conformation and Manipulation

    1.14.1 Introduction

    1.14.2 Chain Conformation

    1.14.3 PEs at Surfaces

    1.14.4 Study of Helical Conformations by AFM

    1.14.5 Conformation of Polymer Stars

    1.14.6 Motion of Single Molecules

    1.14.7 Manipulation of Polymer Conformation in Shear Flow

    1.14.8 Nanomanipulations with AFM Tip

    1.14.9 Chemical Modification of Single Polymer Molecules

    1.14.10 Nanodevices from Single Polymer Molecules

    1.14.11 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    1.15. Polymers at Interfaces and Surfaces and in Confined Geometries

    1.15.1 Introduction

    1.15.2 Polymers at Solid Substrates

    1.15.3 Surfaces of One-Component Polymer Liquids and Wetting

    1.15.4 Inhomogeneous Polymer Blends

    1.15.5 Summary and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    1.16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations in Polymer Science

    1.16.1 Introduction

    1.16.2 What Can Molecular Dynamics Do?

    1.16.3 Philosophy of Molecular Dynamics

    1.16.4 Concepts and Methodologies

    1.16.5 Multiscale Simulations: Bridging Different Time and Length Scales

    1.16.6 Advanced Simulation Techniques

    1.16.7 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    1.17. Monte Carlo Simulations in Polymer Science

    1.17.1 Introduction: What Monte Carlo Simulations Want to Achieve

    1.17.2 Models Used in MC Simulations of Polymers

    1.17.3 General Aspects of Dynamic MC Methods

    1.17.4 Exploiting the Freedom to Choose Suitable MC Moves

    1.17.5 Other MC Methods to Simulate Models for Polymers

    1.17.6 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    1.18. General Polymer Nomenclature and Terminology

    1.18.1 Introduction

    1.18.2 A Short History

    1.18.3 Projects

    1.18.4 Examples of Most Successful Projects

    1.18.5 Final Remarks

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 2. Polymer Characterization

    2.01. Introduction and Perspectives

    2.01.1 Introduction

    2.01.2 Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    Characterization of Solutions

    2.02. Polymer Properties in Solutions

    2.02.1 Introduction

    2.02.2 Global Conformations and Statistical Properties

    2.02.3 Thermodynamic Properties

    2.02.4 Viscosity

    2.02.5 Sedimentation and Diffusion

    2.02.6 Some Topics

    REFERENCES

    Characterization by Separation Methods

    2.03. Chromatography

    2.03.1 Introduction

    2.03.2 Principles of Liquid Chromatography of Polymers

    2.03.3 Interactive Modes of Polymer Liquid Chromatography

    2.03.4 Multidetector Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    2.03.5 Coupling of Liquid Chromatography and Spectroscopic Detectors

    2.03.6 Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

    2.03.7 High-Temperature Interaction Liquid Chromatography

    REFERENCES

    2.04. Fractionation

    2.04.1 Introduction

    2.04.2 Fractionation by Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation

    2.04.3 Crystallization–Dissolution Fractionation

    2.04.4 Field-Flow Fractionation

    REFERENCES

    Characterization by Spectroscopy

    2.05. Mass Spectrometry

    2.05.1 History

    2.05.2 Principles

    2.05.3 Polymer Analysis by MALDI and ESI-TOF MS

    2.05.4 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    2.06. Solution NMR

    2.06.1 Introduction

    2.06.2 Principles of NMR

    2.06.3 Multipulse NMR Experimental Methods

    2.06.4 Applications of NMR to Polymer Structure Problems

    2.06.5 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    2.07. Solid-State NMR of Polymers

    2.07.1 Introduction

    2.07.2 Fundamentals of Solid-State NMR

    2.07.3 Polymer Applications of Solid-State NMR

    2.07.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    2.08. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

    2.08.1 Introduction

    2.08.2 Electron Spin Resonance Methods

    2.08.3 ESR Imaging

    2.08.4 Application of ESR Methods to Polymeric Systems

    2.08.5 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    2.09. Vibrational Spectroscopy

    2.09.1 Introduction

    2.09.2 Basic Principles of Vibrational Spectroscopy

    2.09.3 Vibrational Spectroscopic Interpretation of the Structure of Polymers

    2.09.4 FIR Spectroscopy and Low-Frequency Vibrations

    2.09.5 Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polymers Under External Perturbations and in Combination with Other Measurement Techniques

    2.09.6 Reaction Monitoring and Process Control by Vibrational Spectroscopy

    2.09.7 IR and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging

    2.09.8 Calculation of Vibrational Spectra of Polymers*

    REFERENCES

    Structure Characterization in Fourier Space

    2.10. Light Scattering

    2.10.1 Introduction

    2.10.2 Theoretical Background

    2.10.3 Instrumentation and Experimental Practice

    2.10.4 Application to the Characterization of Macromolecular Systems

    REFERENCES

    2.11. Neutron Scattering

    2.11.1 Introduction

    2.11.2 Methods

    2.11.3 Representative SANS Results

    2.11.4 Polymer Dynamics

    2.11.5 Conclusions

    Appendix

    REFERENCES

    2.12. X-ray Scattering

    2.12.1 Introduction

    2.12.2 Reciprocal Space and Fourier Transformation

    2.12.3 Intensity Distribution and Autocorrelation Function

    2.12.4 Scattering from Crystals

    2.12.5 Dilute Systems

    2.12.6 Ordered Nanostructures: Macrolattices

    2.12.7 Layered Structures

    2.12.8 SAXS from Two-Phase Systems

    2.12.9 Fiber Scattering: Preferred Orientation

    2.12.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    2.13. Combined Small-Angle Scattering for Characterization of Hierarchically Structured Polymer Systems over Nano-to-Micron Meter

    2.13.1 Introduction

    2.13.2 Artificially Synthesized Cellulose versus Biosynthesized Cellulose

    2.13.3 Artificially Synthesized Cellulose Systems

    2.13.4 Biosynthesized Cellulose

    2.13.5 Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    2.14. Combined Small-Angle Scattering for Characterization of Hierarchically Structured Polymer Systems over Nano-to-Micron Meter

    2.14.1 Introduction

    2.14.2 Structural Levels

    2.14.3 Unified Function

    2.14.4 Hierarchy of Structural Levels

    2.14.5 Structural Models and the Unified Function

    2.14.6 Examples of Structural Models and the Unified Function

    2.14.7 Polydispersity and Asymmetry for Porod Scattering

    2.14.8 Restrictions for the Unified Function Parameters

    2.14.9 Software for Unified Fits

    2.14.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    2.15. Reflectivity, Off-Specular Scattering, and GI-SAS

    2.15.1 Introduction

    2.15.2 Grazing-Incidence Kinematics and Coherence

    2.15.3 Specular Reflection

    2.15.4 Off-Specular Scattering

    2.15.5 GI-SAS and Complete Reflectometry

    2.15.6 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    2.16. Reflectivity, GI-SAS and GI-Diffraction

    2.16.1 Introduction

    2.16.2 Theories

    2.16.3 XR and GIXS Applications in Nanostructured Polymers

    2.16.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Structure Characterization in Real Space

    2.17. Optical Microscopy

    2.17.1 Introduction

    2.17.2 Conventional Imaging Modes

    2.17.3 Polarized Light Microscopy

    2.17.4 Digital Microscopy

    REFERENCES

    2.18. Fluorescence Microscopy, Single Fluorophores and Nano-Reporters, Super-Resolution Far-Field Microscopy

    2.18.1 Introduction

    2.18.2 A Confocal Single-Molecule Setup

    2.18.3 Wide-Field Single-Molecule Microscopy

    2.18.4 Single Molecules?

    2.18.5 Sample Preparation

    2.18.6 Examples of Polymer Studies by Single-Molecule Measurements

    2.18.7 Super-Resolution Optical Far-Field Microscopy, Theory, and Applications in Polymer Studies

    REFERENCES

    2.19. Electron Microscopy of Organic Materials

    2.19.1 Introduction

    2.19.2 Sample Preparation

    2.19.3 Beam Sensitivity of Polymer and Organic Samples

    2.19.4 Electron Beam-Induced Structural Transitions in Organic Molecular Crystals

    2.19.5 Low-Dose HREM

    2.19.6 Molecular Simulations

    2.19.7 Low-Voltage Electron Microscope

    2.19.8 Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes

    2.19.9 Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy

    2.19.10 FIB Imaging of Polymers on Inorganic Substrates

    2.19.11 Cryo-TEM Techniques

    2.19.12 Aberration-Corrected Microscopy

    2.19.13 Dynamic TEM

    2.19.14 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    2.20. Transmission Electron Microtomography

    2.20.1 Introduction

    2.20.2 3D Microscopy

    2.20.3 Some Basics of Electron Tomography

    2.20.4 Recent Developments in TEMT

    REFERENCES

    2.21. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    2.21.1 Introduction

    2.21.2 The Instrument: A Comparison with Conventional SEM

    2.21.3 Static Experiments

    2.21.4 Dynamic Experiments

    2.21.5 Biopolymers and Biofilms

    2.21.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    2.22. Micro X-Ray CT

    2.22.1 Introduction

    2.22.2 Principle of the X-Ray CT

    2.22.3 Micro X-Ray CT with Microfocus X-Ray Generator

    2.22.4 Micro X-Ray CT with SR

    2.22.5 Use of X-Ray Phase Information

    2.22.6 Summary and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    Surface and Interface Characterization

    2.23. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Polymers

    2.23.1 Introduction

    2.23.2 Experiment in AFM

    2.23.3 Imaging of Molecules, Molecular Assemblies, and Processes

    2.23.4 Compositional Mapping of Multicomponent Polymer Systems

    2.23.5 Toward Quantitative Measurements of Local Properties

    REFERENCES

    2.24. Adhesion, Friction, and Lubrication between Polymer-Bearing Surfaces

    2.24.1 Introduction

    2.24.2 Monomeric Fluids Under Confinement

    2.24.3 Polymer-Modified Surfaces

    2.24.4 Summary and Future Perspective

    REFERENCES

    2.25. Single-Molecule Detection and Manipulation

    2.25.1 Introduction

    2.25.2 Instrumentation

    2.25.3 Calibration

    2.25.4 Data Fitting and Selection

    2.25.5 Examples

    2.25.6 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    2.26. Plasmonics

    2.26.1 Introduction

    2.26.2 Fundamentals of Guided Wave Optics

    2.26.3 Observation of Thin Polymer Films

    2.26.4 Applications

    2.26.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    2.27. Ion Beam Analysis

    2.27.1 Introduction

    2.27.2 Applications of IBA in Polymer Science

    2.27.3 Technique Development

    2.27.4 Outlook for IBA in Polymer Science

    REFERENCES

    Thermal, Mechanical, Dielectric & Electrical Characterization

    2.28. Rheological Characterization of Polymeric Liquids

    2.28.1 Basics

    2.28.2 Characterization of Homopolymers

    2.28.3 Characterization of Multiphase Polymeric Materials

    2.28.4 Concluding Remarks

    Appendix A General Microscopic Expression of Stress Tensor

    REFERENCES

    2.29. Mechanical Characterization of Glassy Polymers

    2.29.1 Introduction

    2.29.2 Phenomenology

    2.29.3 Origin of Mobility

    2.29.4 Factors Influencing Mobility

    2.29.5 Avoiding Localization: The Intrinsic Deformation of Polymers

    2.29.6 Competition between Lifetime and Embrittlement

    2.29.7 Modeling

    2.29.8 Characterization

    2.29.9 Multimode Model

    2.29.10 Multiprocess Model

    2.29.11 Epilogue

    Appendix: Simplification to 1D

    REFERENCES

    2.30. Rheo-Optics

    2.30.1 General Outline

    2.30.2 Rheo-optics at Mesoscopic Scale

    2.30.3 Rheo-optics at the Submolecular Level

    2.30.4 General Conclusions and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    2.31. Calorimetry

    2.31.1 Introduction

    2.31.2 Fundamentals and Modes of Operation

    2.31.3 Fast Scanning Calorimetry

    2.31.4 Selected Applications of Advanced Calorimetry

    2.31.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    2.32. Dielectric Spectroscopy

