Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845697617, 9780857091390

Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites

1st Edition

Preparation, Properties and Applications

Editors: Tony McNally Petra Pötschke
eBook ISBN: 9780857091390
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697617
Paperback ISBN: 9780081017272
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 28th March 2011
Page Count: 848
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Table of Contents

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Introduction to polymer–carbon nanotube composites

Part I: Preparation and processing of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

Chapter 1: Polyolefin–carbon nanotube composites by in-situ polymerization


1.1 Introduction

1.2 In-situ polymerization techniques for polyolefin-CNT composites

1.3 Polymer architecture by metallocene catalysis

1.4 Polyethylene–CNT composites

1.5 Polypropylene–CNT composites

1.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 2: Surface treatment of carbon nanotubes via plasma technology


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Carbon nanotube surface chemistry and solution-based functionalization

2.3 Plasma treatment of carbon nanotubes

2.4 Summary

Chapter 3: Functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with polymers

3.3 Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with polymers

3.4 Conclusion

3.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 4: Influence of material and processing parameters on carbon nanotube dispersion in polymer melts


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Fundamentals of melt mixing and filler dispersion

4.3 Review of the literature

4.4 Batch compounding using small-scale mixers

4.5 Continuous melt mixing using extruders

4.6 Conclusion and future trends

4.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 5: High-shear melt processing of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


5.1 Introduction

5.2 High-shear processing technique

5.3 Polymer nanoblends by high-shear processing

5.4 Polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites by high-shear processing

5.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 6: Injection moulding of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Background

6.3 Experiment design and materials

6.4 Analysis

6.5 Conclusion

6.7 Appendix: list of units

Chapter 7: Elastomer–carbon nanotube composites


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Processing

7.3 Structure–property relationships

7.4 Systems with ionic liquids for increased coupling activity

7.5 Hybrid systems based on silica filler

7.6 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Epoxy–carbon nanotube composites


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Experimental materials and methods

8.3 Chemorheological approach

8.4 Chemorheological analysis of epoxy-CNTs systems

8.5 Properties of epoxy–CNT composites

8.6 Conclusion and future trends

Part II: Properties and characterization of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

Chapter 9: Quantification of dispersion and distribution of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites using microscopy techniques


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Light microscopy

9.3 Transmission electron microscopy

9.4 Conclusion and future trends

9.6 Appendix: list of abbreviations

Chapter 10: Influence of thermo-rheological history on electrical and rheological properties of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Background

10.3 Measuring techniques and materials

10.4 Destruction and formation of electrical and rheological networks

10.5 Influence of processing history

10.6 Conclusion

10.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 11: Electromagnetic properties of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Electromagnetic wave absorbing CNT composites

11.3 Electromagnetic shielding CNT composites

11.4 Other CNT composites’ electromagnetic applications

11.5 Conclusion

Chapter 12: Mechanical properties of polymer–polymer-grafted carbon nanotube composites


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Grafting of polymers onto CNTs

12.3 Fabrication of composites

12.4 Mechanical properties of polymer composites containing polymer-grafted CNTs

12.5 Conclusion

Chapter 13: Multiscale modeling of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Computational modeling tools

13.3 Equivalent-continuum modeling concepts

13.4 Specific equivalent-continuum modeling methods

13.5 Example: polymer–carbon nanotube composite

13.6 Conclusion and future trends

13.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 14: Raman spectroscopy of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


14.1 Introduction

14.2 The Raman effect: basic principles

14.3 Molecules and fibers under strain: how the Raman spectrum is affected

14.4 Raman signature of carbon nanotubes

14.5 Usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in nanotube-based composites

14.6 Conclusion

14.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 15: Rheology of polymer–carbon nanotube composites melts


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Linear rheological properties of polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) composites

15.3 Non-linear rheological properties of polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites

15.4 Flow-induced crystallization in polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) composites

15.5 Conclusion

Chapter 16: Thermal degradation of polymer–carbon nanotube composites


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Mechanisms of thermal degradation/stability improvement by CNTs

16.3 The thermal degradation of polymer–CNT composites

16.4 Future trends

16.5 Conclusion

16.7 Appendix: symbols and abbreviations

Chapter 17: Polyolefin–carbon nanotube composites


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Processing methods used in CNT–polyolefin nanocomposites

17.3 Mechanical properties of CNT–polyolefin nanocomposites

17.4 Crystallinity of polyolefin–CNT blends

17.5 Rheological properties of CNT–polyolefin blends

17.6 Electrical properties of CNT–polyolefin blends

17.7 Wear behaviour of polyolefin–CNT composites

17.8 Thermal conductivity of polyolefin–CNT composites

17.9 Thermal degradation and flame-retardant properties

17.10 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 18: Composites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT composites: a literature survey

18.3 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT melt processing and bulk material properties

18.4 Changes in crystalline structure and crystal conformation

18.5 Thermal stability of PET–MWCNT composites

18.6 Formation of CNT networks in PET: rheological and electrical percolation

18.7 Conclusion and future trends

18.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 19: Carbon nanotubes in multiphase polymer blends


