Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites

Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites

Preparation, Properties and Applications

1st Edition - March 28, 2011

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  • Editors: Tony McNally, Petra Pötschke
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017272
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857091390

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Description

Understanding the properties of polymer carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is the key to these materials finding new applications in a wide range of industries, including but not limited to electronics, aerospace and biomedical/bioengineering. Polymer-carbon nanotube composites provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the preparation, characterisation, properties and applications of these technologically interesting new materials.Part one covers the preparation and processing of composites of thermoplastics with CNTs, with chapters covering in-situ polymerization, melt processing and CNT surface treatment, as well as elastomer and thermoset CNT composites. Part two concentrates on properties and characterization, including chapters on the quantification of CNT dispersion using microscopy techniques, and on topics as diverse as thermal degradation of polymer/CNT composites, the use of rheology, Raman spectroscopy and multi-scale modelling to study polymer/CNT composites, and CNT toxicity. In part three, the applications of polymer/CNT composites are reviewed, with chapters on specific applications such as in fibres and cables, bioengineering applications and conductive polymer CNT composites for sensing.With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Polymer-carbon nanotube composites is an essential reference for scientists, engineers and designers in high-tech industry and academia with an interest in polymer nanotechnology and nanocomposites.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the preparation, characterisation and properties of these technologically interesting new materials
  • Reviews the preparation and processing of composites of thermoplastics with CNTs, covering in-situ polymerization, melt processing and CNT surface treatment
  • Explores applications of polymer/CNT composites such as in fibres and cables, bioengineering applications and conductive polymer CNT composites for sensing

Readership

Professionals and academics.

Table of Contents

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    Introduction to polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Part I: Preparation and processing of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Chapter 1: Polyolefin–carbon nanotube composites by in-situ polymerization

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 In-situ polymerization techniques for polyolefin-CNT composites

    1.3 Polymer architecture by metallocene catalysis

    1.4 Polyethylene–CNT composites

    1.5 Polypropylene–CNT composites

    1.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 2: Surface treatment of carbon nanotubes via plasma technology

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Carbon nanotube surface chemistry and solution-based functionalization

    2.3 Plasma treatment of carbon nanotubes

    2.4 Summary

    Chapter 3: Functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with polymers

    3.3 Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with polymers

    3.4 Conclusion

    3.5 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 4: Influence of material and processing parameters on carbon nanotube dispersion in polymer melts

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Fundamentals of melt mixing and filler dispersion

    4.3 Review of the literature

    4.4 Batch compounding using small-scale mixers

    4.5 Continuous melt mixing using extruders

    4.6 Conclusion and future trends

    4.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: High-shear melt processing of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 High-shear processing technique

    5.3 Polymer nanoblends by high-shear processing

    5.4 Polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites by high-shear processing

    5.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 6: Injection moulding of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Background

    6.3 Experiment design and materials

    6.4 Analysis

    6.5 Conclusion

    6.7 Appendix: list of units

    Chapter 7: Elastomer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Processing

    7.3 Structure–property relationships

    7.4 Systems with ionic liquids for increased coupling activity

    7.5 Hybrid systems based on silica filler

    7.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 8: Epoxy–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Experimental materials and methods

    8.3 Chemorheological approach

    8.4 Chemorheological analysis of epoxy-CNTs systems

    8.5 Properties of epoxy–CNT composites

    8.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Part II: Properties and characterization of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Chapter 9: Quantification of dispersion and distribution of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites using microscopy techniques

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Light microscopy

    9.3 Transmission electron microscopy

    9.4 Conclusion and future trends

    9.6 Appendix: list of abbreviations

    Chapter 10: Influence of thermo-rheological history on electrical and rheological properties of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Background

    10.3 Measuring techniques and materials

    10.4 Destruction and formation of electrical and rheological networks

    10.5 Influence of processing history

    10.6 Conclusion

    10.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 11: Electromagnetic properties of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Electromagnetic wave absorbing CNT composites

    11.3 Electromagnetic shielding CNT composites

    11.4 Other CNT composites’ electromagnetic applications

    11.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 12: Mechanical properties of polymer–polymer-grafted carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Grafting of polymers onto CNTs

    12.3 Fabrication of composites

    12.4 Mechanical properties of polymer composites containing polymer-grafted CNTs

    12.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 13: Multiscale modeling of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Computational modeling tools

    13.3 Equivalent-continuum modeling concepts

    13.4 Specific equivalent-continuum modeling methods

    13.5 Example: polymer–carbon nanotube composite

    13.6 Conclusion and future trends

    13.7 Sources of further information

    Chapter 14: Raman spectroscopy of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 The Raman effect: basic principles

    14.3 Molecules and fibers under strain: how the Raman spectrum is affected

    14.4 Raman signature of carbon nanotubes

    14.5 Usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in nanotube-based composites

    14.6 Conclusion

    14.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 15: Rheology of polymer–carbon nanotube composites melts