    2.32.1 Introduction

    2.32.2 Theoretical Background

    2.32.3 Analysis of Dielectric Spectra

    2.32.4 Recent Advances in Dielectrics

    2.32.5 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    2.33. Conductivity Measurements

    2.33.1 Introduction

    2.33.2 Electrical Properties of Polymer Materials

    2.33.3 Experimental Techniques

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 3. Chain Polymerization of Vinyl Monomers

    3.01. Introduction and Overview

    3.01.1 Introduction

    3.01.2 Overview

    3.02. Fundamental Aspects of Chain Polymerization

    3.02.1 Introduction

    3.02.2 The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony Speech of A. Ölander on Behalf of the Nobel Committee

    3.02.3 Bodenstein Observation of the First Chain Reactions

    3.02.4 Nernst’s Mechanism of the Cl2 + H2 Reaction (Finally Accepted as the Correct One)

    3.02.5 Kinetic Scheme of the Fundamental Chain Reaction: Cl2 + H2

    3.02.6 Stationary State, Bodenstein Approximation, and Final Solution

    3.02.7 Definitions Pertinent to Chain Reactions

    3.02.8 Definitions Pertinent to Chain Polymerizations

    3.02.9 Two Kinds of Steady States in Chain Polymerizations

    3.02.10 Discovery of Living Polymerization by Michael Szwarc

    3.02.11 Living Polymerization

    3.02.12 Nearly Steady-State Polymerizations: Controlled Polymerizations Involving Quasi-Equilibria between Active and Dormant Species

    3.02.13 Second Kind of the Steady State: The Rate of Formation of Active Centers Balanced by the Rate of Their Disappearance. Classical Radical Polymerization

    3.02.14 Non-Steady-State Polymerizations

    3.02.15 Chain Polymerizations and Structure of Macromolecules

    3.02.16 Condensative Chain Polymerizations: Biopolymers

    3.02.17 Polymerize Chain Reaction. DNA Syntheses

    3.02.18 Conclusions

    Appendix: Lifetime and Half-Life: Definitions and Their Relationship

    REFERENCES

    3.03. Radical Reactivity by Computation and Experiment

    3.03.1 Introduction

    3.03.2 Radical Stability

    3.03.3 Other Important Properties

    3.03.4 Tools for Linking Structure to Reactivity

    REFERENCES

    3.04. Radical Polymerization

    3.04.1 Introduction

    3.04.2 Initiation

    3.04.3 Propagation

    3.04.4 Termination

    3.04.5 Chain Transfer

    3.04.6 Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerization

    REFERENCES

    3.05. Controlled and Living Radical Polymerization – Principles and Fundamentals

    3.05.1 Introduction

    3.05.2 Principles and Classification of LRP Techniques

    3.05.3 Kinetic Theory of LRP: Polymerization Rates

    3.05.4 Kinetic Theory of LRP: Polydispersities

    3.05.5 Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization

    3.05.6 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    3.05.7 Degenerative Chain Transfer-Mediated Polymerization

    3.05.8 Experiments on Some Newer Systems

    3.05.9 Summary on Activation and Deactivation Rate Constants

    3.05.10 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.06. Degenerative Transfer with Alkyl Iodide

    3.06.1 Introduction

    3.06.2 Alkyl Iodide Transfer Agents Used in Degenerative Transfer Polymerization with Alkyl Iodides

    3.06.3 Mechanism and Kinetics of Degenerative Transfer Polymerization with Alkyl Iodide

    3.06.4 Other Related Methods

    3.06.5 Monomers Used in Degenerative Transfer Polymerization with Iodo-Compounds

    3.06.6 Processes

    3.06.7 Macromolecular Architectures Prepared by Degenerative Transfer with Iodo-Compounds

    3.06.8 Applications of Polymers Prepared by Degenerative Transfer with Iodo-Compounds

    3.06.9 Prospects

    3.06.10 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.07. Radical Addition–Fragmentation Chemistry and RAFT Polymerization

    3.07.1 Introduction

    3.07.2 Compounds Providing Irreversible Addition–Fragmentation Chain Transfer

    3.07.3 Compounds Providing Reversible Addition–Fragmentation Chain Transfer

    REFERENCES

    3.08. Other Degenerative Transfer Systems

    3.08.1 Introduction

    3.08.2 Background

    3.08.3 Organoheteroatom-Mediated LRP

    3.08.4 Mechanism

    3.08.5 Macromolecular Engineering

    3.08.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.09. Cobalt-Catalyzed Chain Transfer Polymerization

    3.09.1 Introduction and Overview

    3.09.2 Polymerization Mechanism

    3.09.3 Catalysts

    3.09.4 Monomers for CCT

    3.09.5 Applications

    3.09.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    3.10. Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization

    3.10.1 Introduction

    3.10.2 Synthesis of Nitroxides and Alkoxyamines

    3.10.3 Features of Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization

    3.10.4 Advanced Architectures and Materials by NMP

    3.10.5 Conclusions and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    3.11. Organometallic-Mediated Radical Polymerization

    3.11.1 Introduction: Discovery of OMRP

    3.11.2 Mechanistic Interplays

    3.11.3 Tuning the Metal–Carbon Bond Strength

    3.11.4 Interplay of Dissociative and Associative Processes

    3.11.5 ‘Clean’ OMRP-RT Processes

    3.11.6 OMRP-RT versus CCT

    3.11.7 Interplay of OMRP-RT and ATRP

    3.11.8 Metal Elimination and Recycling

    3.11.9 Conclusions and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    3.12. Copper-Mediated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    3.12.1 Introduction

    3.12.2 ATRP Equilibrium

    3.12.3 Initiating an ATRP

    3.12.4 Removal of Copper

    3.12.5 ATRP Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    3.12.6 Components/Phenomenology/Process

    3.12.7 Control over Polymer Composition

    3.12.8 Polymer Topology

    3.12.9 Site-Specific Functionality

    3.12.10 Hybrid Materials

    3.12.11 Applications

    3.12.12 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.13. Transition Metal Complexes for Metal-Catalyzed Atom Transfer Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization

    3.13.1 Introduction

    3.13.2 Scope of Transition Metal-Catalyzed Living Radical Polymerization

    3.13.3 Late Transition Metal Complexes for Living Radical Polymerization

    3.13.4 Early Transition Metal Complexes for Living Radical Polymerization

    3.13.5 Prospective View of Catalysts for Living Radical Polymerization

    REFERENCES

    3.14. Vinyl Polymerization in Heterogeneous Systems

    3.14.1 Introduction

    3.14.2 Vinyl Polymerization in Aqueous Dispersed Systems

    3.14.3 Vinyl Polymerization in Nonaqueous Dispersed Systems

    3.14.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    3.15. Cationic Polymerization of Nonpolar Vinyl Monomers

    3.15.1 Introduction

    3.15.2 Fundamentals of Cationic Polymerization

    3.15.3 Monomers

    3.15.4 Initiating Systems

    3.15.5 Solvent Polarity and Temperature

    3.15.6 Controlled Initiation

    3.15.7 Living Cationic Polymerization

    3.15.8 Functional Polymers by Living Cationic Polymerization

    3.15.9 Block Copolymers

    3.15.10 Branched and Hyperbranched Polymers

    3.15.11 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.16. Cationic Polymerization of Polar Monomers

    3.16.1 Introduction

    3.16.2 General Aspects

    3.16.3 Living Cationic Polymerization

    3.16.4 Design of Initiating Systems for Living Polymerization

    3.16.5 Recent Developments in Living Polymerization

    3.16.6 New Monomers

    3.16.7 Sequence or Shape-Regulated Functional Polymers

    3.16.8 Stimuli-Responsive Polymers

    REFERENCES

    3.17. Anionic Polymerization of Nonpolar Monomers

    3.17.1 Introduction to Carbanions, Living Polymerization, and Anionic Polymerization

    3.17.2 Initiators, Initiation Mechanisms, and Kinetics

    3.17.3 Propagation Kinetics and Mechanisms

    3.17.4 Chain Termination Reactions

    3.17.5 Chain Transfer Reactions

    3.17.6 Stereochemistry

    3.17.7 Copolymerization

    REFERENCES

    3.18. Anionic Polymerization of Protected Functional Monomers

    3.18.1 Introduction

    3.18.2 Functional Styrene Derivatives

    3.18.3 Functional 1,3-Butadiene Derivatives

    3.18.4 Functional (Meth)acrylate Derivatives

    3.18.5 N-Isopropylacrylamide

    3.18.6 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    3.19. Anionic Polymerization of Polar Vinyl Monomers

    3.19.1 Introduction

    3.19.2 Mechanism of the Anionic Polymerization of Alkyl (Meth)acrylates

    3.19.3 Anionic Polymerization of Other Acrylic Monomers

    3.19.4 Anionic Polymerization of Other Polar Vinyl Monomers

    3.19.5 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.20. Industrial Catalysts for Alkene Polymerization

    3.20.1 Catalysts for Polyolefin Production

    3.20.2 Historical Development of Commercially Practiced Alkene Polymerization Catalysts

    3.20.3 Global Polyolefin Catalyst and Product Markets

    3.20.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    3.21. Metallocene Alkene Polymerization Catalysts

    3.21.1 Introduction

    3.21.2 Definition of a Metallocene Polymerization Catalyst

    3.21.3 General Mechanism

    3.21.4 Ethylene Polymerization

    3.21.5 1-Alkene Polymerization

    3.21.6 Diene Polymerization

    3.21.7 Copolymerization

    3.21.8 Conclusions

    3.21.9 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    3.22. Chain Shuttling Catalysis and Olefin Block Copolymers

    3.22.1 Introduction

    3.22.2 Block Copolymers from Living Polymerization

    3.22.3 Olefin Block Copolymers from Reversible Chain Transfer

    3.22.4 Identifying Reversibility in Chain Transfer

    3.22.5 CCTP Characteristics in Single Catalyst Systems

    3.22.6 Reactor Choice for OBC Synthesis

    3.22.7 Diblock OBCs via Sequential Monomer Addition

    3.22.8 Synthesis of OBCs with Dual-Catalyst Systems

    3.22.9 Characterization of Olefin Block Copolymers

    3.22.10 Olefin Block Copolymer Design and Applications

    3.22.11 Functional Polyolefins from CCTP Systems

    3.22.12 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    3.23. Living Transition Metal-Catalyzed Alkene Polymerization

    3.23.1 Introduction

    3.23.2 Living Olefin Polymerization

    3.23.3 Early Metal Olefin Polymerization Catalysts

    3.23.4 Non-group 4 Early Metal Polymerization Catalysts

    3.23.5 Rare-Earth Metal Catalysts

    3.23.6 Late Metal Olefin Polymerization Catalysts

    3.23.7 Outlook and Summary

    REFERENCES

    3.24. Copolymerization of Alkenes and Polar Monomers by Early and Late Transition Metal Catalysts

    3.24.1 Introduction

    3.24.2 Coordination of Polar Groups to Transition Metals: Challenges for the Copolymerization of Olefins with Polar Comonomers

    3.24.3 Methods for the Synthesis of Polar Copolymers with Early Transition Metals

    3.24.4 Late Transition Metals in the Copolymerization of Functional and Nonpolar Olefins

    3.24.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    3.25. Alkene/CO Copolymerization

