This title is directed primarily towards health care professionals outside of the United States. It is a practical guide to the wide variety of radiographic projections that are commonly encountered in a clinical environment. It provides clear and concise advice on how to approach radiographic positioning and technique, both efficiently and effectively. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of achieving the best possible image with the minimum exposure. The routine examinations are dealt with by region in a systematic way and have the same easy-to-use format throughout. For each projection, there is a patient position photograph and an accompanying radiograph to ensure that the required result of the examination has been achieved. The accompanying CDrom enlarges and adapts the images to demonstrate the anatomy and areas of interest.
Radiographic Projections: Upper Extremity: Fingers - PA (Dorsipalmar), Lateral. Thumb – AP, Lateral, AP Alternative position (trauma). Hand – PA (Dorsipalmar), PA oblique, Lateral, AP oblique (Ball Catcher’s). Wrist – PA, PA oblique, Lateral. Scaphoid – PA, PA oblique, Lateral, AP oblique, Possible scaphoid fracture, (Alternative banana projection). Forearm – AP, Lateral. Elbow – AP, Lateral, Modified projections. Radial head – Alternative projection. Humerus – AP, Lateral. Shoulder Girdle: Shoulder joint – AP, AP oblique, Axial inferosuperior, Axial superoinferior, Supplementary ‘Y’ projection – dislocated shoulder. Scapula – AP, Lateral. Acromioclavicular joints – AP, AP weight-bearing. Clavicle – PA, Inferosuperior. Thoracic Cage: Upper ribs – Right or left posterior obliques, Lower ribs - AP. Sternum – Lateral, Anterior Oblique (RAO). Respiratory system: Lung fields – PA, Lateral, Apices, Lordotic. Trachea-thoracic inlet – AP, Lateral. Abdominal contents: Abdomen – AP supine, AP erect, Left lateral decubitus. Urinary tract – AP supine – kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB), Kidney/ureter posterior obliques, AP bladder, Bladder posterior obliques .Pelvis, Hip Joint and Upper Third of Femur: Pelvis - AP. Both hips – AP, Lateral (Frog). Single hip – Lateral – neck of femur, AP – single hip, Lateral – non-trauma. Lower Extremity: Toes – Dorsiplantar (AP), Dorsiplantar (AP oblique), Lateral. Foot – Dorsiplantar (AP), Dorsiplantar (AP oblique), Lateral. Ankle joint – AP, Lateral. Calcaneum – Lateral, Axial. Tibia and Fibula – AP, Lateral. Knee joint – AP, Lateral, Intercondylar notch, Patella – inferosuperior (skyline projection). Femur – AP, Lateral, Lateral – horizontal beam. Vertebral Column: Cervical spine – AP C1-C3, AP C3-C7, Lateral, Anterior obliques. Cervicothoracic – Swimmer’s. Thoracic spine – AP, Lateral. Lumbar spine – AP, Lateral, Lumbosacral Junction (L5-S1), AP obliques. Sacrum – AP, Lateral. Coccyx – AP, Lateral. The Skull: Skull baselines. Isocentric T
- Churchill Livingstone
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Formerly, Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Social Care, School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK
Superintendent Radiographer Orthopaedics, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK