Polymer Green Flame Retardants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444538086, 9780444538093

Polymer Green Flame Retardants

1st Edition

Editors: Constantine Papaspyrides Pantelis Kiliaris
eBook ISBN: 9780444538093
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538086
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 21st August 2014
Page Count: 942
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Description

Polymer Green Flame Retardants covers key issues regarding the response of polymers during fire, the mechanisms of their flame retardation, the regulations imposed on their use, and the health hazards arising from their combustion. Presenting the latest research developments, the book focuses in particular on nanocomposites, believed to be the most promising approach for producing physically superior materials with low flammability and ecological impact. The fire properties of nanocomposites of various matrixes and fillers are discussed, the toxicological characteristics of these materials are analyzed, addressing also their environmental sustainability.

Edited by distinguished scientists, including an array of international industry and academia experts, this book will appeal to chemical, mechanical, environmental, material and process engineers, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines, and generally to researchers developing commercially attractive and environmentally friendly fire-proof products.

Key Features

  • Provides recent findings on the manufacture of environmentally sustainable flame retardant polymeric materials
  • Covers legislation and regulations concerning flame retarded polymeric material use
  • Includes tables containing the fire properties of the most common polymeric materials

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Polymers on Fire
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Polymer combustion
    • 3. The stages of fire evolution and the corresponding hazards
    • 4. Fire testing
    • 5. Strategies of flame retardancy
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 2. Fire Safety Performance of Flame Retardants Compared with Toxic and Environmental Hazards
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. FR applications
    • 3. Different FR systems and additives
    • 4. Conclusions
    • Abbreviations and definitions
  • Chapter 3. Flame Retardant Additives in Polymers: When do the Fire Safety Benefits Outweigh the Toxicity Risks?
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Innate fire performance characteristics of common polymers
    • 3. Use of FR additives to improve the fire safety of polymers
    • 4. Toxicological behavior of common FR additives in laboratory studies
    • 5. Routes of human exposure to FR additives
    • 6. Human levels and health associations of FR additives from epidemiological studies
    • 7. Environmental contamination and wild animal exposure
    • 8. Overview of risk-benefit considerations
    • 9. Case 1: FR additives in furniture foams
    • 10. Case 2: FR additives in plastic foam thermal insulation
    • 11. Case 3: FR additives in electronics housings
    • 12. Alternatives to the use of FR additives
    • 13. Conclusions
  • Chapter 4. Environmental Drivers for Replacement of Halogenated Flame Retardants
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Fire statistics
    • 3. Fire retardants
    • 4. Halogenated FRs
    • 5. Impact of halogenated FRs on fire safety
    • 6. Regulatory considerations
    • 7. Environmental distribution of BFRs
    • 8. FRs in food
    • 9. Dioxin formation
    • 10. Harmful effects of halogenated FRs
    • 11. Conclusions
  • Chapter 5. Reactive and Additive Phosphorus-based Flame Retardants of Reduced Environmental Impact
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Reactive flame retardancy of epoxy resins
    • 3. Additive and reactive flame retardant systems in thermoplastic polyurethanes
    • 4. Interphase modifications in fire retarded polypropylene
    • 5. Going more green: recycled and biodegradable matrices
    • 6. Conclusions
    • 7. Appendix: resume of the results of studies on phosphorus-based flame retardants
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 6. Phosphorus-based and Intumescent Flame Retardants
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Phosphate flame retardants
    • 3. Red phosphorus as a flame retardant
    • 4. Phosphonate FRs
    • 5. Phosphinate FRs
    • 6. Conclusions
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 7. Novel Class of Eco-Flame Retardants Based on the Renewable Raw Materials
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Oxidized polysaccharides and lignin
    • 3. Mode of flame retarding action of oxidized polysaccharides
    • 4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 8. Design and Utilization of Nitrogen Containing Flame Retardants Based on N-Alkoxyamines, Azoalkanes and Related Compounds
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Mechanistic considerations and studies on structure–activity relationship of N-alkoxyamines as flame retardants
    • 3. Azoalkanes (AZO) as flame retardants for polypropylene films and plaques
    • 4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 9. Fire Retardant Fillers for Polymers
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Market background
    • 3. Environmental benefits as fire retardants and smoke suppressants
    • 4. Fire retardant mechanisms
    • 5. Effects on other important composite properties
    • 6. Principal commercial products
    • 7. Other hydroxides and related materials
    • 8. Conclusions
  • Chapter 10. Modeling the Endothermic Decomposition of Hydrated Solids
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Decomposition kinetics
    • 3. Conservation of energy with no heat diffusion