    3.25.1 Introduction

    3.25.2 Alternating Copolymer of Ethylene and CO

    3.25.3 Nonalternating Copolymer of Ethylene and CO

    3.25.4 Alternating Copolymerization of Mono-substituted Ethylene and CO

    3.25.5 Copolymerization of Imines with Carbon Monoxide

    3.25.6 Chemical Transformation of Polyketones

    3.25.7 Physical Properties and Industrial Application of the Olefin/CO Copolymers

    REFERENCES

    3.26. Cycloolefin Polymerization

    3.26.1 Introduction

    3.26.2 Polycycloolefins: Homopolymerization

    3.26.3 Cycloolefin Copolymers

    3.26.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    3.27. Alkyne Polymerization

    3.27.1 Introduction

    3.27.2 Polymerization Catalysts

    3.27.3 Monosubstituted Acetylene Polymers

    3.27.4 Disubstituted Acetylene Polymers

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 4. Ring-Opening Polymerization and Special Polymerization Processes

    4.01. Introduction

    4.02. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Polymerizability

    4.02.1 Introduction

    4.02.2 Major Definitions

    4.02.3 Equilibrium and Ceiling (Floor) Temperatures (Te and Tc/Tf)

    4.02.4 Methods for Determination of Tc (or [M]e)

    4.02.5 Factors Affecting Polymerizability: Enthalpy of Polymerization

    4.02.6 Entropy-Driven Polymerization

    4.02.7 Nonideal (Real) Systems

    4.02.8 Influence of Degree of Polymerization

    4.02.9 Influence of Phase Separation

    4.02.10 Final Remarks on the Thermodynamic Polymerizability

    4.02.11 Kinetic Polymerizability

    4.02.12 Kinetic Polymerizability versus Macroions and Macroion Pairs in Propagation

    4.02.13 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.03. Living Ring-Opening Olefin Metathesis Polymerization

    REFERENCES

    4.04. Ring–Chain Equilibria in Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.04.1 Phenomenon of the Ring–Chain Equilibria in Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.04.2 Thermodynamics of the Ring–Chain Equilibria in ROP

    4.04.3 Thermodynamics of Ring–Chain Equilibria in Copolymerization

    4.04.4 Effects of Pressure and Solvents on the Ring–Chain Equilibria

    4.04.5 Kinetics of the Ring–Chain Equilibria in ROP

    4.04.6 Ring–Chain Equilibria in Selected ROP Systems

    4.04.7 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.05. Equilibrium Copolymerization in Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.05.1 Phenomenon of the Equilibrium Copolymerization in Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.05.2 The Concept of the Equilibrium Copolymerization

    4.05.3 Copolymerization Equilibrium

    4.05.4 Thermodynamics of Copolymerization

    4.05.5 Determination of the Equilibrium Constants on the Basis of the Analysis of the Copolymerization Equilibrium

    4.05.6 Selected Examples of the Equilibrium Copolymerization

    4.05.7 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.06. Organocatalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerizations

    4.06.1 Introduction

    4.06.2 Metal-Free Initiated versus Metal-Free Organocatalyzed Polymerizations

    4.06.3 Organocatalytic Platforms, Monomer Candidates, and Related Mechanisms

    4.06.4 Polymerizations Catalyzed by 4-(Dialkylamino)pyridines

    4.06.5 Polymerizations Catalyzed by Amidines

    4.06.6 Polymerizations Catalyzed by TUs and TU-Amino Derivatives

    4.06.7 Polymerizations using Phosphorus-Based Catalysts: Phosphines and Phosphazenes

    4.06.8 Polymerizations Catalyzed by NHCs

    4.06.9 Polymerization Catalyzed by Weak, Strong, and ‘Super Strong’ Bronsted Acids

    4.06.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    4.07. Anionic Ring-Opening Polymerization of Epoxides and Related Nucleophilic Polymerization Processes

    4.07.1 Introduction

    4.07.2 Anionic Epoxide Polymerization Initiated by Alkali Metal Derivatives

    4.07.3 Initiation by Organic Bases as Initiators

    4.07.4 Coordination Anionic Polymerization

    4.07.5 Polymerization Involving Monomer Activation by a Lewis Acid Additive

    4.07.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    4.08. Cationic Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Ethers

    4.08.1 General Considerations

    4.08.2 CROP of Oxiranes

    4.08.3 CROP of Oxetanes

    4.08.4 CROP of THFs (Oxolanes)

    4.08.5 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.09. Stereoselective Ring-Opening Polymerization of Epoxides

    4.09.1 Introduction

    4.09.2 Basic Concepts in Stereoselective Epoxide Polymerization

    4.09.3 Stereoselective Epoxide Polymerization

    4.09.4 Conclusion/Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.10. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Acetals

    4.10.1 Introduction

    4.10.2 Mechanism of Homogeneous Polymerization of Cyclic Acetals

    4.10.3 Heterogeneous Polymerization of 1,3,5-Trioxane

    Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.11. ROP of Cyclic Esters. Mechanisms of Ionic and Coordination Processes

    4.11.1 Introduction

    4.11.2 Thermodynamics of ROP of Cyclic Esters

    4.11.3 Kinetics of the ROP of Cyclic Esters

    4.11.4 Livingness of Polymerization in Processes Initiated with Multivalent Metal Alkoxides

    4.11.5 Extent of Molar Mass Control in Processes Initiated with Multivalent Metal Alkoxides

    4.11.6 Controlled Polymerization of Cyclic Esters Initiated with Single-Site Metal Alkoxides

    4.11.7 Transfer Processes in the Anionic and Coordination Polymerizations of Cyclic Esters

    4.11.8 Stereochemically Asymmetric ROP of Cyclic Esters

    4.11.9 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.12. ROP of Cyclic Carbonates and ROP of Macrocycles

    4.12.1 Introduction

    4.12.2 Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates

    4.12.3 Polymerization of Aliphatic Cyclic Carbonates

    4.12.4 Copolymerization of Cyclic Carbonates with Other Heterocyclic Monomers

    4.12.5 Polymerization of Cyclic Thiocarbonates

    4.12.6 Polymerization of Macrocycles

    4.12.7 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.13. ROP of Cyclic Amines and Sulfides

    4.13.1 Introduction

    4.13.2 Cyclic Amines

    4.13.3 Cyclic Sulfides

    4.13.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.14. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Amides (Lactams)

    4.14.1 Introduction

    4.14.2 Lactams and Their Polymerizability

    4.14.3 Outline of Lactam Polymerization Routes

    4.14.4 Hydrolytic Polymerization

    4.14.5 Cationic Polymerization

    4.14.6 Acidolytic and Aminolytic Polymerizations

    4.14.7 Anionic Polymerization

    4.14.8 Enzymatic Polymerization

    4.14.9 Spontaneous Polymerization

    4.14.10 Anionic Polymerization of CL

    4.14.11 Anionic Polymerization of Other Lactams

    4.14.12 Anionic Copolymers

    4.14.13 Industrial Applications

    REFERENCES

    4.15. Polymerization of Oxazolines

    4.15.1 Introduction

    4.15.2 Cationic Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.15.3 Ring-Opening Polyaddition

    4.15.4 ROPA for Polysaccharide Synthesis

    4.15.5 Ring-Opening Polymerizations of Other Oxazoline Derivative Monomers

    4.15.6 Sythesis of Functional Polymers via CROP Process and Their Applications

    REFERENCES

    4.16. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Amino Acid -Carboxyanhydrides

    4.16.1 Introduction

    4.16.2 Polypeptide Synthesis using NCAs

    4.16.3 Copolypeptide Synthesis via ROP

    4.16.4 Side-Chain Functionalized Polypeptides

    4.16.5 Poly(β-Peptides)

    4.16.6 Polypeptide Deprotection and Purification

    4.16.7 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.17. Polymerization of Cyclic Siloxanes, Silanes, and Related Monomers

    4.17.1 Monomers Polymerizable by Breaking the Siloxane Bonds

    4.17.2 Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Organosilicon Monomers Not Involving Si–O Bond Cleavage

    4.17.3 Final Remarks

    REFERENCES

    4.18. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Phosphorus Monomers

    4.18.1 Scope of the Chapter

    4.18.2 Polymerization of Cyclic Organophosphorus Compounds

    4.18.3 Polyaddition

    4.18.4 Transformation of Poly(alkylene phosphate)s

    4.18.5 Some Properties and Applications of Poly(alkylene phosphate)s

    4.18.6 Polymerization of Cyclic Inorganic P-Containing Compounds

    4.18.7 Some Properties and Applications of Linear Poly(organophosphazene)s

    4.18.8 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.19. Radical Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.19.1 General

    4.19.2 Cycloalkanes

    4.19.3 Cyclic Ethers and Cyclic Sulfides

    4.19.4 Cyclic Acetals

    4.19.5 Spiroorthocarbonates and Spiroorthoesters

    4.19.6 α-exo-Methylene Lactones

    4.19.7 Cyclic Sulfones with Vinyl Group

    4.19.8 Controlled Radical Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.19.9 Summary

    REFERENCES

    4.20. Architectures of Polymers Synthesized using ROMP

    4.20.1 Introduction

    4.20.2 Catalysts (Grubbs and Schrock Type)

    4.20.3 Basic Categories

    4.20.4 Monomers

    4.20.5 Linear Architectures

    4.20.6 Polyacetylene

    4.20.7 Diblocks/Triblocks

    4.20.8 Random

    4.20.9 Alternating

    4.20.10 Cyclic

    4.20.11 Grafted

    4.20.12 Polyalkynes

    4.20.13 Nano

    4.20.14 Micelles

    4.20.15 Polyrotaxanes and Polycatenane

    4.20.16 Dendrimers

    4.20.17 Star Polymers

    4.20.18 Other

    4.20.19 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    4.21. High-Molecular-Weight Poly(ethylene oxide)

    4.21.1 Introduction

    4.21.2 Oxirane Polymerization

    4.21.3 Anionic Coordination Polymerization

    4.21.4 Applications of High-MW Polyoxiranes

    REFERENCES

    4.22. Nonlinear Macromolecules by Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.22.1 Introduction

    4.22.2 Background and History

    4.22.3 Specific Concepts in the Synthesis of Nonlinear Polymers by Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.22.4 Complex Polymer Architectures Containing Nonlinear Macromolecules Generated by ROP

    4.22.5 Conclusion and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    4.23. Current and Forthcoming Applications of ROMP-Derived Polymers

    4.23.1 Introduction to Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    4.23.2 Initiators for ROMP

    4.23.3 1-Alkyne Polymerization

    4.23.4 Supports

    4.23.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    4.24. Chain Extension by Ring Opening

    4.24.1 General

    4.24.2 Chain Extension

    4.24.3 Diepoxides

    4.24.4 Cyclic Imino Ethers

    4.24.5 Cyclic Anhydrides

    4.24.6 Bisoxazolinones

    4.24.7 Coupling with Release of Blocking Groups

    4.24.8 Mixed Systems

    4.24.9 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.25. Ring-Opening Dispersion Polymerization

    4.25.1 Introduction

    4.25.2 Cationic Ring-Opening Dispersion Polymerization

    4.25.3 Anionic and Pseudoanionic Ring-Opening Dispersion Polymerization

    4.25.4 Practical Importance of Ring-Opening Dispersion Polymerization

    REFERENCES

    4.26. Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization in the Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    4.26.1 Introduction

    4.26.2 Ring-Opening Polymerization of Monocyclic Polyenes

    Summary

    REFERENCES

    4.27. Oligomeric Poly(ethylene oxide)s. Functionalized Poly(ethylene glycol)s. PEGylation

    4.27.1 Introduction

    4.27.2 Properties of PEGs

    4.27.3 Chemistry of PEGylation

    4.27.4 PEG Conjugation to Peptides and Proteins

    4.27.5 PEG Conjugation with Small Drugs

    4.27.6 PEGylated Dendrimers as Drug Delivery Systems

    4.27.7 PEGylated Inorganic–Organic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    REFERENCES

    4.28. Current and Forthcoming Applications of ROMP Polymers – Biorelated Polymers

    4.28.1 Bioactive Polymers from the Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    REFERENCES

    4.29. Polyphosphoesters

    4.29.1 Introduction and Historical Background

    4.29.2 Controlled Syntheses of PPEs by Ring-Opening Polymerization

    4.29.3 Topological Structure of PPE

    4.29.4 Thermoresponsive PPEs

    4.29.5 Functional PPEs

    4.29.6 Biomedical Applications of PPEs

    4.29.7 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.30. Industrial Applications of ROMP