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Current state of melt mixing polymer blends with nanotubes

19.3 Localization of CNTs in polymer blends during melt mixing

19.4 Tailoring the localization of CNTs

19.5 Utilization of selective localization: double percolated polycarbonate–acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC–ABS)-CNT blends

19.6 Conclusion and future trends

19.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 20: Toxicity and regulatory perspectives of carbon nanotubes


20.1 Toxic effects of nanomaterials and nanoparticles: public perception and the necessary ‘risk-versus-reward’ debate

20.2 Toxicology of carbon nanotubes in comparison to other particulate materials

20.3 Comparisons between carbon nanotubes and asbestos: a summary of respiratory studies

20.4 Toxicity of carbon nanotubes

20.5 Influence of the parameters of carbon nanotubes on their toxicity

20.6 Future biological applications of carbon nanotubes

20.7 Future trends

20.8 Conclusion

Part III: Applications of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

Chapter 21: The use of polymer–carbon nanotube composites in fibres


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Preparation of polymer–CNT fibres

21.3 Orientation of CNTs and polymer

21.4 Mechanical properties of polymer–CNT fibres

21.5 A theoretical approach to reinforcement efficiency of CNTs

21.6 Electrical properties of polymer–CNT fibres

21.7 Sensing properties of polymer–CNT fibres

21.8 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 22: Biomedical/bioengineering applications of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites


22.1 Introduction to biomaterials and implants

22.2 Orthopaedic implants

22.3 Nanomaterials in medicine

22.4 Load-bearing implants for orthopaedic applications

22.5 Carbon nanotubes in dentistry

22.6 Carbon nanotubes and dental restorative materials

22.7 Carbon nanotubes in periodontal dentistry

22.8 Carbon nanotubes and denture-based resin

22.9 Carbon nanotubes and targeted drug delivery for oral cancer

22.10 Carbon nanotubes used for monitoring biological systems

22.11 Carbon nanotube biosensors

22.12 Bioactivity of carbon nanotubes

22.13 Regulation of occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes

22.14 Conclusion

Chapter 23: Fire-retardant applications of polymer–carbon nanotubes composites: improved barrier effect and synergism


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Fire protection mechanisms

23.3 Using carbon nanotubes to develop fire-retardant solutions

23.4 Synergism

23.5 Carbon nanotubes in flame-resistant coatings

23.6 Conclusion

Chapter 24: Polymer–carbon nanotube composites for flame-retardant cable applications


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites

24.3 Cable with the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–organoclay–aluminium trihydrate (ATH) flame-retardant system

24.4 Conclusion

Chapter 25: Polymer–carbon nanotube conductive nanocomposites for sensing


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Basic concepts of conductive polymer nanocomposites

25.3 Carbon nanotube (CNT) conductive polymer nanocomposite (CPC) transducers’ fabrication

25.4 Sensing properties and applications of CNT conductive polymer nanocomposites

25.5 Conclusion

25.6 Acknowledgements



Understanding the properties of polymer carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is the key to these materials finding new applications in a wide range of industries, including but not limited to electronics, aerospace and biomedical/bioengineering. Polymer-carbon nanotube composites provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the preparation, characterisation, properties and applications of these technologically interesting new materials.

Part one covers the preparation and processing of composites of thermoplastics with CNTs, with chapters covering in-situ polymerization, melt processing and CNT surface treatment, as well as elastomer and thermoset CNT composites. Part two concentrates on properties and characterization, including chapters on the quantification of CNT dispersion using microscopy techniques, and on topics as diverse as thermal degradation of polymer/CNT composites, the use of rheology, Raman spectroscopy and multi-scale modelling to study polymer/CNT composites, and CNT toxicity. In part three, the applications of polymer/CNT composites are reviewed, with chapters on specific applications such as in fibres and cables, bioengineering applications and conductive polymer CNT composites for sensing.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Polymer-carbon nanotube composites is an essential reference for scientists, engineers and designers in high-tech industry and academia with an interest in polymer nanotechnology and nanocomposites.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the preparation, characterisation and properties of these technologically interesting new materials
  • Reviews the preparation and processing of composites of thermoplastics with CNTs, covering in-situ polymerization, melt processing and CNT surface treatment
  • Explores applications of polymer/CNT composites such as in fibres and cables, bioengineering applications and conductive polymer CNT composites for sensing


Professionals and academics.


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Enormously useful to all those in this area, whether in research labs or in industry. It will undoubtedly provide a substantial reference text for some time to come., Materials World

About the Editors

Tony McNally Editor

Tony McNally is a Faculty Member in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Queen’s University Belfast, UK. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC).

Affiliations and Expertise

Queen’s University Belfast, UK

Petra Pötschke Editor

Petra Pötschke leads the Composites and Blends with Carbon Nanostructures Group at Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden), Germany.

Affiliations and Expertise

Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Germany