    • 4. Conservation of energy with heat diffusion
    • 5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 11. Review of Recent Advances on the Use of Boron-based Flame Retardants
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Products and applications
    • 3. Conclusions
  • Chapter 12. Organosilicon Compounds as Polymer Fire Retardants
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Definitions and classification
    • 3. Mechanistic aspects in fire-retardancy action
    • 4. Applications
    • 5. Conclusion and perspectives
  • Chapter 13. (Photo)oxidative Stabilization of Flame-Retarded Polymers
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. (Photo)oxidative degradation and stabilization of polymers
    • 3. Challenges of the stabilization of flame-retarded polymers
    • 4. Conclusions
    • 5. Appendix
  • Chapter 14. Comprehensive Approach to Flame-Retardancy Evaluation of Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Mechanisms of nanoclays action during polymer decomposition and combustion
    • 3. Nanocomposites flame-retardancy performance
    • 4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 15. Polymer Nanocomposites as Ablative Materials
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Thermal protection systems
    • 3. Conclusions
    • Nomenclature
  • Chapter 16. Flame-Retardant Thermoset Nanocomposites for Engineering Applications
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Thermosets and key flammability issues
    • 3. Flame-retardant strategies for thermosets
    • 4. Synthesis of thermoset nanocomposites
    • 5. Thermal, fire, and mechanical performance of thermoset nanocomposites
    • 6. Conclusions and future trends
  • Chapter 17. Flame Retardancy of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites Based on Nanoclays and Carbon Nanotubes
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Fiber-reinforced polymer composites
    • 3. Fire behavior, test methods, and fire reaction properties
    • 4. FRP composites in fire
    • 5. Flame retardancy
    • 6. Polymer/clay nano- and microcomposites
    • 7. Polymer/CNT nano- and microcomposites
    • 8. Conclusions and identification of main research needs
  • Chapter 18. Fire Retardancy of Elastomers and Elastomer Nanocomposites
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Preparative methods of elastomer nanocomposites
    • 3. Inorganic nanofillers used in the formation of polymer nanocomposites
    • 4. Characterization of elastomer nanocomposites
    • 5. Evaluation of flame retardancy of polymer nanocomposites
    • 6. Fire retardancy of elastomers and elastomer nanocomposites
    • 7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 19. Self-extinguishing Polymer Blends Containing Organoclays
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. PFR-coated aluminumsilicates
    • 3. FR biodegradable polymers with nanoclays
    • 4. Relationship of surface energy and FR performance in immiscible polymer blends containing nanoclays
    • 5. Mechanical properties of char formation
    • 6. Biocompatibility of silicate–polymer nanocomposites
    • 7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 20. Layered Double Hydroxides: An Emerging Class of Flame Retardants
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Structure and properties
    • 3. Synthesis of LDHs
    • 4. Preparation of polymer/LDH nanocomposites
    • 5. Flame retardant behavior of LDHs
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 21. Pathways to Biodegradable Flame Retardant Polymer (Nano)Composites
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. The state of the art: general considerations
    • 3. Fire performances of biodegradable polymer nanocomposites
    • 4. Multicomponent FR systems
    • 5. Design of biodegradable fibers with FR Properties
    • 6. Conclusions and future perspectives
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 22. Improving the Flame Retardancy of Plant Oil Based Polymers
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Phosphorus-containing plant oil based polymers
    • 3. Silicon-containing plant oil based polymers
    • 4. Boron-containing plant oil based polymers
    • 5. Cone calorimerty studies of fire retardant soybean-oil-based copolymers containing silicon or boron: comparison of additive and reactive approaches
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 23. Flame Retardancy and Protection against Biodeterioration of Natural Fibers: State-of-Art and Future Prospects
    • 1. Flammability
    • 2. Biodeterioration
    • 3. Conclusions
  • Chapter 24. Influence of Fire Retardants and Nanofillers on Fire Toxicity
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Analysis of fire toxicity for different polymers and products
    • 3. Conclusions
  • Chapter 25. Recycling of Postindustrial and Postconsumer Plastics Containing Flame Retardants
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. FR polymers in waste streams
    • 3. Product requirements
    • 4. Polymer recycling techniques and their relevance for FR plastics
    • 5. Case studies on recycling of FR plastics
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 26. Methodology for Testing the Life Cycle Sustainability of Flame Retardant Chemicals and Nanomaterials
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. LCA approach
    • 3. Methodology
    • 4. European research projects
    • 5. Conclusions
    • Abbreviations
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
942
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444538093
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444538086

About the Editor

Constantine Papaspyrides

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zographou, Greece

Pantelis Kiliaris

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zographou, Greece