    4.30.1 Introduction

    4.30.2 Olefin Metathesis in the Petrochemical Industry

    4.30.3 Polymer Modification

    4.30.4 ROMP Polymers Based on Dicyclopentadiene

    4.30.5 Linear Polyalkenamers

    4.30.6 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    4.31. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Esters

    4.31.1 Introduction

    4.31.2 ROP of Cyclic Esters: Generalities

    4.31.3 Industrial Aliphatic Polyesters Implemented by ROP

    4.31.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.32. Polymerization Kinetic Modeling and Macromolecular Reaction Engineering

    4.32.1 Introduction

    4.32.2 Stepwise Polymerization

    4.32.3 Free-Radical Polymerization

    4.32.4 Ionic Polymerization

    4.32.5 Controlled Radical Polymerization

    4.32.6 Ziegler–Natta Polymerization

    4.32.7 Metallocene Polymerization

    4.32.8 Emulsion Polymerization

    4.32.9 Dispersion and Suspension Polymerization

    4.32.10 Copolymerization

    4.32.11 Semibatch Control of Copolymer Composition

    4.32.12 Continuous Polymerization Processes

    4.32.13 Industrial Examples of Polymer Production

    4.32.14 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    4.33. Template Polymerization

    4.33.1 Introduction

    4.33.2 Mechanism of Template Polymerization

    4.33.3 Radical Template Polymerization and Copolymerization

    4.33.4 Template Polycondensation

    4.33.5 Ring-Opening Template Polymerization

    4.33.6 Special Kinds of Template Polymerization

    4.33.7 Products of Template Polymerization and Potential Applications

    4.33.8 Polymerization in Confined Space

    4.33.9 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    4.34. Mechanistic Aspects of Solid-State Polycondensation

    4.34.1 Introduction

    4.34.2 Direct Solid-State Polycondensation

    4.34.3 Post-Solid-State Polycondensation

    4.34.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.35. Radical Polymerization at High Pressure

    4.35.1 Introduction

    4.35.2 Experiments and Data Treatment

    4.35.3 Initiation, Propagation, and Termination Rate Coefficients of Radical Polymerization up to High Pressure

    4.35.4 High-Pressure Ethene Polymerization

    4.35.5 High-Pressure Ethene Copolymerization

    4.35.6 Reversible Deactivated Radical Polymerization

    4.35.7 Homogeneous-Phase Polymerization in scCO2

    4.35.8 Kinetics of Radical Polymerization in Homogeneous Mixture with scCO2

    REFERENCES

    4.36. Electroinitiated Polymerization

    4.36.1 Introduction

    4.36.2 Electroinitiated Polymerization of Vinyl Monomers for Promoting Coatings Adhesive to Metals

    4.36.3 Electropolymerization of Conjugated Polymers as Active Layers in Advanced Devices

    4.36.4 Electrografting of Conjugated Polymers

    4.36.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    4.37. Photopolymerization

    4.37.1 Introduction

    4.37.2 Photochemical Condensation Reactions

    4.37.3 Photoinduced Active Center Polymerizations

    4.37.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.38. Frontal Polymerization

    4.38.1 What Is Frontal Polymerization?

    4.38.2 Photofrontal Polymerization

    4.38.3 Isothermal Frontal Polymerization

    4.38.4 Cryogenic Fronts

    4.38.5 Thermal Frontal Polymerization

    4.38.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    4.39. Microwave-Assisted Polymerization

    4.39.1 Interaction of Microwaves with Materials

    4.39.2 Chain-Growth Polymerization Reactions

    4.39.3 Step-Growth Polymerization Reactions

    4.39.4 Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites

    4.39.5 Scaling-Up Reactions under Microwave Irradiation

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 5. Polycondensation

    5.01. Introduction and Overview

    5.01.1 Introduction

    5.01.2 Overview

    Principles and Opportunities

    5.02. Principles of Step-Growth Polymerization (Polycondensation and Polyaddition)

    5.02.1 Introduction and Historical Perspective

    5.02.2 Structure–Property Relationships in Step-Growth Polymers

    5.02.3 Synthesis of Step-Growth Polymers

    5.02.4 Future Direction for Step-Growth Polymers

    5.02.5 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    5.03. Opportunities in Bio-Based Building Blocks for Polycondensates and Vinyl Polymers

    5.03.1 Introduction

    5.03.2 Monomers

    5.03.3 Approaches in Commodity Polymers

    5.03.4 Approaches in Engineering Polymers

    5.03.5 Approaches for High Performance Polymers

    5.03.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    5.04. Sequence Control in One-Step Polycondensation

    5.04.1 Introduction

    5.04.2 Analysis of Constitutional Regularity

    5.04.3 Sequential Polymers from Symmetric and Nonsymmetric Monomers

    5.04.4 Sequential Polymers from Two Nonsymmetric Monomers

    5.04.5 Sequential Polymer from Three Nonsymmetric Monomers

    5.04.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Novel Synthetic Approaches

    5.05. Nonstoichiometric Polycondensation

    5.05.1 Introduction

    5.05.2 Nonstoichiometric Polycondensation Caused by the Change in Reactivity

    5.05.3 Nonstoichiometric Polycondensation Caused by the Change in the Higher Structure of Polymers

    5.05.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    5.06. Chain-Growth Condensation Polymerization

    5.06.1 Introduction

    5.06.2 p-Substituted Aromatic Polymers

    5.06.3 m-Substituted Aromatic Polymers

    5.06.4 Nonaromatic Polymers

    5.06.5 π-Conjugated Polymers

    5.06.6 Future Remarks

    REFERENCES

    5.07. Oxidative Coupling Polymerization

    5.07.1 Introduction

    5.07.2 Oxidative Polymerization of Phenols and Naphthols

    5.07.3 Thiophenols and Their Derivatives

    5.07.4 Anilines

    5.07.5 Pyrroles

    5.07.6 Thiophenes

    5.07.7 Other Aromatic Heterocycles

    5.07.8 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    5.07.9 Other Monomers

    5.07.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    5.08. Condensation Polymers via Metal-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions

    5.08.1 Introduction

    5.08.2 An Overview of Conjugated Polymers

    5.08.3 Metal-Catalyzed Carbon–Carbon Bond Forming Reactions

    5.08.4 Metathesis Reactions – Acyclic Diene and Acyclic Diyne Metathesis

    5.08.5 An Overview of Various Polymers Prepared Using Metal-Mediated Coupling Reactions

    5.08.6 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    5.09. Advances in Acyclic Diene Metathesis Polymerization

    5.09.1 Introduction

    5.09.2 Functional Polymers and Materials via ADMET

    5.09.3 Exotic Polymer Structures

    5.09.4 Precision Polyolefins

    5.09.5 Meeting the Benchmark: Linear Acyclic Diene Metathesis Polyethylene

    5.09.6 Precision Halogenated Polyolefins

    5.09.7 Precision Polyolefins with Alkyl Branches

    5.09.8 Precision Polyolefins with Ether Branches

    5.09.9 Precision Polyolefins with Pendant Acid Groups

    5.09.10 Precision Amphiphilic Copolymers

    5.09.11 Summary and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    5.10. Enzymatic Polymerization

    5.10.1 Introduction

    5.10.2 Enzymatic Polycondensation

    5.10.3 Enzymatic Polyaddition

    5.10.4 Summary

    REFERENCES

    5.11. Nonlinear Polycondensates

    5.11.1 Introduction

    5.11.2 Insoluble Cross-Linked Polymers

    5.11.3 Soluble Branched Polymers

    REFERENCES

    5.12. Post-Polymerization Modification

    5.12.1 Historical Background and Definitions

    5.12.2 General Considerations

    5.12.3 Functional Groups Employed in Chemical Modifications

    5.12.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    5.13. Supramolecular Polymers

    5.13.1 Introduction

    5.13.2 Metallo-supramolecular Polymers

    5.13.3 Supramolecular Polymers Based on Ionic Interactions

    5.13.4 Supramolecular Polymers Based on Hydrogen Bonding

    5.13.5 Supramolecular Polymers Based on Multiple Supramolecular Motifs

    5.13.6 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    Chemistry and Technology of Polycondensates

    5.14. Chemistry and Technology of Step-Growth Polyesters

    5.14.1 Introduction

    5.14.2 Synthetic Processes for Polyesters

    5.14.3 Aliphatic Polyesters

    5.14.4 Aryl–Alkyl Polyesters

    5.14.5 All-aromatic Polyesters

    5.14.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Relevant Website

    5.15. Biodegradable Polyesters

    5.15.1 Introduction

    5.15.2 Synthetic Routes to Polyesters

    5.15.3 Classification, Biodegradability, and Applications of Polyesters

    5.15.4 Different Macromolecular Architectures and Speciality Biodegradable Polyesters

    5.15.5 Biodegradable Polyester Nanoparticles

    5.15.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    5.16. Polycarbonates

    5.16.1 Introduction

    5.16.2 Historical Development of PCs

    5.16.3 Properties and Uses of PCs

    5.16.4 Synthesis of PCs

    5.16.5 Interfacial Synthesis Process (Phosgene Process)

    5.16.6 Transesterification Synthesis Process (Melt or Solventless Process)

    5.16.7 ROP of Cyclic Oligomers

    5.16.8 Oxidative Carbonylation Process (One-Step Process)

    5.16.9 CO2 Process (Synthesis Process Using Carbon Dioxide or Carbonates)

    5.16.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    5.17. Aromatic Polyethers, Polyetherketones, Polysulfides, and Polysulfones

    5.17.1 Introduction

    5.17.2 Poly(arylene ether)s

    5.17.3 Poly(arylene ether ketone)s

    5.17.4 Poly(arylene sulfone)s

    5.17.5 Poly(arylene sulfide)s

    REFERENCES

    5.18. Chemistry and Technology of Polyamides

    5.18.1 Introduction

    5.18.2 Hydrolytically Synthesized Fully Aliphatic Polyamides

    5.18.3 Semiaromatic Polyamides

    5.18.4 Segmented Block Copolymers of Polyamides and Elastomeric Polyethers

    5.18.5 Polyamide Blends

    5.18.6 Applications of Polyamides

    5.18.7 Summary, Main Conclusions, and Future Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    5.19. Lyotropic Polycondensation including Fibers

    5.19.1 Introduction

    5.19.2 Aramids

    5.19.3 Polybenzazole

    5.19.4 Beyond PBZ

    REFERENCES

    5.20. Polyimides

    5.20.1 Introduction

    5.20.2 Conventional PI

    5.20.3 Functional PI

    5.20.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    5.21. High-Performance Heterocyclic Polymers

    5.21.1 Introduction

    5.21.2 Polyazoles

    5.21.3 Polybenzazoles

    5.21.4 Molecular Composites Based on Rigid-Rod Polybenzazoles

    5.21.5 Aromatic Polyimides

    5.21.6 Ladder and Semi-ladder Polymers

    REFERENCES

    5.22. Polyphenylenes, Polyfluorenes, and Poly(phenylene vinylene)s by Suzuki Polycondensation and Related Methods

    5.22.1 Introduction

    5.22.2 Synthesis Background and Strategy

    5.22.3 Fundamental Synthetic Aspects

    5.22.4 Recent Progress

    5.22.5 Selected Examples

    5.22.6 Poly(phenylene vinylene)s

    5.22.7 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    5.23. Metal-Containing Macromolecules