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Linear rheological properties of polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) composites

    15.3 Non-linear rheological properties of polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites

    15.4 Flow-induced crystallization in polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) composites

    15.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 16: Thermal degradation of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Mechanisms of thermal degradation/stability improvement by CNTs

    16.3 The thermal degradation of polymer–CNT composites

    16.4 Future trends

    16.5 Conclusion

    16.7 Appendix: symbols and abbreviations

    Chapter 17: Polyolefin–carbon nanotube composites

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Processing methods used in CNT–polyolefin nanocomposites

    17.3 Mechanical properties of CNT–polyolefin nanocomposites

    17.4 Crystallinity of polyolefin–CNT blends

    17.5 Rheological properties of CNT–polyolefin blends

    17.6 Electrical properties of CNT–polyolefin blends

    17.7 Wear behaviour of polyolefin–CNT composites

    17.8 Thermal conductivity of polyolefin–CNT composites

    17.9 Thermal degradation and flame-retardant properties

    17.10 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 18: Composites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT composites: a literature survey

    18.3 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT melt processing and bulk material properties

    18.4 Changes in crystalline structure and crystal conformation

    18.5 Thermal stability of PET–MWCNT composites

    18.6 Formation of CNT networks in PET: rheological and electrical percolation

    18.7 Conclusion and future trends

    18.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 19: Carbon nanotubes in multiphase polymer blends

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Current state of melt mixing polymer blends with nanotubes

    19.3 Localization of CNTs in polymer blends during melt mixing

    19.4 Tailoring the localization of CNTs

    19.5 Utilization of selective localization: double percolated polycarbonate–acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC–ABS)-CNT blends

    19.6 Conclusion and future trends

    19.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 20: Toxicity and regulatory perspectives of carbon nanotubes

    Abstract:

    20.1 Toxic effects of nanomaterials and nanoparticles: public perception and the necessary ‘risk-versus-reward’ debate

    20.2 Toxicology of carbon nanotubes in comparison to other particulate materials

    20.3 Comparisons between carbon nanotubes and asbestos: a summary of respiratory studies

    20.4 Toxicity of carbon nanotubes

    20.5 Influence of the parameters of carbon nanotubes on their toxicity

    20.6 Future biological applications of carbon nanotubes

    20.7 Future trends

    20.8 Conclusion

    Part III: Applications of polymer–carbon nanotube composites

    Chapter 21: The use of polymer–carbon nanotube composites in fibres

    Abstract:

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Preparation of polymer–CNT fibres

    21.3 Orientation of CNTs and polymer

    21.4 Mechanical properties of polymer–CNT fibres

    21.5 A theoretical approach to reinforcement efficiency of CNTs

    21.6 Electrical properties of polymer–CNT fibres

    21.7 Sensing properties of polymer–CNT fibres

    21.8 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 22: Biomedical/bioengineering applications of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites

    Abstract:

    22.1 Introduction to biomaterials and implants

    22.2 Orthopaedic implants

    22.3 Nanomaterials in medicine

    22.4 Load-bearing implants for orthopaedic applications

    22.5 Carbon nanotubes in dentistry

    22.6 Carbon nanotubes and dental restorative materials

    22.7 Carbon nanotubes in periodontal dentistry

    22.8 Carbon nanotubes and denture-based resin

    22.9 Carbon nanotubes and targeted drug delivery for oral cancer

    22.10 Carbon nanotubes used for monitoring biological systems

    22.11 Carbon nanotube biosensors

    22.12 Bioactivity of carbon nanotubes

    22.13 Regulation of occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes

    22.14 Conclusion

    Chapter 23: Fire-retardant applications of polymer–carbon nanotubes composites: improved barrier effect and synergism

    Abstract:

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Fire protection mechanisms

    23.3 Using carbon nanotubes to develop fire-retardant solutions

    23.4 Synergism

    23.5 Carbon nanotubes in flame-resistant coatings

    23.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 24: Polymer–carbon nanotube composites for flame-retardant cable applications

    Abstract:

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites

    24.3 Cable with the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–organoclay–aluminium trihydrate (ATH) flame-retardant system

    24.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 25: Polymer–carbon nanotube conductive nanocomposites for sensing

    Abstract:

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Basic concepts of conductive polymer nanocomposites

    25.3 Carbon nanotube (CNT) conductive polymer nanocomposite (CPC) transducers’ fabrication

    25.4 Sensing properties and applications of CNT conductive polymer nanocomposites

    25.5 Conclusion

    25.6 Acknowledgements

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 848
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: March 28, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017272
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857091390

About the Editors

Tony McNally

Tony McNally is a Faculty Member in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Queen’s University Belfast, UK. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC).

Affiliations and Expertise

Queen’s University Belfast, UK

Petra Pötschke

Petra Pötschke leads the Composites and Blends with Carbon Nanostructures Group at Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden), Germany.

Affiliations and Expertise

Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Germany

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