    5.23.1 Introduction

    5.23.2 Coordination Polymers

    5.23.3 Polymers Containing Sandwich Complexes

    5.23.4 Macromolecules Containing Metal Carbonyl Complexes

    5.23.5 Transition Metal Polyynes

    5.23.6 Metal–Metal Bonded Systems

    5.23.7 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    5.24. Phosphorus-Containing Dendritic Architectures

    5.24.1 Introduction

    5.24.2 Syntheses of Phosphorus-Containing Dendrimers

    5.24.3 Syntheses of Phosphorus-Containing Dendrons

    5.24.4 Syntheses of Special Phosphorus-Containing Dendritic Architectures

    5.24.5 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    5.25. Epoxy Resins and Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins

    5.25.1 Introduction of Epoxy Resins

    5.25.2 Basic Characteristics of Epoxy Resins

    5.25.3 Synthesis of Epoxy Resins

    5.25.4 Curing of Epoxy Resin

    5.25.5 General Properties of Epoxy Resins

    5.25.6 Introduction of Phenolic resins

    5.25.7 Novolac

    5.25.8 Resol

    5.25.9 Transformation of Phenolics

    5.25.10 Natural Products as Phenolics

    5.25.11 Modification by Alloys and Co-curing

    5.25.12 Hybrids and Composites

    5.25.13 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    5.26. High-Temperature Thermosets

    5.26.1 Introduction

    5.26.2 Thermosetting Monomers and Oligomers

    5.26.3 Thermosetting Liquid Crystals

    5.26.4 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 6. Macromolecular Architectures and Soft Nano-Objects

    6.01. Introduction

    6.01.1 Introduction

    6.01.2 Topology

    6.01.3 Composition and Functionality

    6.01.4 Shape-Controlled Polymers and Nanoobjects

    Topology

    6.02. Synthesis and Properties of Macrocyclic Polymers

    6.02.1 Introduction

    6.02.2 Synthesis of Cyclic Macromolecules

    6.02.3 Physical Properties of Cyclic Polymers

    REFERENCES

    6.03. Polymers with Star-Related Structures

    6.03.1 Synthesis of Star Polymers

    6.03.2 Properties of Star Polymers

    6.03.3 Applications of Star Polymers

    6.03.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    6.04. Dendrimers

    6.04.1 Introduction

    6.04.2 Synthesis of Dendrimers

    6.04.3 Properties and Characterization of Dendrimers

    6.04.4 Biomedical Applications of Dendrimers

    6.04.5 Commercial Applications and Sources

    6.04.6 Conclusions and Outlook in the Research Area

    REFERENCES

    6.05. Hyperbranched Polymers

    6.05.1 Introduction: Definitions and Synthetic Strategies

    6.05.2 Theoretical Aspects: Degree of Branching

    6.05.3 Polycondensation and Polyaddition

    6.05.4 Complex Architectures Containing Hyperbranched Blocks

    6.05.5 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    6.06. Molecular Brushes

    6.06.1 Introduction

    6.06.2 Synthesis

    6.06.3 Properties

    6.06.4 Applications

    6.06.5 Closing Remarks and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    6.07. Spherical Polymer Brushes

    6.07.1 Introduction

    6.07.2 Preparation of Brushes Anchored to Spherical Supports

    6.07.3 Characterization

    6.07.4 Physical Properties

    6.07.5 Applications

    6.07.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    6.08. Model Networks and Functional Conetworks

    6.08.1 Introduction

    6.08.2 Definitions

    6.08.3 Model Networks

    6.08.4 Quasi-Model Networks

    6.08.5 Amphiphilic Conetworks

    6.08.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    6.09. Polymer Nanogels and Microgels

    6.09.1 Aqueous Microgels

    6.09.2 Synthetic Routes

    6.09.3 Characterization by Scattering Methods

    6.09.4 Applications of Microgels

    REFERENCES

    Composition and Functionality

    6.10. Controlled End-Group Functionalization (Including Telechelics)

    6.10.1 Introduction

    6.10.2 Characterization Methods for Chain-End-Functionalized Polymers

    6.10.3 Anionic Synthesis of Chain-End-Functionalized Polymers

    6.10.4 Radical Synthesis of Chain-End-Functionalized Polymers

    6.10.5 Cationic Synthesis of Chain-End-Functionalized Polymers

    6.10.6 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    6.11. Robust, Efficient, and Orthogonal Chemistries for the Synthesis of Functionalized Macromolecules

    6.11.1 Introduction

    6.11.2 Functional Polymers and Architectures

    6.11.3 Step Growth Polymerization via CuAAC or TEC

    6.11.4 Polymer Backbone and Pendant Group Functionalization

    6.11.5 Star and Miktoarm Architectures

    6.11.6 Dendrimers

    6.11.7 Cross-linked Network Architectures

    6.11.8 Three-Dimensional (3D) Objects

    6.11.9 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    6.12. Controlled Composition

    6.12.1 Introduction

    6.12.2 Copolymerization Models

    6.12.3 Statistical Copolymers

    6.12.4 Alternating Copolymers

    6.12.5 Solvent Effects

    6.12.6 Copolymers versus Homopolymers

    6.12.7 Gradient Copolymers

    6.12.8 Properties of Copolymers

    6.12.9 Epilogue

    REFERENCES

    6.13. Well-Defined Block Copolymers

    6.13.1 Introduction

    6.13.2 Principles of Block Copolymerization

    6.13.3 Linear Topologies

    6.13.4 Synthetic Methods Involving a Single Polymerization Mechanism

    6.13.5 Synthetic Methods through Mechanistic Transformations

    6.13.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    6.14. Graft Copolymers and Comb-Shaped Homopolymers

    6.14.1 Introduction

    6.14.2 Some General Remarks on Graft Copolymers

    6.14.3 Polymerization Processes Aimed to Be Used in Graft Copolymer Synthesis

    6.14.4 Principles of Graft Copolymer Synthesis

    6.14.5 ‘Grafting Onto’ Methods

    6.14.6 ‘Grafting From’ Methods

    6.14.7 ‘Grafting Through’ Processes: The Macromonomer Method

    6.14.8 Other Grafting Processes

    6.14.9 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    6.15. Synthetic–Biological Hybrid Polymers

    6.15.1 Introduction and Potential Scope of Biohybrid Polymers

    6.15.2 Strategies to Synthesize Biohybrid Polymers

    6.15.3 Implementing Biopolymer Properties into Synthetic Polymer Systems

    6.15.4 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    6.16. Dynamic Supramolecular Polymers

    6.16.1 Introduction

    6.16.2 Linear SPs

    6.16.3 Multivalent Supramolecular Assemblies

    6.16.4 Hierarchical Assemblies

    6.16.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    Shape-Controlled Polymers and Nano-Objects

    6.17. Stereocontrolled Chiral Polymers

    6.17.1 Introduction

    6.17.2 Helical Polymers

    6.17.3 Optically Active Polymers with Main-Chain Configurational Chirality

    6.17.4 Enantiomer-Selective Polymerization

    6.17.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    6.18. Conformation-Dependent Design of Synthetic Functional Copolymers

    6.18.1 Introduction

    6.18.2 Theoretical Approaches

    6.18.3 Synthesis of Designed Copolymers

    6.18.4 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    6.19. Rigid–Flexible and Rod–Coil Copolymers

    6.19.1 Introduction

    6.19.2 Synthetic Aspects

    6.19.3 Organizational Features

    6.19.4 Applications

    6.19.5 Alternating Rigid–Flexible Polymers

    6.19.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    6.20. Individual Nano-Objects Obtained via Hierarchical Assembly of Polymer Building Blocks

    6.20.1 Introduction to Nano-Objects

    6.20.2 Synthetic Methodologies for the Preparation of Nano-Objects

    6.20.3 Assembly of Nano-Objects into Complex Hierarchical Structures

    6.20.4 Manipulation of Nano-Objects

    6.20.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 7. Nanostructured Polymer Materials and Thin Films

    7.01. Introduction

    7.02. Block Copolymers in the Condensed State

    7.02.1 Introduction

    7.02.2 Amorphous Block Copolymers

    7.02.3 Semicrystalline Block Copolymers

    7.02.4 Mechanical Properties of Block Copolymers

    7.02.5 Alignment of Block Copolymer Morphologies under External Fields

    7.02.6 Block Copolymer Thin Films

    7.02.7 Summary

    REFERENCES

    7.03. Block Copolymer Thin Films

    7.03.1 Introduction

    7.03.2 Symmetric BCP Thin Films: Lamellar Morphologies

    7.03.3 Symmetric BCP Thin Films: Phase-Mixed Morphology

    7.03.4 Asymmetric BCP Thin Films: Cylindrical Morphologies

    7.03.5 Asymmetric BCP Thin Films: Spherical Morphologies

    7.03.6 BCP Thin Films: Controlled Interfacial Interactions

    7.03.7 BCP Thin Films: Electric Fields

    7.03.8 BCP Thin Films: Magnetic Fields

    7.03.9 BCP Thin Films: Solvent Evaporation

    7.03.10 BCP Thin Films: Gradient Fields

    7.03.11 BCP Thin Films: Surface Topography

    7.03.12 BCP Thin Films: Faceted Surfaces

    7.03.13 BCP Thin Films: Chemical Patterning

    7.03.14 Nanopatterning from BCP Thin Films

    7.03.15 Applications: Nanoporous Membrane for Filtration of Viruses

    7.03.16 Applications: Nanoreactors

    7.03.17 Applications: Nanoscaffolding

    7.03.18 Applications: Templates from Nanodots to Nanorods

    7.03.19 BCP Thin Films: Summary

    REFERENCES

    7.04. Block Copolymers under Confinement

    7.04.1 Introduction

    7.04.2 Block Copolymers under Confinement

    7.04.3 Principles of Complex Structure Formation from Block Copolymers under Confinement

    7.04.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    7.05. Assemblies of Polymer-Based Nanoscopic Objects

    7.05.1 Introduction

    7.05.2 Polymer-Mediated Self-Assembly

    7.05.3 Polymer-Templated Self-Assembly

    7.05.4 TNP Self-Assembly

    REFERENCES

    7.06. Self-Assembly of Inorganic Nanoparticles in Polymer-Like Structures

    7.06.1 Introduction

    7.06.2 Experimental Methods Utilized for the Self-Assembly of NPs in Nanopolymers

    7.06.3 Properties of 1D Nanostructures

    7.06.4 Applications of 1D Assemblies of NPs

    7.06.5 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    7.07. Hybrid Polymer–Inorganic Nanostructures

    7.07.1 Introduction

    7.07.2 Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

    7.07.3 Nanostructured Diblock Copolymer–Aluminosilicate Nanoparticle Composites: A Model System

    7.07.4 Moving from Amorphous to Crystalline Inorganic Materials

    7.07.5 Potential Applications of Nanostructured Block Copolymer-Derived Hybrids

    7.07.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    7.08. Peptide–Polymer Conjugates Toward Functional Hybrid Biomaterials

    7.08.1 Introduction

    7.08.2 Peptides/Proteins

    7.08.3 Advantages of Peptide–Polymer Conjugates

    7.08.4 Synthesis

    7.08.5 Self-Assembly of Peptide–Polymer Conjugates

    7.08.6 Perspectives and Outlook

    7.08.7 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    7.09. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Multifunctional Hybrid Materials and Nanoscale Devices

    7.09.1 Introduction

    7.09.2 Types of Interactions and Corresponding Materials Used for LbL

    7.09.3 Substrates

    7.09.4 LbL Deposition Techniques

    7.09.5 Characterization Methods

    7.09.6 Applications

    7.09.7 Conclusion and Perspective

    REFERENCES

    7.10. Nanostructured Electrospun Fibers

    7.10.1 Introduction

    7.10.2 Formation of Fibers

    7.10.3 Beaded Fibers

    7.10.4 Core–shell and Hollow Fibers

    7.10.5 Porous and Wrinkled Fibers

    7.10.6 Block Copolymer Fibers

    7.10.7 Applications of Electrospun Fibers

    7.10.8 Conclusions and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    7.11. Soft Lithographic Approaches to Nanofabrication

    7.11.1 Introduction

    7.11.2 Materials and Methods

    7.11.3 Printing

    7.11.4 Molding

    7.11.5 2D and 3D Fabrication using Optical Soft Lithography

    7.11.6 Nanoskiving

    7.11.7 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    7.12. Block Copolymer Thin Films on Patterned Substrates

    7.12.1 Introduction

    7.12.2 Block Copolymer Thin films on Topographical Prepatterns

    7.12.3 Block Copolymer Thin Films on Chemical Prepatterns

    7.12.4 Theory and Simulation of Block Copolymer Thin Films on Patterned Substrates

    7.12.5 Future Issues for Block Copolymer Thin Films on Pattern Substrates

    REFERENCES

    7.13. Nanoimprint Lithography of Polymers

    7.13.1 Introduction

    7.13.2 Major Accomplishments of Nanoimprint Lithography

    7.13.3 Technical Issues of Nanoimprint Lithography

    7.13.4 Applications

    7.13.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    7.14. Modeling Mixtures of Nanorods and Polymers

    7.14.1 Introduction

    7.14.2 Nanorod Polymer Composites

    7.14.3 Mechanical Properties

    7.14.4 Electrical Properties

    7.14.5 Photovoltaic Properties

    7.14.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    7.15. Sterically Stabilized Nanoparticles in Solutions and at Interfaces

    7.15.1 Introduction – Sterically Stabilized Nanoparticles: Synthesis and the Role of Surface-Bound Ligands

    7.15.2 Synthesis of Ligand-Stabilized Nanoparticles

    7.15.3 Nanoparticles at the Air–Liquid Interface

    7.15.4 Sterically Stabilized Nanoparticles at Liquid–Liquid Interfaces: From Particle-Stabilized Emulsions to Robust Materials

    7.15.5 Controlling Miscibility with Bijels: From Simulation to Experiments

    7.15.6 Sterically Stabilized Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrices – From Dispersion to Interfacial Pinning

    REFERENCES

    7.16. Quasi-One-Component Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Particle Brush Assembly

    7.16.1 Introduction

    7.16.2 Structure of Particle Brush Systems

    7.16.3 Particle Brush-Based Quasi-One-Component Nanocomposites

    7.16.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    7.17. Electrical Conductivity of Polymer Nanocomposites

    7.17.1 Introduction

    7.17.2 Applications of Electrically Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites

    7.17.3 Percolation Theory and Simulation

    7.17.4 Mechanisms of Electrical Transport

    7.17.5 Filler Effects

    7.17.6 Effects of Matrix Properties

    7.17.7 Dispersion/Microstructure

    7.17.8 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    7.18. Polymer Dynamics in Constrained Geometries

    7.18.1 Introduction

    7.18.2 The Nature of Confinement

    7.18.3 Techniques to Quantify Dynamics

    7.18.4 Physical Mechanisms of Confinement

    REFERENCES

    7.19. Polymer Nanomechanics

    7.19.1 Introduction

    7.19.2 Preliminary Mechanics Concepts

    7.19.3 Contact Mechanics

    7.19.4 Alternatives to Hertzian Mechanics

    7.19.5 Single-Molecule Extension Mechanics

    7.19.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 8. Polymers for Advanced Functional Materials

    8.01. Introduction – Applications of Polymers

    8.01.1 Synopsis of Chapters

    8.01.2 Closing Remarks

    8.02. Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Patterning of Polymers

    8.02.1 Block Copolymer Self-Assembly for Patterning Applications

    8.02.2 Block Copolymer Phase Behavior

    8.02.3 Block Copolymer Templates

    8.02.4 The Intersection of Block Copolymer Self-Assembly with Photolithography

    8.02.5 Outlook and Summary

    REFERENCES

    8.03. Photoresists and Advanced Patterning

    8.03.1 Introduction

    8.03.2 Basic Properties and Requirements of Photoresists

    8.03.3 Classification of Resists

    8.03.4 Introduction to Early Optical Photoresists: Cyclized Rubber and DNQ–Novolac Resists

    8.03.5 Introduction to Chemically Amplified Photoresists

    8.03.6 Photochemical Acid Generators

    8.03.7 Polymeric Materials and Mechanisms for CARs

    8.03.8 e-Beam Resists

    8.03.9 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    8.04. Rapid Prototyping

    8.04.1 Basic Principles of Rapid Prototyping

    8.04.2 Photopolymerization-Based RP Technologies

    8.04.3 Extrusion-Based RP Processes

    8.04.4 Powder-Based RP Processes

    8.04.5 Laminated Object Manufacturing

    8.04.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    8.05. Polymer-Based Sensors

    8.05.1 Polymers in Organic Electronics

    8.05.2 Gas-Phase Sensing

    8.05.3 Liquid-Phase Sensing

    8.05.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    8.06. Electroactive Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    8.06.1 Introduction

    8.06.2 Semiconductive Polymers

    8.06.3 Electrooptical Switching of LC Polymers

    8.06.4 Actuators

    8.06.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    8.07. Ink-Jet Printing of Functional Polymers for Advanced Applications

    8.07.1 Ink-Jet Printing and Its Fundamental Properties

    8.07.2 Ink-Jet Printing Functional Materials

    8.07.3 Applications of Ink-Jet Printing

    8.07.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    8.08. Nanocomposites and Hybrid Materials

    8.08.1 Introduction

    8.08.2 Nanoscaled Fillers

    8.08.3 Nanocomposite Preparation

    8.08.4 Applications

    8.08.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    8.09. Polymer Photonics

    8.09.1 Introduction

    8.09.2 Second-Order NLO Polymers

    8.09.3 Third-Order NLO Polymers

    8.09.4 Summary and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    8.10. Polymer-Based LEDs and Solar Cells

    8.10.1 Introduction

    8.10.2 Device Issues in Electroluminescent Materials and Full-Color Displays

    8.10.3 Material Classes

    8.10.4 Hybrid Solar Cells

    8.10.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    8.11. Optical Fibers

    8.11.1 Introduction

    8.11.2 Fundamentals of Fiber Optics

    8.11.3 Plastic Optical Fibers

    8.11.4 Transmission Properties

    8.11.5 Materials

    8.11.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    8.12. Adhesives and Sealants

    8.12.1 Adhesives

    8.12.2 Adhesive Testing

    8.12.3 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

    8.12.4 Rubber-Based Adhesives

    8.12.5 Hot Melt Adhesives

    8.12.6 Natural Product-Based Adhesives

    8.12.7 Structural Adhesives

    8.12.8 Sealants

    8.12.9 Future of Adhesives and Sealants

    REFERENCES

    8.13. Polymer Membranes

    8.13.1 Introduction and Historical Background

    8.13.2 Membrane Variants and Their Utility

    8.13.3 Membrane Formation

    8.13.4 Membranes in Gas and Liquid Separations

    8.13.5 Barrier Polymers

    8.13.6 Membranes in Water Purification Processes

    8.13.7 Membranes in Emerging Technologies

    REFERENCES

    8.14. Polymer Additives

    8.14.1 Introduction

    8.14.2 Thermo-Oxidative Degradation

    8.14.3 Requirements for Polymer Stabilizers

    8.14.4 Stabilization against Thermo-Oxidative Degradation

    8.14.5 Stabilization of Polymers against Degradation under the Impact of Light

    8.14.6 Multifunctional Additive for Engineering Polymers

    8.14.7 Metal Ion Deactivators

    8.14.8 Acid Scavengers

    8.14.9 Analysis of Stabilizers in the Polymer Matrix

    REFERENCES

    8.15. Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Systems

    8.15.1 What Are ‘Responsive Polymers’?

    8.15.2 Stimuli-Responsive Polymers

    8.15.3 Special Structures of Responsive Polymers

    8.15.4 Properties of Responsive Polymers

    8.15.5 Responsive Polymers and Their Applications

    REFERENCES

    8.16. Graphene and Its Synthesis

    8.16.1 Introduction and Physical Properties of Graphene

    8.16.2 Graphene Synthesis and Characterization

    8.16.3 Graphene Nanoribbons

    8.16.4 Bottom-Up Organic Synthesis of Graphene Nanostructures

    8.16.5 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    8.17. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes and Their Enhanced Polymers

    8.17.1 Introduction

    8.17.2 CNT Synthesis Techniques

    8.17.3 Functionalization of CNTs

    8.17.4 CNT–Polymer Nanocomposites

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 9. Polymers in Biology and Medicine

    9.01. Introduction and Overview

    9.01.1 Introduction

    9.01.2 Overview

    9.02. Lifelike but Not Living

    9.02.1 Introduction

    9.02.2 Basic Aspects of DNA and RNA Polymers

    9.02.3 Three Discoveries That Transformed Nucleic Acid Chemistry

    9.02.4 Upper Limits of a Degenerate DNA Synthesis – A Cap on Outcome

    9.02.5 Catalytic RNA Cleavage by Ribozymes and DNAzymes

    9.02.6 DNAzymes – Deoxyribozymes

    9.02.7 M2+-Independent RNA-Cleaving DNAs

    9.02.8 RNase A-Catalyzed RNA Cleavage – M2+-Independent Catalytic Perfection

    9.02.9 Early Attempts at Expanding the Catalytic Repertoire of Nucleic Acids

    9.02.10 Simultaneous Incorporation of Imidazoles and Amines – Selection of M2+-Independent RNase A Mimics

    9.02.11 A Comparison of Two Selected M2+-Independent DNAzyme RNase A Mimics

    9.02.12 M2+-Independent RNA-Cleaving DNAzymes with Three Modified Nucleosides

    9.02.13 Nucleic Acid Diels–Alderases – Modified and Unmodified

    9.02.14 Nanoparticle Templation by Modified RNAs

    9.02.15 Other Reports of Modified rNTPs and dNTPs for Potential Selection

    9.02.16 Non-Nucleobase Modifications – Altered Phosphodiester and Sugar Portions

    9.02.17 Nucleobase-Modified Aptamers

    9.02.18 Evolving Polymerases

    9.02.19 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    9.03. Collagen

    9.03.1 Introduction

    9.03.2 The Collagen Fibril – A Building Block of Extracellular Tissues

    9.03.3 Examples of Collagen-Based Natural Tissues

    9.03.4 Collagen as Biomaterial

    REFERENCES

    9.04. Silks

    9.04.1 Introduction

    9.04.2 Types of Silk Fibers

    9.04.3 Material Properties

    9.04.4 Composition

    9.04.5 Structure

    9.04.6 Silk Processing

    9.04.7 The Future

    REFERENCES

    9.05. Elastins

    9.05.1 Introduction

    9.05.2 Native Elastin Derivatives: Sequence, Structure, and Function

    9.05.3 Elastin-Mimetic Polypeptides: Synthesis and Applications

    9.05.4 Comparison between Native and Synthetic Elastins

    REFERENCES

    9.06. Resilin in the Engineering of Elastomeric Biomaterials

    9.06.1 Introduction

    9.06.2 Native Resilin

    9.06.3 Recombinant Resilin-Like Polypeptides

    9.06.4 Conclusions and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    9.07. Artificial Proteins

    9.07.1 Introduction

    9.07.2 Protein Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Protein Polymers

    9.07.3 Bioinspired Artificial Protein Polymers

    9.07.4 Biosynthesis of De Novo-Designed Protein Polymers

    9.07.5 Expanding the Scope of Protein Chemistry: Noncanonical Amino Acids

    REFERENCES

    9.08. Polysaccharides

    9.08.1 Introduction

    9.08.2 The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

    9.08.3 Glycopolymers

    9.08.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    9.09. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s

    9.09.1 General Introduction

    9.09.2 Biosynthesis of PHAs

    9.09.3 Structure and Properties of PHAs

    9.09.4 Biodegradability of PHAs

    9.09.5 Industrial Production of P(3HB) and Its Copolymers

    REFERENCES

    9.10. Polymers of the Cytoskeleton

    9.10.1 Introduction

    9.10.2 Cytoskeletal Filament Subunits

    9.10.3 Cytoskeletal Assembly

    9.10.4 Cytoskeletal-Binding Proteins

    9.10.5 Polyelectrolyte Properties: Counterion Cross-Linking

    9.10.6 Mechanical Properties of the Cytoskeleton

    9.10.7 Active, Nonequilibrium Gels

    9.10.8 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    9.11. Mechanical Interactions between Cells and Tissues

    9.11.1 Introduction

    9.11.2 Elasticity of Physiological Microenvironments

    9.11.3 Cell-Induced Matrix Deformations

    9.11.4 How Deeply Do Cells ‘Feel’? – Experiments

    9.11.5 How Deeply Do Cells ‘Feel’? – Computations

    9.11.6 Matrix-Mediated Cell–Cell Interactions

    9.11.7 Cell Morphology and Cytoskeletal Forces Are Directed by Extracellular Mechanical Cues

    9.11.8 Molecular Mechanics in Mechanism: From Forced Unfolding to ‘Heat Shock’ Proteins

    9.11.9 Putting It All Together: Microenvironment Elasticity, Cytoskeletal Stress, and Gene Organization

    9.11.10 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    9.12. Biological Adhesion

    9.12.1 Introduction

    9.12.2 Bioinspired Fibrillar Adhesives

    9.12.3 Bioinspired Wet Adhesives

    9.12.4 Other Biological Adhesives as Future Targets of Biomimetic Systems

    9.12.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    9.13. Viral Packaging of Nucleic Acids

    9.13.1 Introduction

    9.13.2 Physical Models of dsDNA, ssDNA, and RNA

    9.13.3 Internal Organization of a Viral Genome

    9.13.4 Thermodynamic Forces in the Packaging in Bacteriophages

    9.13.5 Electrostatic Dominance in the Assembly of ssRNA Viruses

    9.13.6 Ejection Forces and Dynamics

    REFERENCES

    9.14. Making New Materials from Viral Capsids

    9.14.1 Introduction

    9.14.2 Capsid-Based Templates for the Generation of Inorganic Materials

    9.14.3 Chemical Methods for the Covalent Modification of Viral Capsids

    9.14.4 Capsid-Based Materials for Drug Delivery, Diagnostics, and Tissue Engineering

    9.14.5 Capsid-Based Materials for Optical and Catalytic Applications

    9.14.6 Summary and Future Challenges

    REFERENCES

    9.15. Peptoid Oligomers

    9.15.1 Background

    9.15.2 Peptoid-Based Polymers

    9.15.3 Applications of Peptoid Polymers

    9.15.4 Antimicrobial Peptoids

    9.15.5 Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    9.16. Polymer–Membrane Interactions

    9.16.1 Polymer–Membrane Interactions

    9.16.2 Neutral Polymers

    9.16.3 Zwitterionic Polymers

    9.16.4 Anionic Polymers

    9.16.5 Cationic Polymers

    9.16.6 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    9.17. Protein–Polymer Conjugates

    9.17.1 Introduction

    9.17.2 Grafting To

    9.17.3 Grafting From

    9.17.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    9.18. Biomimetic Polymers (for Biomedical Applications)

    9.18.1 Introduction

    9.18.2 Interaction of Cells with their Environment: Potential of Biomaterial Design

    9.18.3 Biomimetic Strategies Applied for Polymeric Materials

    9.18.4 Polymers Used for Biomedical Applications: Biomimetic Modification Techniques

    9.18.5 Examples of Biomedical Applications for Biomimetic Polymers

    9.18.6 Characterization of Biomimetic Polymer Properties and of the Resulting Interactions with the Biological Environment

    9.18.7 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    9.19. Biocompatibility

    9.19.1 Introduction

    9.19.2 Biocompatibility

    9.19.3 Materials for Medical Devices

    9.19.4 In Vitro Tests for Biocompatibility

    9.19.5 In Vivo Tests for Biocompatibility

    9.19.6 Inflammation, Wound Healing, and the Foreign Body Response

    9.19.7 Hemocompatibility

    9.19.8 Immune Responses

    9.19.9 Summary and Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    9.20. Hydrogels

    9.20.1 Introduction

    9.20.2 Gel Swelling and Solute Transport

    9.20.3 ‘Intelligent’ Hydrogels

    9.20.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    9.21. Polymeric Implants

    9.21.1 Introduction

    9.21.2 Properties of Biomedical Polymers

    9.21.3 Key Polymers Used in Today’s Medical Devices

    9.21.4 Perspectives and Opportunities

    REFERENCES

    9.22. Photopolymerizable Systems

    9.22.1 Introduction

    9.22.2 Photopolymerization Reactions

    9.22.3 Applications

    9.22.4 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    9.23. Patterning of Polymeric Materials for Biological Applications

    9.23.1 Introduction

    9.23.2 Top-Down Polymer Patterning Techniques

    9.23.3 Bottom-Up Patterning Techniques

    9.23.4 Integration of ‘Top-Down’ and ‘Bottom-Up’ Techniques

    9.23.5 Biological Applications of Patterned Polymers

    9.23.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    9.24. High-Throughput Approaches

    9.24.1 Introduction

    9.24.2 Polyarylates

    9.24.3 Cationic Polymers

    9.24.4 Organic Coatings

    9.24.5 Polyolefin Catalyst Discovery

    9.24.6 Polymers Generated through Radical Polymerization

    9.24.7 Ring-Opening Polymerizations

    9.24.8 Microarray Approaches

    9.24.9 Other High-Throughput Screening Approaches

    REFERENCES

    9.25. Programming Cells with Synthetic Polymers

    9.25.1 Introduction

    9.25.2 Extracellular Matrix as a Model for Materials to Program Cells

    9.25.3 Recruiting Host Cells

    9.25.4 Programming Cells via Adhesive Interactions

    9.25.5 Regulating Cell Dispersal

    9.25.6 Bringing All Three Steps Together: Regulating Dendritic Cell Recruitment, Activation, and Dispersion

    REFERENCES

    9.26. Nucleic Acid Delivery via Polymer Vehicles

    9.26.1 Introduction

    9.26.2 Polymer Vehicles for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    9.26.3 Polyplex Characterization

    9.26.4 Polymer Structure–Nucleic Acid Delivery Relationships from In Vitro Studies

    9.26.5 Introduction to In Vivo Nucleic Acid Delivery with Polymers

    9.26.6 Polymer–Nucleic Acid Therapeutics in Human Clinical Trials

    REFERENCES

    9.27. Polymeric Imaging Agents

    9.27.1 Introduction

    9.27.2 X-Ray Imaging Contrast Agents

    9.27.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

    9.27.4 Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    9.27.5 Radionucleotide Imaging Agents

    9.27.6 Optical Imaging Agents

    9.27.7 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    9.28. Biodegradation of Polymers

    9.28.1 Introduction

    9.28.2 Polyesters

    9.28.3 Polyanhydrides

    9.28.4 Polyorthoesters

    9.28.5 Polyketals

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 10. Polymers for a Sustainable Environment and Green Energy

    10.01. Introduction

    10.01.1 Introduction

    REFERENCES

    10.02. Green Chemistry and Green Polymer Chemistry

    10.02.1 Introduction

    10.02.2 Green Chemistry

    10.02.3 Green Polymer Chemistry

    10.02.4 Biopolymer Definitions

    REFERENCES

    Lipids

    10.03. Lipid-Based Polymer Building Blocks and Polymers

    10.03.1 Introduction

    10.03.2 Natural Fats and Oils as Polymer Building Blocks

    10.03.3 Oleochemical Polymer Building Blocks

    10.03.4 Glycerol

    10.03.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Carbohydrate-Based Polymer Building Blocks & Biopolymers

    10.04. Mono-, Di-, and Oligosaccharides as Precursors for Polymer Synthesis

    10.04.1 Introduction

    10.04.2 Mono-, Di-, and Oligosaccharide-Based Platforms and Building Blocks

    10.04.3 Carbohydrate-Based Polymers

    10.04.4 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.05. Celluloses and Polyoses/Hemicelluloses

    10.05.1 Introduction

    10.05.2 Cellulose Sources and Isolation

    10.05.3 Structure and Superstructure of Cellulose: Methods for Analysis

    10.05.4 Cellulose Solvents

    10.05.5 Cellulose Regeneration

    10.05.6 Cellulose Esters

    10.05.7 Cellulose Ethers

    10.05.8 Deoxy Celluloses

    10.05.9 Oxidation of Cellulose

    10.05.10 Grafting Reactions

    10.05.11 Hemicelluloses

    REFERENCES

    10.06. Nanochitins and Nanochitosans, Paving the Way to Eco-Friendly and Energy-Saving Exploitation of Marine Resources

    10.06.1 Structural Characteristics of Chitins In Vivo

    10.06.2 β-Chitin: The Simplest 2D Hydrogen-Bonded Polymorph

    10.06.3 α-Chitin: The 3D Hydrogen-Bonded Polymorph

    10.06.4 Oxychitin

    10.06.5 Simplified Preparation of Chitin Nanofibrils

    10.06.6 Electrospinning

    10.06.7 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    10.07. Starch-Based Biopolymers in Paper, Corrugating, and Other Industrial Applications

    10.07.1 Starch Basics

    10.07.2 Markets

    10.07.3 Starch Modification

    10.07.4 Starch Handling and Cooking

    10.07.5 Industrial Applications

    10.07.6 Pharmaceutical and Chemical Applications

    10.07.7 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    10.08. Guar and Guar Derivatives

    10.08.1 Introduction

    10.08.2 From the Green Beans to Guar Splits and Guar Powders

    10.08.3 Chemical Structure and Resulting Physicochemical Properties and Comparison with Other Polysaccharides

    10.08.4 Guar Derivatives

    10.08.5 Major Applications of Guars

    10.08.6 Conclusions and Outlooks

    REFERENCES

    10.09. Acacia Gum

    10.09.1 Origin

    10.09.2 Acacia Gum and Sustainable Environment

    10.09.3 Chemical Structure

    10.09.4 Applications

    10.09.5 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    10.10. Alginates

    10.10.1 Introduction

    10.10.2 Sources and Production

    10.10.3 Chemical Composition and Conformation

    10.10.4 Properties

    10.10.5 Tailoring of Alginates by In Vitro Modification

    10.10.6 Technical Applications

    10.10.7 Applications of Alginates in Medicine and Biotechnology

    10.10.8 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.11. Xanthan

    10.11.1 Introduction

    10.11.2 Chemical Structure and Biosynthesis

    10.11.3 Production Process and Xanthan Modifications

    10.11.4 Physicochemical Properties

    10.11.5 Applications

    10.11.6 Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    10.12. Polylactic Acid

    10.12.1 Introduction

    10.12.2 Nondepleting Properties of PLA

    10.12.3 Market Potential of PLA

    10.12.4 Process Routes to PLA

    10.12.5 Processing of PLA

    10.12.6 Properties of PLA

    10.12.7 Perspective

    10.12.8 LA as Raw Material of PLA

    REFERENCES

    Amino Acid Based Polymer-Building Blocks and Proteins as Biopolymers

    10.13. Gelatin

    10.13.1 Gelatin

    10.13.2 Chemical Composition

    10.13.3 Physical and Chemical Properties

    10.13.4 Manufacture and Processing

    10.13.5 Economic Aspects

    10.13.6 Analytical Test Methods and Quality Standards

    10.13.7 Uses

    REFERENCES

    10.14. Processing Soy Protein Concentrate as Plastic in Polymer Blends

    10.14.1 Introduction

    10.14.2 Soy Protein Products and Fractionation

    10.14.3 Plastic Application of Soy Protein

    10.14.4 General Extrusion Compounding for Processing SPC as a Plastic in Blending

    10.14.5 Properties of PBAT/SPC Blends

    10.14.6 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Lignin

    10.15. Lignin as Building Unit for Polymers

    10.15.1 Constitution and Structure of Lignin from Renewable Resources

    10.15.2 Important Isolation Methods and Their Influence on the Properties of Lignin

    10.15.3 Current Applications and Future Aspects of the Utilization of Lignin

    10.15.4 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    Sustainable Use of Biomass

    10.16. Natural Fibers

    10.16.1 Generalities

    10.16.2 Fiber Structure

    10.16.3 Fiber Morphology

    10.16.4 Fiber Sourcing

    10.16.5 Summary of the Proprieties of Natural Fibers

    10.16.6 Processing of Natural Fibers

    10.16.7 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.17. Natural Rubber

    10.17.1 Introduction and History

    10.17.2 Challenge Facing the Supply Chain

    10.17.3 The Biosynthesis of Poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)

    10.17.4 Nonisoprene Components of Natural Rubber (NR)

    10.17.5 NR Structure

    10.17.6 NR in the Manufacture of Antivibration Parts

    10.17.7 General Aspects of NR Applications in Tires

    10.17.8 Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    10.18. Biocomposites

    10.18.1 Introduction

    10.18.2 Matrix Systems for NF-Reinforced Composites

    10.18.3 Natural Fibers for Composites

    10.18.4 Natural Composites and Biocomposites

    10.18.5 Manual of Typical Challenges for Selected Applications

    10.18.6 Conclusions

    10.18.7 Outlook

    REFERENCES

    Polymer Processing: Environmentally Benign & Safe

    10.19. Performance Profile of Biopolymers Compared to Conventional Plastics

    10.19.1 Introduction

    10.19.2 Property Profiles of the Most Important Biopolymers

    10.19.3 Properties in Comparison with Conventional Plastics

    REFERENCES

    10.20. Processing of Plastics into Structural Components

    10.20.1 Introduction

    10.20.2 Procedures for Serial Production of Plastics Products

    REFERENCES

    10.21. Processing and Performance Additives for Plastics

    10.21.1 Introduction

    10.21.2 Radical Generation

    10.21.3 Surface Active Additives

    10.21.4 Additives for Polymer Processing

    10.21.5 Additives for Polymer Properties and Performance

    10.21.6 Stabilization against Polymer Degradation

    REFERENCES

    10.22. Processing and Performance Additives for Coatings

    10.22.1 Introduction

    10.22.2 Emulsification, Stabilization, and Dispersion

    10.22.3 Foam Control

    10.22.4 Rheology, Thickening, and Flow

    10.22.5 Coalescence and Film Formation

    10.22.6 Preservation

    10.22.7 Coating Performance

    REFERENCES

    Sustainable Manufacturing, Processing and Applications for Polymers and Polymer Systems

    10.23. Paper

    10.23.1 Introduction

    10.23.2 Paper History

    10.23.3 Paper Applications and Trends

    10.23.4 Paper Manufacturing Basics

    10.23.5 Cell Structure of Wood

    10.23.6 Lignin and Cellulose Chemistry

    10.23.7 Sustainable Forestry

    REFERENCES

    10.24. Polyurethanes

    10.24.1 General Description and Basic Reactions

    10.24.2 Foams and Elastomers

    10.24.3 Coatings and Adhesives

    REFERENCES

    10.25. Polysiloxanes

    10.25.1 Introduction: Siloxanes and their Environmental Characteristics

    10.25.2 How Siloxanes Contribute to Sustainable Manufacturing and Resource Conservation

    10.25.3 New Applications with Polysiloxanes as Key Substances for Environmentally Important Processes

    10.25.4 Conclusion and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    10.26. Lubricant and Fuel Additives Based on Polyalkylmethacrylates

    10.26.1 Synthesis of Polyalkylmethacrylates

    10.26.2 The Chemistry of Polyalkylmethacrylates

    10.26.3 Applications of PAMAs

    REFERENCES

    10.27. Aqueous Emulsion Polymers

    10.27.1 Introduction

    10.27.2 Emulsion Polymerization and Powder Production

    10.27.3 Introduction on Dry Mortars

    10.27.4 Function of Dispersible Polymer Powders in Dry Mortars

    10.27.5 Environmental Aspects of Using Polymer-Modified Dry Mortars

    10.27.6 Applications of Polymer-Modified Dry Mortars

    10.27.7 Summary on Polymers in Dry Mortars

    10.27.8 Polymer Dispersions in Paper Manufacturing

    10.27.9 Polymer Dispersions in Adhesives

    10.27.10 Polymer Dispersions in Architectural Coatings

    10.27.11 Nonwoven Fabrics

    10.27.12 Summary and Outlook

    REFERENCES

    10.28. Water-Based Epoxy Systems

    10.28.1 Introduction

    10.28.2 Definition

    10.28.3 Classification of Waterborne Epoxy Technologies

    10.28.4 Comparison of Waterborne and Solvent-Borne Epoxy Coatings

    10.28.5 Waterborne Amine Hardeners: General Structural Requirements

    10.28.6 Type I Waterborne Epoxy Technologies

    10.28.7 Type II Waterborne Epoxy Technologies

    10.28.8 Deep Penetrating and Green Concrete Primer

    10.28.9 Water Vapor Permeable Floor Systems

    10.28.10 Concrete Coating Systems

    10.28.11 Waterborne Epoxy Curing Agent Systems

    10.28.12 Self-Leveling Floor Formulation

    10.28.13 Self-Leveler

    10.28.14 Low-Emission Industrial Floorings

    10.28.15 Path to Low-Emission Floorings

    10.28.16 Water-Based Low-Emission Formulation

    10.28.17 Time Is Money

    10.28.18 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.29. Powder Coatings

    10.29.1 Introduction

    10.29.2 General Concepts

    10.29.3 Material Saving

    10.29.4 Raw Materials

    10.29.5 Production of Powder Coatings

    10.29.6 Application of Powder Coatings

    10.29.7 In-Use Considerations

    10.29.8 Future Trends

    REFERENCES

    10.30. Radiation-Curing Polymer Systems

    10.30.1 Introduction

    10.30.2 Technology

    10.30.3 Formulations and Raw Materials

    10.30.4 Network Formation and Characterization

    10.30.5 Structure–Property Relationship

    10.30.6 Applications

    10.30.7 Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    Plastics after Use

    10.31. Sustainable Management of Material and Energy Resources

    10.31.1 Introduction

    10.31.2 Waste Management

    10.31.3 Regulatory Framework for Waste Management in Europe

    10.31.4 Plastics Waste in Europe

    10.31.5 Plastics Waste Recovery

    10.31.6 Plastics Waste Recovery and Sustainability

    10.31.7 Outlook 2020+

    REFERENCES

    Polymers in Energy Applications

    10.32. Polymers in Energy Applications

    10.32.1 Introduction

    10.32.2 Chapter Summaries

    10.33. Poly(Perfluorosulfonic Acid) Membranes

    10.33.1 Introduction

    10.33.2 Membrane Manufacturing

    10.33.3 Morphology

    10.33.4 Durability and Lifetime

    10.33.5 New Chemistry

    10.33.6 Summary

    REFERENCES

    10.34. Alternative Hydrocarbon Membranes by Step Growth

    10.34.1 Introduction

    10.34.2 Alternative Hydrocarbon Ionomer Membranes

    10.34.3 Recent Trends in Hydrocarbon Ionomer Membranes

    10.34.4 Application to Fuel Cells

    10.34.5 Prospects

    REFERENCES

    10.35. Alternative Proton Exchange Membranes by Chain-Growth Polymerization

    10.35.1 Introduction

    10.35.2 Chain-Growth Polymerization

    10.35.3 Chain-Growth Polymerization Applied to PEM Materials

    10.35.4 Conclusions and Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    10.36. Polymers in Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    10.36.1 Introduction

    10.36.2 Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    10.36.3 Polymer Electrolyte Ionomers in the Electrode

    10.36.4 Summary

    REFERENCES

    10.37. Morphology of Proton Exchange Membranes

    10.37.1 Introduction

    10.37.2 Perfluorosulfonate Ionomers as the Benchmark Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes

    10.37.3 Alternative Membrane Materials

    10.37.4 Evolution of Morphological Models for Nafion®

    10.37.5 Morphology–Property Relationships in Ion-Containing Polymers

    10.37.6 Development and Manipulation of Morphological Features in Proton Exchange Membranes

    10.37.7 Computational Modeling/Simulation of Proton Exchange Membrane Morphology

    10.37.8 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.38. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation

    10.38.1 Introduction

    10.38.2 Mechanical Degradation of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    10.38.3 Chemical Degradation of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    10.38.4 Summary

    REFERENCES

    10.39. Molecular and Mesoscale Modeling of Proton Exchange Membranes

    10.39.1 Introduction

    10.39.2 Simulations of PEMs

    10.39.3 Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    10.40. Polymers for Thin Film Capacitors

    10.40.1 Capacitor Fundamentals

    10.40.2 Dielectric Polymers

    10.40.3 Biaxially Oriented PP Film Capacitors

    10.40.4 Ferroelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based Film Capacitors

    10.40.5 High-Temperature Polymer Capacitors

    10.40.6 Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors

    10.40.7 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.41. Aromatic Poly(amides) for Reverse Osmosis

    10.41.1 Introduction

    10.41.2 RO Theory

    10.41.3 Real-World Design Considerations

    10.41.4 RO History

    10.41.5 Thin-Film Composites

    10.41.6 Polyamide Thin-Film Composites

    10.41.7 FT-30 Polymer Analogies

    10.41.8 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    10.42. Electrolyzer Membranes

    10.42.1 Introduction

    10.42.2 Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Electrolysis

    10.42.3 Polymer Membranes in the Chlor-Alkali Industry

    10.42.4 Polymer Membranes in Gas Generators

    10.42.5 Polymer Membranes in Early Regenerative Fuel Cells

    10.42.6 Polymer Membrane Performance and Degradation

    10.42.7 Performance Fundamentals

    10.42.8 Electrolysis and Thermochemical Cycles

    10.42.9 Status of Nuclear Power Technology

    10.42.10 Review of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    10.42.11 Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer Performance

    10.42.12 Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Subject Index

    Authors

Product details

  • No. of pages: 7760
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2012
  • Published: June 2, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080878621
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444533494
  • About the Editors in Chief

    Martin Moeller

    Martin Moeller
    Martin Möeller is Professor of Textile and Macromolecular Chemistry and Director of DWI at RWTH Aachen University. His research interests include polymers, structure-property relationships and self organization of macromolecules, surface modification and activation, formation of functional nanostructures and organic - inorganic hybrid structures. Prior to working at RWTH Aachen University, Möeller was professor at the University of Ulm and University of Twente. He is a member of Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften (acatech) and of the Academy of Sciences of the State of North-Rhine Westphalia.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor of Textile and Macromolecular Chemistry and Director of DWI,RWTH Aachen University

    Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

    Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
    Krzysztof Matyjaszewski is J.C. Warner University Professor of Natural Sciences and director of Center for Macromolecular Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University and also Adjunct Professor at the Polish Academy of Sciences. His research interests include controlled/living radical polymerization, catalysis, environmental chemistry, and advanced materials for optoelectronic and biomedical applications. Matyjaszewski is the editor of Progress in Polymer Science and Central European Journal of Chemistry and a member of US National Academy of Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor of Natural Sciences, Warner University Director of Center for Macromolecular Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University Adjunct Professor, Polish Academy of Sciences